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THE    HOMILIES    OF 


riTi:    ANGLO-SAXON    CHURCH. 


■JUK   FIHSr   rAKT. 


CCIVTAINING 

rm-:  sermones  cATiioEin, 

OR 

HOMILIES  OF  .ELFKIC. 

I\  T\\\:  OKKilNAI.  AN(;l.(>S.\XON.   WTm   w 
HNGLISH   VKKSION. 

VOL    II. 


Hv   HENJA.MIN    IIIOKPK,  F.S.A. 


A\[y^nci^J^ 


t?6csilS 


L  O  X  D  O  N  : 

PR  I  XT  El)  von  TilK  .ELFUir  SOCIETY 
MDUCXLVI. 


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AM)    JDHN     E.    TAYLOR, 
TIN   COVRT,  FLEET  STREET. 


rLAMM4M. 


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ADDENDA  AND  CORRIGENDA. 


VOL.  I. 

i'af^c  KC,  line    7,  lie  hri^udc.  atU  in  tttmtblioH,  He  wu  teized  with  fever. 

—  Il.'i,  —    ]l,  /vr  \^c  rend  \c. 

—  l\'.i,  —    H ,  ybr  one  rearf  certain  on«t. 

—  121,  —      I  fruni  Iviitoiii,  _/J/r  rr  rra*/ be. 

—  1.10,  —   I'J, /'/r  (frfr<  inroam  rearf  gffremmAn. 

—  \y.t,  —     4  from  bottom,  q/ttr  temple  add,  m  it  wu  appointed  in  Go<ri 

law. 

—  l.M,  —   12,  _/br  ncoxna    rra// neorxna-. 

—  1G7,  —      7,  for  \c\\  rraii  c\iHiMtion. 

—  iH'j,  —   IH,  after  prophecy  add.   Now    an    th-    two   inttilutiont,   puUni- 

ftinjrinft  and  prophecy. 

—  217,  —  21,  y«/r  r\rning  read  v\v  .  »o  line  27,  Salunlay  ni^it  and  Sunday 

night,  art  Ike  nightt  preceding  (kuK  dayi. 

—  2.H.').  —  3  from  iHittoni./'/r  {.'  /Will. 

—  31.1,  last  line. /"or  precepts  read ...v. 

—  3j3,  line    H,  for  common  thinfr*  mtd  timplc  viandt. 

—  116,  —     b,  for  fr\\\i\xm  read 

—  122,  laitl  line, /or  {nidum  rrr..;  .        :„ 

—  J2:),  line  lH,  fur  liadc«l  rr,-..:  ,   .1. 

—  12H,  —   1,  2,  for  ccac-fulnc  read  ceac  fulnc. 

—  42y,  —     2, /or  jugful  rw(/ Jug  full. 

VOL.  II. 

Page    17,  line    .'i  from  l>ottom,  fl<^'>  <»(lctji  lu  hca\cn  wjth 

great  joy."     At       ^  .  .  !. 

—  .1(1,  —  20,  for  we  arS  read  wear.N. 

—  31,   —    15, /"or  followeil  re(j</ l)elievrd 

—  10,   —   21,  ./f/r  (.ri>te  reorf  ("n»t. 

—  r»2,  —    12. /or  min  rra// mid. 

—  152.  —     2  from  bottom, ,^r  liSe  hige  redrf  liSchigr. 


SERMONUM  RUBRICiE 


QUI  IN  HOC  VOLUMINE  COXTINEXTUR. 


Page 

Prsefatio 1 

Praefatio,  Saxonice '^ 

I.     Nativitas  Domini     4 

II.     Natale  S.  Stephani  Protomartyris '2-i 

III,  Sermo  in  Epiphania  Domini -iG 

IV.  Dominica  II.  post  Epiphania  Domini. ''4 

V,     Dominica  Septuagcsima      72 

VI.     Dominica  in  Scxagcsima     88 

VII,     Dominica  I.  in  Quadragesima     98 

VIII,     Dominica  II.  in  Quadragesima 110 

IX.     S.  Grcgorii  PajJX  Urbis  Uoniana;  Inclyti    116 

X.     Depositio  S.  Cuthberhti  Episcopi 132 

XI.     S.  Benedicti  Abbatis l.')4 

XII.     Dominica  in  Media  Quadragesima?           188 

Secunda  Sententia  de  hoc  ipso 212 

XIII.  Dominica  V.  Quadragesima? 224 

XIV.  Dominica  Palmarum.     De  Passione  Domini.  .  .  .  240 
XV.     Sermo  de  Sacrificio  in  die  Pascac 2G2 

XVI.     Alius  Sermo  de  die  Pascae 282 

XVII.     Feria  IV.  in  Hebdomade  Pasex 288 

XVIII.     Apostolorum  Philippi  et  Jacobi      294 

De  S.  Jacobo  Apostolo 298 

XIX.     Inventio  S.  Crucis 302 

XX.     SS.  Alexandri,  Evenlii  et  llieoduli   308 

XXI.     Feria  Secunda.     Litania  Majore    314 

XXII.     In  Litania  Majore.     Feria  Tertia 332 

XXIII.  Alia  Visio 348 

XXIV.  Hortatorius  Sermo  de  Efficacia  S.  Missae 356 


CONTENTS. 


I'ra'fiitiu  

Frffacc        

I.     The  Nativity  of  the  Lord 

II.      The  Nativity  of  St.  Stephen  ProtomHiiyr 
III.      Sermon  on  the  I>ord*s  Eitijihiiny    . 
I\'.     'i"he  Second  Sunday  after  Uie  Ix)rd'8  Kpiphany 
v.     Septuagesima  Sunday 
y\.      S'  "ma  Sunday    .  . 

\'1I.      lilt  I  irst  Sun(l:iy  in  lAtil  .... 

\'I1I.     Tlie  Second  Sunday  in  Ix*nt 

IX.      St.  (Jreirory  tl»e  (ircat,  Poj>e  of  Kome 

X.     Thf  Drposition  of  St.  CuthlHrht.  Hi«h«»p  .  . 
XI.      St.  Benedict ,  Ablwt 
XII.      Midlent  Sunday 

Second  Oi^coup-e  on  the  ?ame        .  . 
XIII        Tlie  Fifth  Sunday  in  Ix-nt  .  . 
XI\'.      I'alin  Sunday.      On  the  I^ord'a  IV>*»ii«n 
X\'.      A  Strinon  on  the  Sacrifice  on  Haster-<lay 
X\'I.     Another  Sermon  on  Ea«tcr-day  .. 

XVII.     Wednesday  in  Ea.Hter  Week 
.Win.      The  Apoctlcs  Philip  and  James 

Of  St.  Jrtmes  the  Apostle  

XIX.     'i'lie  Invention  of  the  Holy  Cro?8 

XX.     The  Saints  Alexander,  Evcntius  and  The«M!ulu 
XXI.      Monday.     On  the  Greater  Lilai  v 

XXII.     On  the  (rreater  Litany.     Tucbilay     

.X.XIII.     Another  Vi!»ion 

.X.\I\  .      A  Hortatory  Sermon  on  the  Kfficary  of  the  Holy 
Ma?!* 


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CONTENTS. 


Page 

XXV.     In  Litania  Majorc.     Feria  IIII.      360 

XXVI.     Dominica  III.  post  Pentecosten      370 

XXVII.     Alia  Narratio  de  Evangelii  Textu 378 

XXVIII.     In  Festivitate  S.  Petri  Apostoli 380 

Item  de  S.  Petro     384 

XXIX.     Dominica  V.  post  Pentecosten   394 

XXX.     Dominica  IX.  post  Pentecosten 404 

XXXI.     Natde  S.  Jacobi  Apostoli 412 

XXXII.     SS.  Septcm  Dorraientium 4'24 

XXXIII.  Dominica  XII.  post  Pentecosten     4'JC 

XXXIV.  Assumptio  S.  Maria?  ^'irf^inis     438 

XXXV.     Dominica  I.  in  Mense  Septembri,  quando  kgitur 

Job 446 

XXXVI.     Dominica  Scxtadccima  post  Pentecosten 460 

De  Sancta  Maria     466 

XXXVII.     Natale  S.  Matlirci  Apostoli  et  Evangelistae    ....  468 

Passio  ejusdein 472 

XXXVIII.     Passio  SS.  Apo.«tolorum  Siraonis  et  .ludsc 480 

XXXIX.     Dcpositio  S.  Martini  Kpi.scoj)i    498 

De  ejus  Obitu 516 

Excusatio  Dictantis .')'20 

XL.     In  Natale  Unius  Apostoli 520 

XLI.     In  Natale  Plurimorum  Ajjostolorum 528 

XLII.     In  Natale  SS.  Martyrum 5.?6 

XLIII.     In  Natale  Unius  Confessoris 548 

XLIV.     In  Natale  SS.  A'irginum 562 

XLV.     In  Dcdicatione  Ecclcsia;      574 

Pater   Noster,   Se  Laessa  Creda,    Mjcssc-Crtila, 

Orationcs     .596 

De  Poenitcntia .  (ju2 


CONTENTS.  vii 

P^ 

XW.     Oil  the  Greater  Litany.      Wednesday                   .  3G1 

X.WI       The  Third  Sunday  after  Pentecost     371 

XX\  II.     Another  Narrative  on  the  Text  of  the  Gos|)cl . .  379 

XX\III.     On  the  Festival  of  St.  Peter  the  Ajwstlc  381 

Likewise  of  St.  Peter      385 

XXIX.      1  he  Fifth  Sunday  after  Pentecost 3'J5 

XXX.     The  Ninth  Sunday  after  Pcntccott    405 

X XXI       I'hc  Nativity  of  St.  Jame?  the  Aj^stU  413 

XXXII.     'llic  Seven  Holy  Sleepers 425 

XXXIII.     The  Twelfth  Sunday  after  Pentcco«.t      .             ,.  427 

XXXI\  .     'Hie  Atsumption  of  the  Holy  Virgin  Mary    439 

XXX\'.     'n)c  Firwt  Sunday  in  Scptcml>or.  when  Job  is  read  447 

XXXNI.     The  Sixteenth  Sunday  after  PenU-cost .  4C1 

Of  Saint  Man-     4fi7 

XXX\II.     Tl»c  Nativity  of  St.  Matthew.  Apoftle  and  P^van- 

gclipt    ...  AGO 

Pawion  of  the  same      473 

XXX\'1II.     Tl>e  Pa««inn  (»f  the  Holy  Apostles  Simon  and  Jude  481 

XXXIX       The  DejKJHition  of  St.  Martin.  Bishop    490 

Of  hi!»  Death    517 

llie  Inditer'ft  Ajwlogy          521 

XL.      On  the  Nativity  of  One  Ajmstlc     .  .                     .  .  521 

XLI.     On  the  Nativity  of  Several  Apostle"  . .  529 

XLII.      On  the  Nativity  of  Holy  NLirtyrs 537 

XI.III.      On  the  Nativity  of  one  Confessor  549 

XM\'.      On  the  Nativity  of  Holy  Virjrins  563 

XI,\'.     On  the  Dedication  of  a  Church  575 
Tlie  Pater  No.-ter,  the  Minor  Cretu.  tuc   .Nhu-.*- 

Crced,  Prayers  597 

UfPinitiiuc                                                                    ..  603 


INCIIMT  l'U/KFA'H()   III  .11  s  LUiKl 


IN  NOMINE  CHRISTI  OMNIPOTKNTIS. 

yiLLFIUCLS,  Imiuilis  horvuluh  Clirihti,  lionornhili  ct  ainnn- 
do  Arcliirpiscopo  Sigcrico  pcrprtiiain  hot-pitalrni  <»ptat  in 
Dotniiio.  Fatodf  Aliuitati  tun*,  Doniiic  vciuTahili!«,  oiuni- 
iiKxiis  inc  in(iii;uuin,  rt  tpinMi  HiipiTt>titi()Miin,  (jiiod  prc- 
huinpbi  tibi  alltxpii  diviiiis  Hcrinociriationibtis,  vidi-lici-t  prr 
codirclluin  i\\wm  iiupcr  tu.r  auctoritati  din-xiniu»  :  hcd  tpiia 
notitnini  studitiin  niiuiuin  laudahti,  t;rat;intcr  illaiu  intrrprc- 
tatidiK'in  suKcipirnfi,  fcstiiiaviniUH  luinc  pccpicntcin  lihniin, 
Hicuti  OiiinipdtcntiH  I)»i  gratia  nol.iji  dictavit,  iiitorpri'tare, 
noil  garrula  virlM)HiUito,  aut  igiiotis  scniuinibus,  hrd  puris  ct 
npirtis  vrrbJH  lingna*  luijus  gcritis,  cupiciitch  phis  prodcsM* 
n(i(litnribu»i  biinplici  locutioiic  rpiain  laudari  artificioid  srr- 
luonis  roinpositionc,  f|iiaiii  lu'rpiaqnain  didirit  iiotttra  n\m- 
plicitas  ;  ct  licet  imiltis  injiiriiH  iiifcxtitiin  piratariini  connitic- 
bainur,  post<piain  pnrfatiiin  lilKdIiiin  tii.r  SanctiUiti  traiiH- 
inibiinus,  taincn  nolcntcn  rcpporiri  fal>idici  pnmiisorci*,  do- 
liMilc  aiiitiu)  Ijoc  ()pu»  pcrfcrinujs.  Igitur  in  antcriore  (»pcrc 
ordinavinuis  xl.  srrim)iic»,  in  isto  vcro  non  initiur  luiincrus 
scntotitiaruin  invcnitur,  (piainvi;*  aliipia-  illaruin  brcvitate 
nngvislnitur.  Hoc  ({uo(|Uc  opus  coniinciidanniN  tua*  auctori- 
tati rorrigcnduin,  qucinadnioduni  ct  prcccdciif,  prccantes 
obnixo  nc  parcas  oblittorarc,  si  ali(juas  inalignw  Ii;rrc8i8 
niaculaM  in  co  rcppcrics,  (piia  nialo  apiid  nriiigiiit,itcin  tuam 
iioM.  \  oi .  II.  B 


reprehend!  quam  incauta  scductioiic  apud  inscios  laudari. 
Perlegat  queso  Benignitas  vestra  haiic  iivostrani  intcrpreta- 
tionem,  queinadniodiim  et  priorem,  et  dijudicet  si  fidelibus 


PR.EFATIO. 


IC  ^LFRIC  munuc  awcnde  ]ni»  boc  of  Ledeiium  bucinn  to 
Engliscum  gereorde,  j^aiu  inanmim  to  ranlennc  )>e  )>{et  Ledcii 
ne  cunuon.  Ic  hi  geiiiim  of  halguin  godspelhun,  and  a»fter 
gebungcnra  larcowa  tralitiiungum  hi  asmeade,  j'jera  hireowa 
iiaman  ic  awrat  on  iSjere  a^rraii  bee,  on  5wre  Ledenaii  forc- 
spr;ece.  Ic  gesettc  on  tuiini  l)6cuni  )>a  gercccednyssc  So  ic 
awcnde,  forSan  Se  ic  Sohtc  )j;et  hit  wa^re  Ifpsse  seSryt  to  ge- 
hyrenne,  gif  man  Sa  aue  hoc  ra't  on  anes  gcares  ynd)ryne, 
and  "Sa  o5re  on  Sam  jeftran  gcarc.  On  jpgScr  |>fpra  boea  sind 
feowertig  cwyd.i,  baton  JSa^re  forcspra^cc,  ac  hi  ne  sind  na 
ealle  of  godspellum  genumcne,  ac  sind  forwcl  fcla  of  (lodea 
halgena  life  olStSe  ))ro\vunge  gcgadcrode,  ]>fera  linra  ]»e  Angel- 
cynn  mid  freols-dagum  wurlSaS.  yEtfcjran  adeum  ewyde  we 
setton  Sa  swutchmgc  on  Leden,  ma^g  swa-Seah  so  ^e  wile 
l^a  capituhis  jefter  S;erc  forcspra'cegcendebyrdian.  Nn  bidde 
ic  and  halsige,  on  Godes  naman,  gif  hwa  Sas  bfJe  awritan 
M'ylle,  )7fEt  he  hi  geornhee  gerihte  be  Sjere  bysne,  ))c-la»s  ^e 
we,  j>nrh  gymeleasnm  writernni,  geleaiitrode  beon.  Mieel  yfcl 
deiS  se  ^e  leas  writ,  baton  he  hit  gerihte,  swilce  he  gebringc 
Sa  soSan  hire  to  Icasani  gedwylde  :  forSi  sccal  geliwii  ge- 
rihtlaecan  ]'fet  |)ait  he  aer  to  woge  gebigde,  gif  he  on  Godee 
dome  unscyldig  beon  wile. 


catliolicis  habenda  est,  an  abicienda.  Xctjuacjuam  nos  in- 
vidorum  reprebensio  movet,  ei  hoc  mumis  twiv  bonitjne  auc- 
toritati  non  disj)licucrit.    Vale  in  Cliribto  jujjitcr.     Amoii. 


PRKFACK. 

1  ^ELFIIIC  the  iiionlv  \iMv  turned  this  book  from  Latin 
books  into  the  Knglihh  tongue,  for  lh(>sc  men  to  reatl  \\  Im 
know  not  Latin.  I  have  taken  it  from  the  h(»ly  gospel**,  and 
treated  it  after  the  expohilioni*  of  highly  venerable  doctors, 
the  names  of  which  doctors  I  wrote  down  in  the  former  book,- 
in  the  Latin  preface.  I  have  set  the  matter  which  I  have 
turned  in  two  books,  because  I  thought  that  it  were  less 
tedious  to  hear,  if  the  one  book  were  read  in  the  course  of 
one  year,  and  the  other  in  the  year  following.  In  each  of 
these  books  there  are  forty  disc(»urses,  without  the  preface, 
but  they  are  not  all  taken  from  the  gospel^,  but  are  very 
many  of  them  gathered  from  the  life  or  passion  of  (iod's 
saints,  of  those  only  whom  the  Knglibh  nation  honours  with 
feast-days.  Hefore  each  jliscourse  we  have  set  the  argument 
in  Latin,  though  every  one  who  will,  may  order  the  chapters 
according  to  the  preface.  I  now  pray  and  implore,  in  the 
name  of  (jod,  if  any  one  will  transcribe  this  b(M)k,  that  he 
carefully  rectify  it  by  the  copy,  lest,  through  negligent  writers, 
we  be  blamed.  lie  does  great  evil  who  writes  false,  uidess 
he  rectify  it,  as  though  he  brought  the  tnie  doctrine  to  false 
heresy;  therefore  should  everyone  correct  that  which  he  had 
perverted  to  wrong,  if  he  will  be  guiltless  at  (lod's  doom. 


h  '2 


NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 


AMMONITIO. 


Unum  adhuc  vellem  preponere  huic  libcUo,  iion  quasi  pre- 
fationem,  seel  quasi  ammonitionem  :  scilicet,  cavende  ebrie- 
tatis,  sicut  Dominus  in  Levitico  ad  Aaron  his  verbis  locutus 
est,  "  Dixit  Dominus  ad  Aaron,  Vinum  et  omnc  quod  inebri- 
ari  potest  non  bibes  tu  et  filii  tui,  quando  intratis  tabcrna- 
culum  testimonii,  ne  moriamiui,  quia  preceptuni  est  sempi- 
ternum  in  generationes  vestras,  et  ut  habcatis  scicntiam  dis- 
cernendi  inter  sancUuu  et  prophanum,  inter  pollutuni  et 
mundum."  In  Novo  Testaniento  quoque  Dominus  ammo- 
nivit  discipulos  suos,  his  verbis,  diccns,  "  Adtenditc  autem 


INCIPIT  LIBER  .SERMONUM  CATIIOLICORUM 
ANGLICE,  IN  ANNO  SECUNDO. 

CATHOLICUS  S?:RM0  DE  NATALE  DOMINI,  AD  POPULUM 

EXCKRITUS. 

DE  TESTIMONIIS  PROPHETARrM. 

VIII.  KL.  JANUAR. 
NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

Mine  gebro^ra  JSa  Icofostan,  on  |»isum  dipge  we  wur^iab 
ures  Htslendes  acennednysse  aefter  ^iBve  menniscnysse.  He 
waes  to-daeg  acenncd  of  5am  halgan  meedene  Marian  mid 
lichaman  and  mid  sawle,  seSe  wa^s  a?fre  mid  ^am  Fteder 
wunigende  on  \)peve  Godcundnysse.  He  is  tuwa  accnned, 
and  aegSer  aceimednys  is  wundorlic  and  unasecgendlic.     He 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  5 

vobis,  ne  forte  praventur  corda  vcstra  in  crapula  et  cbrietatc 
et  curis  liujus  vit<e,  et  supervcniat  in  vos  rcpontina  dies  ilia." 
Tantuni  vitiiun  t'st  cbrictas,  ut  Paulus  apostolus  et  doctor 
gentium  adtestctur,  "  Ebriosos  regnuni  Dei  possidcre  non 
posse."  O  (juani  beati  sunt  qui  Deo  vivunt,  et  non  seculo, 
virtutibus,  ct  non  vitiis;  et  <juannis  sanctorum  patrum  jejunia 
vel  abstinentiam  non  valeamus  imilari,  necjuaquam  tamen 
debemus  encrvitcr  succumberc  nefandis  crapulis  et  jebric- 
tatibus,  Domini  no>tri  et  Dri  terribilibus  conimoniti  coni- 
minationii)us.  Sufficiunt  ha'c  monita  docibilibus,  nam  in- 
docibilibus  et  duris  cordc  nulla  sudiciinit  bortamenta.  Iterum 
roijo  et  optd  ut  valeas,  vencrabilis  Arcbiepiscope  Sigericc, 
jugiter  in  Cbristo.     Amen. 


IIKRK  HKCilXS   Tin:  HOOK    OF   CATHOLIC    SER- 
MONS IN  ENGLISH,  FOR  THE  SECOND  YEAR. 

A  CATHOLIC  SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  NATIVITY, 
SELECTED  FOR  THE  PEOPLE. 

ON  THE  TESTIMONIES  OF  THE  TROPHETS. 

DECEMBER  XXV. 
THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD. 

]\l  Y  dearest  bretbrcn,  on  this  day  we  celebrate  our  Saviour's 
birtii  according  to  Innnanity.  lie  was  to-day  born  of  the 
holy  maiden  Mary,  with  body  and  with  soul,  who  was  ever 
existing  with  the  Father  in  the  (jodhead.  He  is  twice  Ixirn, 
and  each  birth  is  wonderful  and  unspeakable,      lit  was  ever 


6  NATI VITAS  DOMINI. 

wses  fefre  of  ^am  Fteder  acenned,  fort)an  ^e  he  is  )>fes  Fa?dcr 
Wisdom,  J'urh  'Sone  he  geworhte  and  gcsceop  ealle  gesceafta. 
Nu  is  -Seos  acennednys  buton  angiiine,  forban  ]>e  se  Fa^der 
vvffis  sefre  God,  and  his  Wisdom,  ]>fet  is,  his  Sunu,  waes  afre 
of  him  acenned,  buton  aelcere  meder. 

peos  acennednys,  ]>e  we  nu  to-d;pg  wurbiaJS,  w^es  of  eor<S- 
liceve  meder,  buton  selcum  eorSlicum  fteder.  Se  Fwder 
•Surh  bine  gesceop  us,  and  eft,  ^a^a  we  forwyrhtc  w.eron,  ))a 
asende  he  )?one  ylcan  Sunu  to  Sisum  life  to  ure  alysednysse ; 
forban  j^e  Adam,  se  forma  mann,  agylte  wiJS  God,  and  liis 
Scyppendes  bebod  tobrwc,  and  deofles  hire  gehyrsumodc,  and 
wearb  deofle  bet;eht,  he  and  eal  mancynn  into  helle  witc.  pa 
aefre  smeade  God  fram  frymSe  middaneardes,  hu  he  mihte 
mancynnes  gchelpan,  and  fram  deofles  anwealde  ahreddan. 
pa  nolde  he  asendan  to  ure  alyseiinysse  na«Sor  nc  cngcl,  ne 
heah-engel,  ne  wTtegan,  ne  apostohis  ;  ac  sende  se  F;eder  his 
ancennedan  Sunu  to  J^rowungc  and  to  ewale  for  mancynnes 
alysednysse.  Da  geswutelode  God  hu  miccle  lufe  he  luefdc 
and  hcpfS  to  us,  })aba  he  asende  his  ivgen  Beam  to  siege  for 
us.  Hwa  dorste  )?«s  gewilnian  j>;et  se  ^Elmilitiga  Cyning 
sceolde  besceofan  to  cwale  his  ancennedan  .ESeliiig,  and  swa 
ahreddan  j>one  Seowan  ?  Naes  se  Suiui  na  genyd  ]npt  he  mann 
gewurde,  and  siSSan  for  us  Srowian  sceolde,  ac  he  wjes  gc- 
hyrsum  his  Feeder  fefre  o5  dea\S.  He  wa?s  ancenned  mid  his 
Faeder  on  heofonum  ;  Sa  nolde  he  ana  beon,  ac  wolde  habban 
gebroSru,  and  com  to  us,  forSi  jj.et  he  wolde  us  to  his  rice  ge- 
bringan,  J)aer  we  to  gesccapcne  wferon.  pa  gif  he  come  on 
baere  Godcundnysse  buton  menniscnysse,  )7onne  ne  mihte  ure 
tyddernys  aberan  his  mihte.  Ne  seo  Godcundnys  ne  mihte 
nan  ^ing  j^rowian,  forSan  j^e  heo  is  unbrowigendlic.  pa  ge- 
nam  se  ^Imihtiga  Godes  Sunu  5a  menniscnysse  of  anum 
msedene,  and  wear^  gesewenlic  mann  and  j^rowigendlic ;  and 
swi^e  gedafenlic  hit  waes,  ^aSa  he  mann  wolde  beon,  j^aet  he 
ne  geceas  na  him  wlf  to  meder,  ac  geceas  cleene  mseden  ;  and 


/ 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  7 

born  <jf  tlie  Father,  for  he  is  the  Wisdom  of  the  Futlier, 
through  whom  he  wrought  and  created  all  creatures.  Now 
this  birth  is  without  begimiing,  because  the  Fatlier  was  ever 
God,  and  iiis  Wisdom,  that  is,  liis  Son,  w.is  ever  horn  of  him, 
without  any  mother. 

Tliis  birth,  that  we  now  to-day  celebrate,  was  of  an  cartldy 
motiier,  without  any  earthly  father.  Tiie  Father  created  us 
through  him,  and  afterwards,  when  we  were  fordone,  he 
sent  the  same  Son  to  this  life  for  our  redemption  ;  because 
that  Adam,  the  first  man,  sinned  against  God,  and  brake  his 
Creator's  commandment,  and  obeyed  the  devil's  teaching, 
and  was  delivered  to  the  devil,  he  and  all  mankind,  into  hell- 
torment,  "^riien  God  ever  meditated  from  the  beginning  of 
the  world,  how  he  might  help  mankind,  and  rescue  them  from 
the  power  of  the  devil.  Then  he  would  not  send  to  our 
redemj)tioii  either  angel,  nr  nrehangel,  or  prophets,  or  apo- 
stles ;  but  the  Father  sent  his  only-begotten  Son  to  sulTering 
and  to  death  for  the  redemption  of  mankind.  Then  (iod 
manifested  how  great  love  he  ha<l  and  hath  for  us,  when  he 
sent  his  own  Child  to  be  slain  for  us.  Who  durst  desire  that 
the  Abnighty  King  should  urge  to  death  bis  oidy-begotten 
Prince,  and  so  save  the  servant  ?  The  Son  waj*  not  forcecl  to 
become  man,  and  afterwards  to  suffer  for  \is,  but  he  was  ever 
obedient  to  his  Father  unto  death.  lie  was  only-lK'g«itten 
with  his  Father  in  heaven  ;  then  would  he  not  be  alone,  but 
would  have  brothers,  and  came  to  us,  because  be  woidd  bring 
us  to  bis  kingflom,  to  which  we  had  been  created.  But  if  he 
had  come  in  the  Godhead  without  hmnanity,  then  could  our 
weakness  not  have  endured  his  might.  The  (iodhead  could 
sutler  nothing,  because  it  is  im])nssibli'.  The  Almiglity  Son 
of  God  assumed  humatiity  of  a  maiden,  and  became  a  visible 
and  passibli'  man  ;  and  very  fitting  it  was,  when  he  would 
become  man,  that  he  chose  not  a  woman  for  bis  mother,  but 
chose  a  pure  maiden  ;   and  also,  when  a  maiden  bhf)uld  bear, 


8  N  ATI  VITAS  DOMIM. 

eac,  ^a^a  inaeden  acennan  sceolde,  )?<et  heo  acende  God  .El- 
mihtigne,  se^e  is  aeg^Ser  ge  God  ge  mann,  an  Crist.  He  on- 
gaiin  beon  jja^t  he  iic-es,  ac  he  |?urh\vunode  j;a-t  he  aer  waes. 
He  ongann  on  Sfere  nienniscnysse,  se^e  aefre  wtes  and  .-efre 
biS  God.  Nis  nah\v«5ere  gerunncn  togcedere  sec  Godcund- 
nys  and  seo  menniscnys,  ac  seo  Godcnndnys  is  ymbscryd 
mid  ]>xre  nienniscnysse,  swa  ]>xt  hiP.r  nys  nabor  geniencgcd- 
nys  ne  todal. 

Marian  nifegiShad  wffs  nienigfcaldlice  getiicnod  on  )>;ere 
ealdan  ae.  God  behead  Moyscn  ]'ani  heretogan  j'a^t  he  ge- 
name  twclf  drige  gyrda  ;pt  jnun  twelf  nifPgJSiun  Israhehi  ISeoda, 
and  alede  hi  ;etforan  iSani  halgan  serine,  binnon  ISani  micchm 
getekle  :  and  he  wolde  ^urh  ^a  gyrda  geswntelian  liuirne  lie 
to  biscope  gecoren  h;efdc.  pa,  on  JSani  oJSruni  da*gc,  wfes 
Aiironcs  gyrd  genictt  growendc  mid  boguni,  and  blowende, 
and  berende  hnyte.  Witodlice  seo  drige  gyrd,  )»e  nu^s  on 
eortJan  aphintutl,  nc  mid  niinre  rinde  befangen,  ne  mid  sa'pe 
acucod,  and  swa-Seah  greow,  and  bleow,  and  haT  linyte, 
hiefde  getacnunge  |);ere  eadigan  Marian,  }>e  nafde  weres  ge- 
manan,  and  s\va-'«Seah  )>one  ITflican  wjcstni  ab.er,  seSc  is  soi> 
Biscop  and  nre  sawhi  Alysend. 

Mennisc  gesceapcnnys  is  on  feower  \\  ison.  Se  frnniscea- 
pena  niann  Adam  lues  gcstryncd  ne  accimed,  ac  God  hine 
gesceop.  Seo  ober  gesceapcnnys  wa^s  swa  j^aH  God  gesceop 
Euan  of  hire  weres  sidan.  Ne  sind  j>as  twa  gesceapennyssa 
nanum  oSruni  gelicc.  Seo  Srichle  gesceapcnnys  is,  pa^t  men 
beoS  gestrynede  <Surli  wer  and  J^urh  wif,  swa  swa  we  da^g- 
hwomlice  geseoS,  and  |)eos  an  gesceapcnnys  is  ge\\'unelic. 
Seo  fcorSe  gesceapcnnys  waes  swa  ]>iet  Crist  wearb  acenned 
of  mredene  buton  were.  Nis  ^eos  gesceapcnnys  nanum  obrum 
gelic.  pa  twa  forman  gesceapeimyssa  feollon  on  liryre,  and 
seo  ^ridde  wfes  on  hryre  acenned  ;  ac  seo  fcorSe  alysde  5a 
■Sreo.  Sc  ylca  Godes  Sunu,  se^e  ealle  ^ing  gesceop,  he  eac 
gesceop  his  agene  moder,  and  on  hire  innoS  sylf  becom,  and 
^eeron  geworhte  his  agenne  iichaman,  and  wearb  of  hire  ge- 


Tin:  NATIVITY  OK  THE  LORD.  9 

that  she  bare  God  Almit^htV;  who  is  both  God  and  man,  one 
Christ.  He  began  being  what  he  was  not,  but  he  continued 
what  he  before  had  been.  lie  beg:uj  in  humanity,  who  ever 
Wda  and  ever  will  be  Gotl.  Yet  are  tlie  Godiicail  and  the 
humanity  not  mingled  together,  but  the  Godhead  is  invested 
witli  the  humanity,  so  that  there  is  neither  admixture  nor 
separation. 

The  maidenhood  of  Mary  was  manifohllv  betokened  in  the 
old  hiw.  God  bade  Moses,  the  leader,  take  twelve  dry  rods 
from  the  twelve  tribes  of  the  people  of  Israel,  and  lay  them 
before  the  holy  ark  within  the  great  tabernacle:  and  Ijc  would 
by  those  rods  declare  whom  he  had  chosen  for  bishop.  Then, 
on  the  second  day,  Aaron's  rod  was  found  growing  with 
boughs,  and  blowing,  and  bearing  nuts.  Verily  the  dry  rod, 
which  was  not  [jlanted  in  tin'  earth,  nor  clothed  with  any 
rind,  nor  with  sap  (juickened,  and  yet  grew,  and  blew,  and 
bare  nuts,  betokened  the  blessed  Mary,  who  had  no  society 
of  man,  and  yet  bare  the  Living  Fruit,  who  is  the  true  Bishop 
and  the  Kedeemer  of  our  souls. 

Human  creation  is  in  four  ways.  The  first-created  man, 
Adam,  was  not  begotten  nor  born,  but  God  crcatecl  him. 
The  second  creation  was  so  that  God  created  Eve  from  her 
husband's  side.  These  two  creations  are  like  to  none  other. 
The  third  creation  is,  that  nu  n  are  begotten  by  man  and  by 
woman,  as  we  see  daily,  and  this  creation  iti  alone  common. 
The  fourth  creation  was  so  that  Christ  was  born  of  a  niiiiden 
without  man.  This  creation  is  like  to  none  other.  Th*»  first 
two  creations  fell  into  perdition,  and  the  third  was  in  per- 
dition born  ;  but  the  fourth  redeemed  the  three.  The  same 
Son  of  God,  who  created  all  thifigs,  created  also  his  own 
mother,  and  came  himself  into  her  womb,  and  therein  w  rought 
his  own  bodv,  and  of  her  was  born,  a  true  man   in   soul  and 


10  NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

boren,  so5  man  on  sawle  and  on  lichaman  ;  and  seo  niodor 
nses  na  gewemmed  j^urh  |;fet  cild,  ac  wses  gehalgod.  Mji^den 
heo  waes  beforan  Sfere  cenninge,  and  niaeden  on  Siere  cen- 
ninge,  and  nifeden  sefter  btere  ceiniinge.  Nc  biS  nan  ma^gS- 
had  forlorcn  on  cenninge,  ac  h'vh  forlorcn  on  hiemede.  ponne 
hwilc  meeden  mid  luste  weres  bricS,  j'onnc  biS  bire  nifeglSbad 
jefre  sib^an  adylegod,  bwbbe  lico  cild  na'bbe  heo.  Ac  )>cEt 
claene  meeden  Maria  bwfde  behaten  bire  ma^g^bad  Gode,  and 
wses  mid  )?am  Ilalgum  Gaste  afyllcd,  and  gescyldwiS  ;clcere 
costnungc.  Ne  unhist  on  bire  mod  ne  becom,  ne  beo  weres 
ne  breac ;  |?a  wtes  beo  forJJi  ma-den,  )>eab  Se  beo  Cild  bjefde. 
Nis  nan  wifbadcs  mann  bire  gelica,  f<)r^i  naSer  ne  ier  ne  siS- 
"San  nffis  nan  madden  j'jpt  beam  gebaMT,  and  sy^S^an  maulen 
j^urbwunodc,  baton  bire  uiire.  Sindon  )>cab-li\vjC(Sere  sume 
gesceafta  )>e  tymaS  buton  ba^mede,  and  bi^  a^g^er  ge  seo 
modcr  manlen  ge  seo  dobtor  ;  j^a^t  sind  beon  :  In  tyniaN  lieora 
team  mid  clwnnysse,  of  JSam  bunige  bi  bredaJS  beora  brod, 
and  beo^  aceimcde  }?a  geongan  mid  nueglSliade,  and  JSa  yldran 
wunia^  on  nifegShadc.  Eac  >>eo  lialige  Godcs  gela^ln)g,  \>ipt 
is,  eal  cristen  folc,  is  genemncd  to  anum  maedene,  swa  swa  se 
apostol  Paubis  c\v;p5  to  5am  folce  J»e  he  to  Gode  gebTgdc, 
"  Ic  bevveddode  eow  anum  were,  jjjet  ge  sccoldon  gearcian 
clfene  nifeden  Criste."  Eac  lobannes  sc  FuHubtere  j^us  cwseS 
be  Criste,  "  Se  be  bryde  ha^fJS,  be  is  brydguma."  And  se 
sealm-wyrbta  Dauid  sang  be  Criste,  jnis  cweScnde,  "  Swa  swa 
brydguma  begwS  forS  of  bis  bryd-bedde." 

Ealle  cyrcan  on  middanearde  sind  getealde  toanre  cyrcan, 
and  seo  is  gebaten  Godes  gebi^ung,  for^an  ^e  we  sind  ealle 
gela^ode  to  Godes  rice.  Nu  is  ^eos  gelaiSung  Cristes  bryd, 
and  ))urhwuna(S  maeden,  swa  swa  seo  halige  Maria.  Seo  ge- 
la^ung  is  ealra  cristenra  manna  moder  on  gastlicere  acenned- 
nysse,  swa  swa  Crist  sylf  cwae^  on  his  godspelle,  "  Buton 
gehwa  beo  tuwa  acenned,  ne  maeg  he  na  faran  into  beofonan 
rice."  Hu  bi^  se  mann  tuwa  acenned  ?  ^Elc  man  bi^  acen- 
ned lichamlice  of  fa^dcr  and  of  medcr,  ac  be  ne  biS  Godes 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  11 

in  body  ;  and  the  mother  was  not  defiled  through  that  child, 
but   was  hallowed.     Maiden  she  was  before  the  birth,  and 
maiden  in  the  birth,  and  maiden  afler  the  birth.    No  maiden- 
hood is  lost  in  birth,  but  is  lost  in  intercourse.     When  any 
maiden  with  desire  associates  with  man,  then  is  her  maiden- 
hood destroyed  for  ever  after,  whether  she  have  a  child  or 
not.     But  the  pure  maiden  Mary  had  promised  her  maiden- 
ho(Kl    to    God,  and   was    filled    with    the    Ilnly   (ihost,  and 
shielded  against  every  temptation.      No  evil  desire  came  into 
her  mind,  nor  had  she  intercourse  of  man  ;  therefore  was  she 
a  maiden,  though  she  had  a  Child.     There  is  no  woman  like 
unto  her,  for,  neither  before  nor  since,  was  there  any  maiden 
that  bare  a  child  and  afterwards  continued  a  maiden,  save  her 
alone.     There    are,   neverthelesa,  some  creatures  that   teem 
without  intercourse,  and  both  the  mother  is  maiden  as  also 
the  daughter;  such  are  bees  :  they  bring  forth  their  offspring 
in   purity,  from  the  honey  they  nourish  their  brood,  and  the 
young  are  brought  forth  with  maideidiood,  and  the  elder  con- 
tinue in  maidetdiood.      Also  the  holy  church  of  God,  that  is, 
all  christian  people,  is   consecrated  to  one  maiden,   as  the 
apostle  Paul  said  to  the  people  whom   he  converted  to  God, 
"  I  have  betrothed  you  to  one  man,  that  ye  might  prepare  a 
pure  maiden  for  Christ."     John  the  liaptist  also  thus  spake 
of  Christ,  "  He  who  hath  a  bride  is  a  bridegroom."  And  the 
psalmist  David  sang  of  Christ,  thus  saying,  *'  As  a  bridegroom 
he  goeth  forth  from  his  bride-bed." 

All  churches  in  the  world  are  reckoned  as  one  church,  and 
it  is  called  the  congregation  of  God,  because  wc  arc  all  called 
together  to  God's  kingdom.  Now  this  congregation  is  (iod's 
bride,  and  continues  a  maiden  like  the  holy  Mary.     The  con- 

'  mm 

gregation  is  the  mother  of  christian  men  in  ghostly  birth,  as 
Christ  himself  said  in  his  gospel,  '*  Urdess  every  one  be  twice 
born,  he  cannot  go  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven."  How  is  a 
man  twice  born  ?  Every  man  is  born  bodily  of  father  and 
of  motiier,  but  he  is  not  a  child  of  God,  unless  he  be  born 


12  NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

beam,  buton  he  beo  eft  acenned  of  Saere  gastlican  meder,  of 
Cristes  bryde,  swa  swa  he  sylf  cwfeS,  "  Buton  gcluva  beo  ge- 
edcenned  of  waetere  and  of  San  Halgan  Gastc,  nc  ni^eg  he 
faran  into  Godes  rice."  Al\c  man  biJS  mid  synnum  gestryned 
and  geboren,  ^urh  Adams  forg;egednysse,  ac  he  l)i5  eft  Cristc 
acenned  on  Saere  halgan  gelaSunge,  j'fet  is,  on  Godes  cyrcan, 
]?urh  fulluht.  pffit  wieter  aSwehS  )>onc  licliaman,  and  so 
Halffa  Gast  aSwchS  5a  sawle  fram  ealhnn  svnnum  ;  and  se 
gefuUoda  man  biS  ]n)nne  Godes  bcarn,  gif  he  onriht  hylt 
faedcr  and  nioder,  |^;et  is,  Crist  and  Ids  bryd,  scoSe  dwg- 
hu'omlice  acenS  gastlice  cild,  and  liw^eSere  JSurhwunaS  on 
chfinum  mjeglSliade. 

Ure  ealda  fader,  Adam,  us  gestrynde  t(j  deaJSe,  and  Crist 
us  gestryn^  gastlice  to  iSam  ccan  life,  gif  we  forbugaJS  deofles 
lare,  and  beo5  urum  Drilitne  gehyrsume  on  his  beboduni. 
Ealle  ^a  Sing  Se  Crist  dyde  for  us,  ealle  hi  wjcron  jnr  gefyrn 
gewitegode,  ]7;et  men  sceoldon  gelyfan  )>;«*t  he  is  soSfffst, 
]?onne  he  h.efS  swa  fela  gewitan  ]>e  cySdon  his  to-cynie,  and 
hu  he  geboren  wjes,  and  hu  he  Srowode  dcaS  his  agenes 
j^ances,  and  hu  he  of  dcaSe  aras  and  astah  to  heofonum,  and 
hu  he  cym^  eft  to  t5am  micclum  dome,  to  demenne  ealluin 
mancynne,  jelcum  be  his  gewyrhUun. 

Se  yElmihtiga  God  behet  gefyrn  worulde  Abrahame  )»am 
heahffedere,  j'fet  on  his  cynne  sccolde  beon  eal  mancynn  ge- 
bletsod,  and  him  eac  swagclaste.  Of  Abrahames  cynne  com 
se  maera  cyning  Dauid,  and  of  ^am  cyne-cynne  com  seo  halige 
Maria,  and  of  Marian  Crist  wearS  acenned,  and  );urh  Crist  is 
eal  mancynn  gebletsod,  )>a  "Se  rihtlice  gelyfaS.  Eft,  se  witcga 
Hieremias  cwie^  be  Sam  Hcelende, "  Des  is  ure  God,  and  nis 
nan  oSer  geteald  to  him.  He  arjerde  and  gesette  steore  and 
Jjeawfeestnysse  his  folce  Tsrahel.  He  wws  si  S San  gesewen 
ofer  eor^an,  and  mid  mannum  he  drohtnode."  Eft,  o^er 
witega  Micheas  witegode  be  Cristes  to-cyme,  pus  cweSende, 
"  ponne  biS  sib  on  eor^an,  j^onne  ure  Drihten  cym^  to  urum 
lande,  and  Sonne  he  gap S  into  urum  husum."     Eft,  Isaias  se 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  13 

again  of  the  ghostly  mother,  of  Christ's  bride,  as  he  liimsclf 
said,  "  Unless  every  one  be  born  again  of  water  and  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  he  cannot  go  into  God's  kingdt)m."  Everyman 
is  begotten  and  born  with  sins,  through  Adam's  transgression ; 
but  he  is  again  born  to  Christ  in  the  holy  congregation,  that 
is,  in  God's  church,  through  baptism.  The  water  washes  the 
body,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  washes  the  soul  from  all  sins;  and 
the  baptized  man  is  then  a  child  of  God,  if  he  rightly  hold  to 
father  and  mother,  that  is,  to  Christ  and  his  bride,  who  daily 
bears  ghostly  children,  and  yet  cotitinues  in  pure  maidoti- 
hood. 

Our  old  father,  Adam,  begat  us  to  death,  and  Christ  be- 
gets us  spiritually  to  eternal  life,  if  we  eschew  the  precepts 
of  the  devil,  and  be  obedient  to  our  Lord  in  his  command- 
nunts.  All  thr  things  that  Christ  h:is  done  for  us,  they  were 
all  prophesied  long  brfore,  that  n^en  might  believe  that  he  is 
true,  when  he  has  so  many  witnesses  wht)  declared  his  advent, 
and  how  he  was  Ixirn,  and  liow  he  buffered  death  of  his  own 
free  will,  and  how  he  arose  from  death  and  ascended  to  hea- 
ven, and  how  he  will  come  again  to  the  great  doom,  to  judge 
all  mankind,  each  according  to  his  works. 

The  Almighly  God  promised  in  the  time  of  old  to  the 
patriarch  Abraham,  that  in  his  race  all  mankind  should  Ik* 
blessed,  and  also  fidfilled  his  promise.  Of  Abraham's  race 
came  the  great  king  David,  and  of  that  royal  race  came  the 
holy  Mary,  and  of  Mary  Christ  wjuh  l)orn.and  through  Christ 
all  mankind  is  blessed,  those  who  rightly  believe.  Again, 
the  pmphet  Jeren)iah  said  of  Jesus,  "This  its  our  God,  and 
there  is  none  other  accounted  with  him.  He  hath  raised  an<l 
established  direction  and  discipline  to  his  people  Isniel.  He 
was  afterwards  seen  upon  earth,  and  with  men  he  dwelt." 
Again,  another  prophet,  Micah,  prophesied  of  Christ's  ad- 
vent, thus  saying,  "  Then  shall  peace  be  on  earth,  when  our 
Lord  conuth  to  our  land,  and  when  hegoith  into  our  houses." 


14  NATI VITAS  DOMINI. 

witega  awrat  on  his  witegunge,  and  ]>us  cw.ne^,  '*  Efne  an 
mjeden  sceal  geeacnian,  and  acennan  Sunu,  and  his  nama  biS 
Emniaiiuhcl,"  )?cEt  is  gercht,  'God  is  mid  us.'  Eft,  Ezcchiel 
witegode  be  ^eere  byrig  Hierusiilem  and  be  Criste,  "Sus  cwe^- 
ende,  '^  pin  Cyning  cym^  to  'Se  eadmod,  and  ge-edstaJSchiJS 
]>e."  Danihel  se  witega  sette  eac  on  liis  witegunge,  )';et  se 
heah-engel  Gabrihcl  him  com  to  flcogende,  and  him  )'us  to 
cwae^,  "  Ic  eom  cumen  to  ^e,  Danihel,  to  iSi  ]r<et  ic  sceal  Se 
tfEcan,  and  }m  understand  mine  spra^ce,  aiul  understand  ]>as 
gesih^e.  Feower  hund  geara  and  huiid-nigontig  geara  sind 
getealde  of  Sysum  d^ege  ofer  5e,  and  ofer  JSinum  folce,  and 
ofer  ^aere  byrig  Ilierusalcin  ;  and  j'onne  biS  seo  ealde  for- 
gfegednys  geendod,  and  synn  nndcrfeiiS  gecndunge,  aiul  un- 
rihtwisnys  biS  adylegod,  iiiul  biS  gebroht  ece  rihtwisiiys, 
and  gesihS  and  witegunga  beoS  gefyllede,  aiul  biJS  gcsmyrod 
ealra  halgcna  Halga."  Eallc  bas  JSing  sind  gefyllede  )>urh 
Cristes  menniscnysse. 

/Efter  )?am  fyrstc  and  andagan,  )'C  se  heah-engel  Gabrihel 
gecwee^  to  Danilule,  )nn-h  Cri^t  is  geendod  Adanu's  forgte- 
gednys  and  his  synn  ;  and  Crist  adylegode  a^lce  unrihtwis- 
nysse,  and  astealde  Sa  ecan  rihtwisnysse,  and  he  gefylde  calle 
witegunga  jmrh  hine  sylfne,  and  he  is  ealra  halgena  Ilalga, 
fortSan  ];e  he  is  heafod  ealra  haligra  manna.  I  Id  is  he  ge- 
smyrod  ?  Man  sniyrab  cyning  mid  gehalgodum  ele,  ])onne 
man  hine  to  cyningc  gehalgaS,  and  on  jelcere  hadunge,  ge  on 
diaconhade,  ge  on  preosthade,  ge  on  biscopliade,  iefre  se  tJe 
"Saer  gehadod  biS,  he  bicS  gcsmyrod  mid  gehalgodum  ele. 
Crist  is  soblice  ealra  biscopa  Biscop,  and  ealra  cyninga 
Cyning.  Nu  is  he  gcsmyrod  na  mid  corMicum  ele,  ac  mid 
seofonfealdre  gife  })ces  Ilalgan  Gastes  ;  forSan  |7e  on  Criste 
wuna^  eal  gefyllednys  beere  Godcundnysse  lichamlice. 

Eft,  be  Cristes  acemicdnysse  Dauid  se  sealm-wyrhta  sang 
and  cwae^,  j^aet  he  gehyrde  Cristes  stemne,  |>us  cweSende, 
*'  God  cwffiS  to  me,  Du  cart  min  sunu,  nu  to-daeg  ic  ge- 
strynde  ]?e."     Eft  ]>8es  Faeder  stemn  be  his  Bearne  clypode, 


tup:  nativity  of  the  lord.  15 

A(?ain,  Isaiah  the  prophet  wrote  in  his  prophecy,  and  thus 
said,  "  Ikhold  a  maiden  shall  conceive,  and  bear  a  Son,  and 
his  name  shall  he  Emanuel,"  which  is  interpreted,  '  God  is 
with  us.'  Attain,  Ezckiel  prophesied  of  the  city  of  Jerusalem 
and  of  Christ,  thus  saying,  "Thy  King  comcth  to  thee  hum- 
ble, and  shall  re-establibh  thee."  Daniel  the  prophet  set  also 
in  his  prophecy,  that  the  archangel  Gabriel  came  to  him  fly- 
ing, and  thus  spake  to  him,  "  I  am  come  to  thee,  Daniel,  in 
order  to  teach  thee,  and  do  thou  imderstand  my  speech,  and 
understatid  this  vision.  Four  hundred  and  ninety  years  are 
reckoned  from  this  day  ovt-r  thee,  and  over  thy  people,  and 
over  the  city  of  Jerusalem;  and  then  shall  the  old  transgression 
be  ended,  and  sin  shall  ha\c  an  etui,  and  unrighteousness 
shall  be  rootc<l  out,  and  everla^ting  righteousness  shall  be 
brought,  and  vision  and  i)rophecies  shall  be  fulfilled,  and 
the  Holy  of  all  holies  shall  be  anointed."  All  these  things 
are  fidfillcd  through  Chri^t's  humanity. 

Aft<'r  that  space  aiul  term,  which  the  archangel  Gabriel 
announced  to  Daniel,  Adam's  transgression  and  his  sin  arc 
ended  through  Christ  ;  and  Christ  has  rooted  out  every  un- 
righteousness, and  established  evrrlanting  righteousness,  and 
he  fulfilled  all  prf)phecies  through  himself,  and  he  is  the  Holy 
of  all  holies,  for  he  is  the  head  of  all  h(dy  men.  How  is  he 
anointed  r  A  king  is  anointed  with  hallowed  oil,  when  he  is 
hallowed  for  king  ;  and  in  every  ordination,  as  well  in  deacon- 
hood  .is  in  priesthood  and  in  bishophood,  he  who  is  invested 
therewith  is  anointed  with  hallowed  oil.  Hut  Christ  is  Bishop 
of  all  bishops,  and  of  all  kings  King.  Ht  is  not  anointed 
with  earthly  oil,  but  with  the  sevenfold  urace  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  ;  for  in  Christ  dwells  bodily  all  perfection  of  the  God- 
head. 

Again,  David  the  psalmist  sang  of  Christ's  birth,  and  said, 
that  he  heard  the  voice  of  Christ  thus  saying,  "  God  said 
unto  me,  Thou  art  my  Son,  now  to-day  have  I  begotten 
thre.  '      Again,  the  voice  of  the  Father  cried  concerning  his 


]0  NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

and  cwffi(S,  "  He  sjlf  clypode  to  me,  pii  eart  min  Feeder." 
And  eft,  se  Feeder  be  him  cwae^,  "  Ic  beo  him  Feeder,  and 
he  biS  me  Sunu,  and  ic  gesctte  bine  frumconnedne  and 
healicne  toforan  ealhnn  eorSlicum  cynegum."  Isaias  eft 
witegode  be  Cristes  acennednysse,  "  Us  is  Cild  acenned,  and 
us  is  Sunu  forgifen,  and  his  caldordom  is  on  his  cxhim,  and 
he  biS  gehatcn  Wundorlic,  Rjedbora,  Strang  God,  and  Feeder 
baere  toweardan  worulde,  a?id  sibbe  Ealdor  ;  his  rice  and  his 
anweald  biS  gcmenigfyld,  and  ne  biS  nan  ende  his  sibbe." 

Be  "5am  uundrum  ))e  Crist  geworhte  wTtegode  Iliercmias 

to  "psere  byrig  Hierusalem,  )>us  cweiSende,  "  To  ^e  cymS  j^in 

Alysend,  and  )ns  biS  his  tacn,  He  geopenaS  blindra  manna 

eagan,  and  deafum  he  forgifS  lieorcnunge,  and  mid  his  stemnc 

he  araerS  J?a  deadan  of  heora  byrgenum."     And  be  ISam  ylcan 

cwaeS  Isaias,  "Secga^S  ]>am  wac-modum,  )>a?t  hi  beon  gehyrtc, 

and  nan  ^ing  ofdrjcdde  :   lier  cynvJS  God  sylf  and  geh.ellS  us. 

ponne  beoS  geopcnode   blindra    manna   eagan,   aiul    dealTra 

manna  earan  gehyraJS ;    j'onno    hleapjj   se    healta    swa    sua 

heort,  and  dumbra  mamia  tungan  beo5  s\vi5e  getinge."      Be 

his  "Srowunge  cwteS  Isaias,  "  He  is  gelied  to  siege  swa  swa 

seep,  and  he  suwade,  and  his  mu5  ne  ondyde,  swa  swa  lamb 

detS,  Jjonne  hit  man  scyrS."     And  eft  cwa»5   Dauid,  "  Hi 

jjurh^ydon  mine  handa  and  mine  fet,  and  hi    da-ldon   min 

reaf  betwux  him."    Be  Cristes  deaSe  witegode  se  ylca  Dauid, 

and  cwffiS  be  Cristes  lice,  "  Min  lichama  gerest  on  hihte, 

for^an  j'e  |ni  ne  forlaetst  mine  sawle  on  helle,  ne  "5u  ne  geSa- 

fast  l^set  min  lichama  gebrosnige."     Das  word  Crist  gecly- 

pode  to  his  Faeder ;  and  siSJSan  he  cwjeS  be  his  aeriste,  "  Ic 

aras  of  dea^e,  and  ic  eft  mid  ]>e  eom."     Be  his  upstige  cwae^ 

se  ylca  Dauid,  "  God  astih^  up  to  heofonum   mid  micelre 

myrh^e."     And  eft  se  ylca  cwse^,  "  SingaS  ))am  Gode  "Se 

astah  ofer  heofonas  to  east-dfele."     Be  ^am  ]?e  Crist  sitt  a;t 

his  Faeder  swi^ran,  cwae^  se  ylca  witega,  "  God  cwae^  to 

minum  Drihtne,  Site  her  to  minum  swiSran."     Be  ^am  ^e 


Tin:  NATIVITY  UF  THE  LORD.  17 

Son,  and  said,  "  He  himself  called  to  ine,  Thou  art  my 
Father."  And  again,  the  Father  said  of  him,  "  I  will  be  to 
him  a  Father,  and  he  shall  be  to  me  a  Son,  and  1  will  set 
him  first-born  and  exalted  before  all  earthly  kintjs."  Isai;.h 
attain  prophesied  of  Christ's  birth,  "  To  u^  a  Child  is  born, 
and  to  us  a  Son  is  tfiven,  and  his  authority  shall  be  on  his 
shoulders,  and  he  shall  be  called  Wonderful,  Counsellor, 
Powerful  (iod,  and  Father  of  the  world  to  come,  and  Prince 
of  peace;  his  empire  atjd  his  power  shall  be  multiplied,  and 
of  his  peace  there  shall  be  no  end." 

Of  the  wonders  which  Christ  wrought,  the  prophet  Jere- 
miah proj)hesied  t(»  the  city  of  Jerusali-m,  thus  sayinL^  "  To 
thee  Cometh  thy  Redeenier,  and  this  is  his  token.  He  shall 
open  the  eyes  of  bliiul  meti,  aiul  to  the  deaf  he  shall  give 
hearing,  and  with  his  voice  he  shall  raise  the  dead  from  their 
Hepidchrcs."  And  of  the  Kame  said  Isaiah,  *'  Say  imlo  the 
weak-minded,  that  they  be  heartened,  and  nothing  fearful: 
here  comelh  God  himself  and  healeth  us.  'I'hen  shall  be 
opened  the  eyes  of  blind  men,  and  the  ears  of  ileaf  men  shall 
hear;  then  shall  the  halt  leap  as  a  hart,  and  the  tongueis  of 
dumi)  men  shall  be  very  eloquent."  Of  his  pa>sion  Isaiah 
said,  "  lie  is  led  to  slaying  as  a  sheep,  and  he  held  silence, 
and  uiulid  not  his  mouth,  as  a  latnb  doeth  when  it  is  shorn." 
And  agairi  said  David,  "  They  pierced  my  hands  and  my  feet, 
and  they  parted  my  garment  among  them.  '  The  same  David 
prophesied  of  Christ's  death,  and  said  of  Christ's  body,  "  My 
body  rests  in  hope,  for  thou  wilt  not  leave  my  sold  in  hell, 
nor  wilt  thou  p«  rmit  my  body  to  decay.  '  These  words 
Christ  cried  to  his  Father;  and  afterwards  he  said  t)f  his 
resurrection,  "  I  have  arisen  from  death,  and  I  am  again 
with  thee."  Of  his  ascension  the  same  David  said,  "Sing 
to  God  who  ascended  above  the  heavens  to  the  east  part." 
Of  Christ's  sitting  on  the  right  of  his  Father,  the  same 
prophet  said,  "  God  said  to  my  Lord,  Sit  here  at  my  right." 

JIOM.  vol,.  11.  c 


18  NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

Crist  ealle  ^ing  gewylt,  witegode  se  ylcii  Dauid,  "  Ealle 
cyningas  onbugaS  him,  and  ealle  })eoda  him  ^eowiaJS."  Eft, 
be  his  to-cyme  to  5am  micclum  dome,  cwaeS  se  ylca,  "  God 
cym«  svvutellice,  and  he  ne  suwa5  ;  fyr  byrnS  on  his  gesihSe, 
and  stiSlic  hreohnys  biS  onbuton  him."  Be  mancynnes 
ieriste  witegode  Isaias,  "  pa  deadan  sccolon  artsan,  and  }ja 
•Se  licga^  on  byrgcnum  hi"  ge-cdcuciab."  Be  JSam  dome 
Dauid  cwffi^  to  Gode,  "  pu,  Drihtcn,  forgyltst  c'pIcuui  be  his 
weorcum." 

Gif  we  willaS  arcccan  ealle  JSa  gcwitnyssa  j'c  be  Criste 
awritene  sind,  );onne  ga^JS  ]);or  swiSe  micel  hwTl  to  ;  ne  ])cah- 
hwieSere  we  ne  magon  hi  ealle  gereccan,  forM  na  )>a't  an  )>}et 
halige  witegan  be  him  wTtcgodon,  ac  eac  swilcc  h;«''5cne  men 
setton  on  heora  bocum  be  eallum  Msum  Mngum  )»e  we  nil 
beforan  eow  rjpddon.  An  ]';ria  \v;rs  Sibylla,  )'e  awnit  on 
leoS-civeftes  wiyon  be  Cristcs  acenncdnysse,  and  be  his  5row- 
ungc,  and  be  his  a'riste,  and  he  his  npstige,  and  be  his  to- 
cyme  to  Sam  micclum  dome,  swiSe  swutellice,  and  swa-Seah 
waes  haeSen.  Swa  gclice  eac  se  hfeSena  cyning  Nabuchodo- 
nosor,  he  gcseah  ehsyncs))ies  Lifigendan  Godes  Smui,and  hinc 
gecneow.  Hit  wa?s  swa  ])a?t  se  Nabuchodonosor  gelicrgode 
on  Godes  folcc,  and  aweg  gehedde  micelne  d;fl  ]';i's  folces  to 
his  rice,  pa  ara'rde  he  lueSengyld,  and  behead  calhnn  his 
folce,  be  heora  life,  )'ret  hi  sceoldon  feallan  adune,  and  In 
gebiddan  to  5<ere  anlicnysse  \)c  be  arjerde  :  gif  hwa  hit  for- 
soce,  \>set  he  sceolde  beon  forb;erncd  on  hatum  fifne.  pa 
WfEron  \>8&T  ^ry  cnihtas  swiSe  gelyfede  on  jjonc  soISan  God  : 
ya.  wseron  gehatene,  Annanias,  Azarias,  Misahel.  pa  gecwae- 
don  l^aet  hi  noldon  bugan  to  nanum  deofolgilde  fram  heora 
Scyppende.  pa  cwaeS  se  cyning  him  to,  "■  Hwa^t  is  se  God 
]>e  msege  eow  ahreddan  of  minum  handum  ?"  Da  cwjedon 
Annanias,  Azarias,  Misahel  to  ^am  cyninge,  "  Se  yElmihtiga 
God,  ]>e  we  wurSiab,  is  swa  mihtig  J^aet  he  eaSe  nifeg  us 
ahreddan  of  ^inum  byrnendum  ofne,  and  of  iSinuni  handum. 
And  wite  ]>\i  gewiss,  j^aet  we  naefre  ne  buga^  to  -Sinum  hfeSen- 


THK  NATIVITY  OF  THK  LORD.  19 

Of  Christ's  ruling  over  all  things,  the  same  David  prophesied, 
"All  kings  shall  bow  to  him,  and  all  nations  shall  serve 
him."  Again,  of  his  coining  to  the  great  doom,  the  same 
said,  "  God  comcth  manifestly,  and  he  will  not  be  silent  ; 
fire  burns  in  his  sight,  and  a  raging  storm  is  about  him." 
Of  the  resurrection  of  mankind,  Isaiah  propliesied,  "  The 
dead  shall  arise,  aiul  those  who  lie  in  sepulchres  shall  be  re- 
quickened."  Of  the  doom  David  said  to  (jod,  "  TIh»u,  Lord, 
wilt  recjuite  every  one  according  to  his  works." 

If  we    will   recount    all    the   testimonies  that   are   written 
concerning  Christ,  a  very  great  time  will  be  passed  therein  ; 
yet    can    we    not    reckon    theni    all,   because   not  only   have 
holy  prophets  prophesied  of  him,  but  heathen  men  also  have 
set    in    their   Ixtoks    concerning   all    these   things    which    we 
have  now  read  before  vou.      One  of  these  was   Sibylla,  who 
wrote  in  song-craft  wise  of  Christ's  birth,  and  of  his  pa.s- 
sion,  and  of  his  resurrection,  and  of  his  ascension,  and  of 
his    coming    to    the    threat    doom,  very  uianifestly,  and    yet 
was    a    heathen.       In    like    manner    also    the    heathen    king 
Nebuchadne//ar,    he    saw  orularl)    the    Son    of   the    Living 
God,  and  knew  him.      It  was  when  Nebucliadne/7,ar  warred 
on  God's  people,  and   led  away  a  great   part   of  the  people 
♦o  his  kingdom.     Then  raised   he  an    id<d,  a>id  commiuuled 
all  his  people,  on   their  life,  to  fall  down   aiul  worship  the 
image   which   he   had   raised  :    if   any   one    refused,  that   he 
shovdd    be   burned   in    a    hot    ovin.     Then   were  there   three 
younir  men  who  firmly  believed  in   the  true  God  :    they  were 
called    Ilananiah,   A/.ariah,    Mishael.     They  said   that   they 
would  not  incline  to  an\  idol  from  their  Creator.     Then  said 
the  king  to  them,  "  Who  is   the  God  that  may  deliver  yoii 
from  my  hands  ?"     Then  said  Ilananiah,  Azariah,  Mishael 
to  the  king,  "  The  Almighty  God,  whom  we  worship,  is  so 
mighty,  that  he  may  easily  diliver  us  from  thy  burning  oven, 
and  from  thy  hands.     And  know  thou  for  certain,  that    we 
will  never  bow  to  thy  heathenship."    He  wa<  theti  filled  with 

c  J 


20  NATI VITAS  DOMINI. 

scipe."  He  wear^  f?a  afylled  mid  graman,  and  hot  ona'lan 
)7one  ofen  swi^e  dearie,  and  het  gebindan  ba  cnihtas  haudum 
and  fotum,  and  awurpan  into  Sam  byrnendum  ofne.  pa  wws 
•Sses  cyninges  hses  jnerrihte  gefyllcd,  and  hi  wteron  aworpene 
into  ISam  byrnendan  ofne,  and  se  lig  sloh  ut  of  JJam  ofne 
feorr  up,  and  forbjernde  to  dcaSe  Sa  be  hi  inn  awurpon  ;  and 
\>set  fyr  ne  derede  naht  )'am  brim  cnihtum  be  on  God  bolyf- 
don  ;  ac  hi  wurdon  j'^errihte  uiibundene,  and  codon  orsorhlice 
on  ^ani  fyre,  and  herodon  God.  Da  code  se  cyning  to  bam 
ofne,  and  sceawode  geondice  ;  |>a  gescah  he  b^er  feower  mcnn 
gangende  binnon  ^am  fyre,  and  he  cwjeb  ba  to  hin  cnihtum, 
"  Hula,  no  wurpe  we  j^ry  cnihtas  into  bam  fyre  ?"  Hi 
cwifidon  iiim  to,  "Sob  \>u  segst,  cyning."  )"'a  cwjrb  8e 
cyning,  "  Ic  geseo  b;pr  feower  weras  giirigendc  nn  middan 
j?am  fyre  ungewemmede  and  unforswHdede,  and  se  feorba  is 
gelic  Godes  Bearne."  pa  geseali  se  hiebena  cyning  j^onc 
Lifigendan  Godes  Sunu,  and  he  l)ine  gecneow  burh  Godes 
onwrigenysse ;  and  he  ba  genealfehte  bam  ofne,  and  cwjrb  to 
"bam  |)rini  Godes  cnihtum,  "  Ge  Godes  menn,  Annania, 
Azaria,  Misahel,  gab  ut  of  bam  ofne,  and  cumab  t(»  me." 
Hi"  J>airrihte  lit-eodon  of  bam  byrnendum  ofne  a'tforan  ealhim 
"bam  folce.  Hi  sceawodon  hcora  fex  and  heora  lichaman,  and 
swibe  wundrodon  |)a^t  hi  ealswa  gehalc  and  swa  gesunde  vit- 
eodon  of  ^am  fyre,  swa  hi  imi  aworpene  wjeron.  pa  cwa?5 
se  cyning,  "  Gebletsod  sy  cower  God,  sebe  eow  abredde  swa 
mihtelice  of  bam  fyre.  Ic  sette  im  bis  gebami  an  eallum 
minum  folce,  \nBt  nan  man  ne  beo  swa  dyrstig,  \>iet  he  ienig 
word  obbe  aetiig  tal  cwebe  ongean  eowerum  Gode  :  gif  hit 
hwa  bonne  de«,  he  sceal  bolian  his  {ehta  and  his  agenes  lifes." 
Crist  wolde  |wt  manega  witegan,  and  eac  ^a  hfe^enan 
sceoldon  bodian  his  to-cyme,  and  cyban  his  faer,  j^aet  man- 
cynn  waere  |>aes  ^e  geleaffulre  and  hies  \>e  gewisre  on  hwaene 
hi  sceoldon  gelyfan,  and  calle  cwe^an,  fpg^ber  ge  mid  niu^e 
ge  mid  mode,  swa  se  sealm-scop  sang  be  Gode,  "  pu  eart 
maere  and  micel  «e  wundra  wyrcst ;  ])u  eart  ana  God."     Wc 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  21 

anger,  and  commaiulcd  Ihc  oven  to  be  heated  very  intensely, 
and  cuninianded  the  youtlis  to  be  bound  liands  and  feet,  and 
cast  into  the  burning  oven.  Tlien  was  llie  king's  beliest 
straightwayt.  fulfilled,  and  tiiey  were  east  into  the  burning 
oven,  and  the  flame  struck  out  of  the  oven  far  up,  and  burned 
t<j  death  those  who  had  ca^t  them  in  ;  and  llic  fire  injured 
naught  the  three  youths  who  believed  in  God  ;  but  they  «erc 
btraightuays  unbound,  and  went  fearlessly  in  the  fire,  and 
praibcd  (iod.  Then  went  the  king  lo  the  oven,  and  l(K»ked 
earnestly  ;  and  he  saw  there  four  nun  g«>ii»g  within  the  fire, 
and  he  said  to  his  attendants,  "  How  is  this,  cast  we  not  thri'C 
youths  into  the  fire  ?"  They  said  to  him,  "The  so<»th  thou 
savest,  kinir-"  Tlien  said  the  kintr,  "  I  sec  there  four  men 
going  amid  the  fire  unhurt  and  ind)urned,  and  the  fourth  ii> 
like  unto  the  Child  of  Uod."  Then  the  heathen  king  saw 
the  Son  of  the  Living  God,  and  he  know  him  through  God's 
revelation  ;  and  he  then  drew  near  to  the  «>ven,  and  saiti  to 
the  three  servants  (»f  God.  "  Ye  men  of  Gotl,  Hananiah, 
A/.ariah,  Mishael,  go  out  of  the  oven,  and  come  to  me." 
They  straiirhlwavs  went  out  of  the  burning  oven  l)efore  all 
the  people.  They  beheld  their  hair  and  their  binlies,  and 
greatly  wondered  that  they  as  whide  and  as  sound  went  out 
of  the  fire  as  thev  were  when  they  were  cast  in.  Tiicn  said 
the  king,  "  Blessed  Ik*  your  G»k1,  who  hath  delivere«l  y<iu  »m) 
pnwerfullv  from  the  fire.  I  now  make  this  decree  among  all 
ni\  people,  that  no  man  be  so  daring  that  he  speak  any  word 
or  any  l>lasphemy  against  your  God  :  if  any  one  then  so  do, 
he  shall  forfeit  his  possessions,  and  his  own  life." 

Christ  would  that  many  prophets,  and  also  the  heathen 
should  announce  his  ad\ent,  and  make  known  his  course, 
that  mankind  mi^ht  be  the  more  believing,  and  the  n)ore 
certain  in  whom  they  should  believe,  and  all  say,  both  with 
mouth  and  \\'\\h  mind,  as  the  psalmist  sang  of  Ciod,  "  Thou 
art  clorious  and  great  w  ho  workest  wonders  ;   thou  alone  art 


22  NATIVITAS  DOMINI. 

sceolon  segSer  gelyfan  Godes  wundra,  and  eac  mid  micelrc 
lufe  ge^ancian  jjani  Hcoibiilican  Ffpdcr,  Gode  .Elmihtigum, 
J?8et  he  wolde  asendan  his  ancennedaii  Sunu  to  Sysum  life  for 
ure  alysednysse,  5aSa  we  forwyrhte  \va?ron.  We  sceoU^n  eac 
Cristes  acennednysse  and  his  gcbyrd-tide  mid  gastlicerc  blisse 
wurSian,  and  us  sylfe  mid  goduni  wcorcum  geglcngan,  and 
tis  mid  Godos  lofsangum  gehysgian,  and  5a  «Sing  onscunian 
^e  Crist  forbytt,  pa^t  sind,  Icahtras  and  deoflcs  wcorc  ;  and  ISa 
^ing  lufian  be  God  behead,  j'a^t  is,  cadmodnys  and  niild- 
heortnys,  rihtwisnys  and  soiifjestnys,  «'ehnes-d;pda  and  gemet- 
fsestnys,  ge}>yld  and  chennys.  pas  »Sing  hifaS  God,  and  hum 
^a  clffinnysse,  5e  he  sylf  burh  hine  and  ISurh  |>a't  chi-ne 
maeden,  his  modor,  astealde.  Swa  eac  ealle  his  geferan  be 
liim  fdigdon,  eulle  In  wa^ron  on  chmnysse  wuniendc  ;  and  so 
mfesta  djJel  j^jera  manna  ]>e  Gode  geScoS,  }>urh  cl.fnnysse  hi 
geScoS.  WarniaS  eow  wilS  ofcrfylle  and  oferdrencc,  swa 
swa  Crist  cM'jeS  on  his  godspeUe,  *'  Beo5  wfere,  )».pt  cowere 
heortan  ne  beon  gchcfgode  mid  ofcrfyHe,  and  druncennyssc, 
and  mid  woruld-caruni,  and  se  fa'riica  deab  becume  ofer 
eow." 

Uton  beon  eac  gemyndigc  hli  micelrc  gelSincSc  sy  ]>iet 
halige  maeden  Maria,  Cristes  moder  :  heo  is  gcbletsod  ofer 
eallum  wifiifides  mannnm  ;  luo  is  sec  heofenliec  cwen,  and 
ealra  cristenra  manna  frofer  and  fultum.  Urc  ealde  moder 
Eua  us  beleac  heofenan  rices  geat,  and  sec  halige  Maria  hit 
eft  us  geopenode,  gif  we  hit  sylfe  nu  mid  yfcluin  Meorcum  us 
ne  belucab.  Micel  ma^g  heo  »t  hire  Bearne  abiddan,  gif  heo 
bi^  geornlice  to-gemynegod.  Uton  forbi  mid  micelrc  georn- 
fulnysse  hi  gebiddan,  ])jet  heo  us  Singige  to  hire  agenum 
Bearne,  se^e  is  teg^er  ge  hire  Scyppend  ge  hire  Sunu,  so^ 
God  and  so^  mann,  an  Crist,  seSe  leofaS  and  rixaS  mid 
Faeder  and  mid  Halgum  Gaste,  hi  bry  an  God  a  on  ecnysse. 
Amen. 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  THE  LORD.  23 

God."  We  should  both  believe  God's  wonders,  and  also 
M-ith  ^reat  love  thank  the  Heavenly  Father,  God  Almighty, 
U)r  having  sent  his  only-begotten  Son  to  this  life  for  our  re- 
demption, when  we  were  fordone.  We  slunild  also  honour 
Christ's  nativity  and  his  birth-tide  with  ghostly  joy,  and 
adorn  oursclve«}  with  good  works,  and  busy  ourselves  with 
songs  of  praise  to  God,  and  shun  the  things  which  Christ 
forbids,  which  are  sin.**  and  the  works  of  the  devil ;  and  love, 
those  things  which  God  has  enjoined,  that  is,  lowliness 
and  mercy,  righteousness  and  truth,  alms-deeds  and  tempe- 
rance, patience  and  chastity.  These  things  God  loves,  and 
especially  chastity,  which  he  himself  through  himself  and 
through  the  chaste  maiden  his  mother  established.  So  also 
all  his  companions  who  followed  him,  they  were  all  living  in 
chastity;  and  the  greatest  part  of  those  men  who  thrive  to 
God  thrive  through  chastity.  (juard  yourselves  against  ex- 
cess in  eating  and  drinking,  as  Christ  himself  said  in  his 
gospel,  *'  Be  wary,  that  your  hearts  be  not  oppressed  with 
excess  of  eating  and  drinking,  and  with  worldly  cares,  and 
sudden  death  come  over  you." 

Ix't  us  also  be  mindful  of  how  great  dignity  is  the  holy 
maiden  Mary,  the  mother  of  Christ  :  she  is  blessed  above  all 
women  ;  she  is  the  heavenly  (|ueen,  and  the  comfort  and  sup- 
port f)f  all  christian  men.  Our  old  mother  Eve  shut  to  us 
the  gate  of  heaven's  kingdom,  and  the  holy  Mary  opened  it 
figain  to  us,  if  we  ourselves  by  r\  il  works  shut  it  not  against 
us.  Much  may  she  obtain  of  ht  r  Child,  if  she  be  fervently 
thereof  reminded.  Let  us,  therefore,  with  great  fervour,  pray 
to  her,  that  she  mediate  for  us  to  her  own  Child,  who  is 
both  her  Creator  and  her  Son,  true  God  and  true  man,  one 
Christ,  who  liveth  and  reigncth  with  Father  and  with  Holy 
Ghost,  those  three  one  God  to  all  eternity.     Amen. 


24 


VII.  KL.  JAN. 
NATALE  SCl  STEPHANI  PROTOMAR-n'RIS. 

AUGUSTINUS,  se  wisa  biscop,  sprtec  to  his  folcc  be  Sam 
wundrum  and  tacnum  ]>e  se  halga  wer  Stephanus,  5e  ^ve 
to-dcEg  wurSiaS  on  his  neawiste  geworhte,  and  \>us  cwa?JS, 
Mine  gebrobra  )>a  leofostan,  we  truwiaS,  );onne  ge  gch)ni- 
lice  gehyrab  ^a  nia^rHcan  wundia  ]';ps  eadigan  cyScrcs  Ste- 
phanes,  j^aet  heora  forwel  fchi  on  eowcruni  gcniyndc  f«pste 
beo^,  and  na  mid  gynielcaste  adylegode. 

Sum  Yponienscis  m;p(kMi  \\  carJS  deofol-seoc,  |^a  gesmyrode 
sum  msesse-prcost  ht  mid  do  Yivs  halg:in  c)  Seres  Sti'phanes, 
and  hco  |>;prriiitc  wcarS  gcwiltig.  Sum  l)hnd  uif  com  to 
\nere  halgan  cyrcan,  |>c  wa-s  on  wurSmyntc  )>isrH  eadigan 
weres  gchalgod,  and  hi  gei>a'(l,  and  j'jrrrihte  geseaii.  Hco 
"Sa  gewcnde  ongean  blissigcnck^,  huton  hilteowe,  seoSe  ar 
blind  I'idcr  gcla-d  waes.  Eucharius  hatte  sum  nia*ssc-preost, 
on  ]>am  hnule  j'o  is  gchaten  Ili.spania,  se  wjps  Searlc  geswenct 
mid  langsumum  broce.  Da  gebrohtc  se  biscop  Possidiua 
sum  Sing  lytles  of  Sa-re  forcsa'dan  cyrcan  )»}ps  eadigan  Ste- 
phanes,  and  se  preost  jnirh  J>{et  uearS  geha'led.  Eft  sySSan 
him  bccom  oScr  untrumnys,  ])a>t  lie  forSfcrde,  and  his  lie 
bewunden  beg  ;  ac  him  man  U-dc  on-uppan  his  agene  tunecan, 
^e  vvjps  gebroht  fram  |'a^re  cyrcan  \ws  eadigan  cySeres,  and 
he  of  deaSe  aras.  Martialis  hatte  sum  hipSen  wcr,  on  win- 
trum  gcripod  ;  he  onscunode  micclum  cristenra  manna  eaw- 
faestnysse.  pa  was  his  dohtor  cristen  svviSe  gelyfed,  and 
hire  wer  vvies,  on  ^am  ylcan  geare,  gefullod.  pa  gesawon  hi 
bine  adligne,  and  mid  wope  buedon  ]'a>t  he  cristen  wurde  jer 
his  ende;  ac  he  wiScwaeS  Jjwyrlice,  and  hi  mid  gedrefedre 
^bilignysse  him  fram  adraf.  pa  \vear«  Sam  a|)umnie  to  rjede 
ge^uht,  jJiBt  he  eode  to  "Saere  halgan  cyrcan  J^jes  foresa-dan 
cy^eres,  and  ])ses  eadigan  Stephanes  pingunge  ba^de  to  «an 
^hnihtigan,  j^aet  he  forgeafe  godne  willan  j^am  seocan  hceSe- 


25 


DECKMBKU  XXVI. 
THE  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  STKI'IIKN,   IMIOTOMARTYR. 

AUGUSTINE,  the  u  isc  bihliop,  spake  to  his  people  con- 
cerning tlie  wonders  and  tokens  which  the  holy  man  Stk- 
PHEN,  whom  wc  to  day  honour,  wrouj^ht  in  his  neighbour- 
hood, and  thus  said,  My  dean>t  brothers,  we  trust,  when  ye 
repeatedly  liear  the  noble  wonders  of  the  blessed  martyr 
Stephen,  that  very  many  of  them  will  be  fa>.t  in  your  minds, 
and  not  obliterat«'d  by  heedlessnetis. 

\  maiden  of  Hippo  waj<  possessed  of  a  devil,  when  a  m;u»s- 
priest  anointed  her  with  oil  of  the  holy  martyr  Stephen,  and 
she  forthwith  became  sane.  A  blind  woman  cann"  to  the 
holy  church,  wliich  had  been  hallowed  in  honour  of  this 
blessed  man,  and  she  prayed,  and  forthwith  saw.  She  then 
returned  bleseing,  without  a  guide,  wlu>  had  before  been  led 
thither  blind.  Kucharius  a  moMS-priest  was  named,  in  the 
land  which  is  called  Spain,  who  was  much  aHlicted  with  a 
protracted  disease.  Then  the  bishop  Possidius  brought  some 
little  thing  from  the  aforesaid  church  of  the  blessed  Stephen, 
and  thereby  the  priest  was  healed.  Again  another  sickliest* 
befell  him,  so  that  he  died,  and  iiis  corpse  lay  inwrapt  ;  but 
they  laid  upon  him  his  own  tunic,  which  had  lu'cn  bnnight 
from  the  church  of  the  holy  martyr,  and  he  arose  from  death. 
There  was  a  certain  heathen  man  named  Martial,  ripe  in 
years;  he  zealously  shunned  the  religion  of  christian  men. 
Now  his  daughter  was  a  christian  very  believing,  and  her 
husband  had,  in  the  san»e  yt  ar,  been  bapli/cd.  They  then 
saw  him  sick,  and  w  ith  w  ceping  prayed  that  he  would  become 
a  christian  ere  his  end  ;  but  he  perversely  refused,  and  w  ith 
troubled  anger  drove  them  from  him.  Thin  it  seemed  ad- 
visable to  the  son-in-law  to  go  to  the  ciiurch  of  the  aforesaid 
martyr,  and  to  pray  for  the  intercession  of  the  blessed  Ste- 
phen to  the  .Vlmighty,  that  he  would  grant  ginul  will  to  the 


26  NATALE  S.  STEPHANI  PROTOMARTYRIS. 

nan,  J^aet  he  leng  ne  elcode  to  his  geleafan.  pa  dyde  se  aSum 
swa  mid  orm;etre  geoineriinge  and  wope,  and  syferlice  mid 
byrnendre  arfestnysse ;  and  sume  blostinan  of  ISam  halgan 
weofode  genam,  and  gelede  under  j'jes  hieJSenan  hcafod.  He 
^a,  on  ];8ere  ylcan  nihte,  iefter  his  frum-slsepe,  neodiice  cly- 
pode,  biddonde  ]?set  man  ISone  biscop  to  him  gcfctte.  pa 
andwyrdon  his  frynd,  and  cwa'don,  )>ait  he  on  ncawiste  nwre. 
He  ^a  eft  geornhce  b;pd,  }';et  liim  man  sumnc  ma'ssc-preost 
gelangode ;  cwfeS  pjet  he  on  (Jod  gclyfan  woUle,  and  ead- 
modlice  to  fulhihte  gcbugan.  His  frynd  j'jes  micchnn  wini- 
drodon  and  bhssodon,  and  he  ?>;prribte  wearS  gcfuHod,  and 
liffifde  him  on  mu5e,  o5  his  forSsiJS,  |>a  ylcan  word  )»e  se 
eadiga  Stephamis  on  his  cndc  to  Gode  gccwieS,  "  Criste, 
accipe  spiritum  mcum  :"  \net  is,  "Crist,  onfoh  miniie  gast." 
And  he  swa  iet  ncxtan  mid  )»am  worde  gewat.  Nyste  he  ju-ah 
8er  J^aet  se  eadiga  wcr,  Stcphanus,  on  his  Srowunge  swa  cly- 
pode,  ac  ^urh  liis  «5ingunge  he  wcarS  to  fulhdite  and  to  iSam 
wordum  onbryrd. 

piBV  w^eron  cac  geha^lede  J'ry  fCt-adlige  men  )»urh  5one 
halgan  cySere,  twcgen  landcs  mcnn  and  lin  jelScodig.  {""a 
landes  men  wurdon  ));»'rrihte  gehfek'de,  and  Sam  H^lSeodigan 
wearS  geswutelod  l»\v;rt  he  to  Iiis  fotum  Iccgan  sceohle  ;  and 
he  swa  dyde  swa  him  geswutelod  wa-s,  and  seo  scociiys 
paerrihte  gcswac.  Sum  cild  plogode  gymelcaslicc,  and  beam 
under  anum  yrnendum  hweole,  and  wear?  to  deaSe  tocwyscd. 
Seo  modcr  ]>a  dreorig  ba^r  )»;ps  cildes  lie  to  )'am  forcsjeduiu 
gemynde  J^aes  halgan  Stephanes,  and  hit  sona  ge-edcucode, 
and  ansund  aeteowode.  An  eawftest  myneceuu  heg  swiSe 
geswenct,  orwene  telcere  edwyrpinge.  pa  asende  man  hire 
tunecan  to  J^aere  halgan  cyrcan,  ac  heo  gewat  ter  se  ff;rend- 
raca  ongean  come.  Hire  magas  5eah  oferbraddon  ]>aet  lie 
mid  jjaere  tunecan,  and  heo  sona  cucu  aras.  Sum  gelyfed 
man  gebfed  aet  ]>iere  cyrcan  for  his  adligan  dehter,  and  hire 
reaf  ]nder  abaer :  efne,  Sa^a  he  ham  gecyrde,  j?a  urnon  his 
hiwan  him  togeanes,  and  hire  for^siS  him  gecyddon.     He  ^a 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  STEPHEN.  PROTOMARTYR.        27 

sick  heathen,  that  he  might  no  longer  dchiy  his  belief.  Then 
the  son-in-lau'  did  so  with  infinite  groaning  and  weeping, 
and  purely  with  burning  piety  ;  and  took  some  flowers  from 
the  holy  altar,  and  laid  them  under  the  heathen's  head.  He 
then,  on  the  same  night,  after  his  first  sleep,  anxiously  cried, 
prayirjg  that  they  would  fetch  the  bi>hop  to  him.  I  lis  frirnds 
then  answered,  that  he  was  not  in  the  neighbourhood.  He 
then  again  eagerly  entreated  that  they  would  send  for  a  mass- 
priest;  he  said  that  he  would  believe  in  God,  and  humbly 
submit  to  ba|)tism.  At  tliis  his  friends  greatly  wondered  and 
rejoiced,  and  he  was  immediately  baptized,  and  had  in  his 
mouth,  till  his  departure,  the  same  words  which  the  blessed 
Stephen  at  his  end  said  to  God,  *'  Christe,  accipe  spiritum 
meum  :"  that  is,  "  Christ,  receive  my  spirit."  .Vnd  he  so  at 
last  with  those  words  departed.  Vet  knew  he  not  before 
that  the  blessed  man,  Stephen,  at  his  passion  so  cried,  but 
through  his  intercession  he  was  stimulated  to  baptism  and 
to  those  words. 

Theri-  were  also  healed  three  men  lame  of  fcKit  lliro\igh  the 
hf)ly  marljr,  two  men  of  tlie  country  and  one  a  stranger. 
The  men  of  the  country  were  healed  forthwith,  and  it  was 
manifested  to  the  stranger  what  he  should  lay  on  his  foot  ; 
and  he  did  as  was  manifested  to  him,  and  the  disease  forth- 
with ceased.  A  child  was  playing  heedlessly,  and  ran  imdcr 
a  nnuiing  wheel,  and  was  crushed  to  death.  The  mother 
then  sad  bare  the  child's  corpse  to  the  In'foresaid  memorial 
of  the  holy  Stephen,  and  it  soon  requiekened  and  appeared 
sound.  A  pious  mynchen  lay  greatly  afflicted,  htipeless  of 
any  recovery.  They  then  sent  her  tunic  to  the  holy  chrrch, 
but  she  had  departed  before  the  messenger  returned.  Her 
relatives,  nevertheless,  spread  the  tunic  over  the  corpse,  and 
she  instantly  arose  alive.  A  believing  man  prayed  at  the 
church  for  his  sick  daughter,  and  bare  her  garment  thither  : 
behold,  when  he  returned  home,  his  household  ran  towards 
him,  and  announced  to  him  her  departure.      H»-  then  covered 


28  NATALE  P.  STEPHAXI  PROTOMAUTYRIS. 

mid  |>am  leafe  }?cet  lie  oferwreah,  and  seo  dohtor  Jjferribtc  to 
life  aras.  Eft,  sumes  o^res  maniies  sunu  ]nirh  uiitrumnysse 
gevvat,  ac  "Sa^a  his  frynd  |'a  ITc-^enuiige  gearcodon,  pa  tihte 
heora  sum  ])ist  man  ]?ies  cnapan  lie  smyrian  sceolde  mid  cle 
pees  halgan  Stephanes.  IIT  sua  dydon,  and  he  gc-cdeucode. 
Eft,  sum  ]?egen  brohte  his  suna  lie  to  Sam  forcsanlan  gemynde 
J78es  halgan  eySeres,  and  mid  mieeluni  wope  hine  gcba'd,  and 
aefter  his  gebcde  he  ahuf  })aet  eild  up  ge-cdeueod  and  aii- 
sund. 

Gif  we  wyllaS  eallc  '?ia  w  undra  and  h;pl«Sa  awntan,  }>e  we 
oncneowon  gefrcmode  )>urh  bone  wuldorfullan  cybcre  Ste- 
phanum,  JSonne  wyrce  we  mancga  bee,  tfrSan  Se  we  hi  ealle 
gegaderion  ;  and  Seah  In  ne  magon  beon  ealle  gcgadcrode, 
sind  ]>eah  sumc  ]>c  ie  forsuwian  ni'  ni.rg.  An  ;p)>L'lboren  wTf 
wcarS  micclum  gcswenet  mid  langsumere  untrumnysse,  and 
hire  ne  mihte  nan  heeecra>ft  fremian.  p.i  hrrde  lii  sum 
iudcisc  man,  J);et  heo  name  aMine  werna'gel  of  sumes  oxan 
hriegc,  and  bccnytte  to  anum  hringc  mid  hire  snode,  and  mid 
]nxm  hi  to  naccdum  ITee  bcgyrde.  {""a  ferde  lieo  swa  begvrd 
to  )?aes  halgan  cySeres  cyrcan,  |>{et  heo  iter  hire  hfple  abjpcle. 
pa  wicode  heo  be  wege  wiJS  jwre  ea  j^e  is  gehaten  Bagrade, 
and  on  a?rne-merien  siJSode,  swa  swa  heo  gemynt  hjefde.  f)a 
geseah  heo  ITegan  Sonc  bring  on  ^am  wege  wtforan,  mid 
snode  mid  eallc,  and  |)a^s  micelum  wundrode.  pa  wende  heo 
]7aet  se  bring  toburste,  oSJSe  seo  snod  toslupe  ;  ae  5a5a  heo 
afunde  ])one  bring  gebalne,  and  |)a  snode  mid  eallum  cnottum 
swa  faeste  gewriJJen  swa  heo  ter  wws,  Sa  understod  heo  j^a-t 
)7aet  wundor  gelamp  )nirh  ^{es  halgan  mihte  5e  heo  to  fundode, 
and  micelum  truwode  hirehfele  toweard  5urh  his  geearnung- 
um,  and  wearp  bone  bring  mid  )?am  bendum  into  ^am  flow- 
endum  streame.  Heo  fcrde  Sa  mid  bliSum  mode  to  Saere 
halgan  cyrcan,  and  Sa'.r  hire  heele  gefette,  j^urh  iSaes  halgan 
cy^ercs  Singunge. 

An  wundorlic  tacn  gelamp  aet  ]?»s  halgan  gemynde,  swa 
widmaere,  ic  wene,  |)<pt  feawa  wwron   on  }>;pre  neawiste  j^e 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  STKPHF.X,   PROTOMARTYR.       29 

the  corpse  over  with  the  garment,  and  the  daiiijhter  straiglit- 
uays  arose  to  life.  Again,  the  son  of  another  man  died 
tlirough  sickness,  but  while  his  friends  were  preparing  the 
last  offices,  one  of  them  induced  them  to  anoint  the  corpse  of 
the  boy  with  oil  of  the  holy  Stephen.  They  did  so,  and  he 
re(juickencd.  Again,  a  thane  brought  the  corpse  of  his  son 
to  the  beforesaid  memorial  of  the  holy  martyr,  and  with  great 
weeping  prayed  to  him,  and  after  his  prayer  he  raised  the 
child  up  ({uickened  and  sound. 

If  \\v  will  record  all  the  wonders  and  cure.s  that  we  know 
to  have  been  performed  by  the  glorious  martyr  Stephen,  then 
may  we  make  many  books  before  we  gather  them  all  ;  and 
though  they  may  not  all  be  gathered,  vet  are  tliere  some 
which  I  may  iu)t  pa>^s  in  silence.  A  woman  of  noble  birth 
WHS  greatly  afllictcd  with  long  sickness,  and  no  Icechcraft 
avaiU'd  her  au;4ht.  Tlicn  a  Jewish  man  counselled  her  to  take 
a  wart  from  an  ox's  back,  and  tie  it  to  a  ring  with  her  fillet, 
and  with  that  gird  her  naked  body.  Shi  then  so  girded  went 
to  the  church  of  the  holy  martyr,  that  she  might  there  by 
prayer  ol)tain  her  health.  (Jn  the  way  she  pitched  her  tent 
by  tlu"  ri\er  which  is  called  Bagrada,  and  at  earlv  morn 
journeyed  on,  as  she  had  intended.  There  she  saw  Iving 
ln'f(Me  lur  on  the  way  the  ring  togrther  with  the  fillet,  and 
thereat  greatly  wondered.  She  imagined  that  the  ring  hat! 
burst,  or  that  the  fillet  had  become  loose  ;  but  when  she  found 
the  ring  whole,  and  the  fillet  with  all  its  knots  as  firudv  bound 
as  it  was  before,  then  understood  she  that  that  wonch'r  hap- 
pened through  the  holy  might  to  which  sin*  was  bending  her 
way,  and  firmly  trusted  that  her  health  was  at  hand  through 
his  merits,  and  cast  the  ring  with  the  bands  int(»  the  fl«)wing 
stream.  She  went  then  with  cheerful  mind  to  the  holy 
church,  and  there  obtained  her  health,  through  the  interces- 
sion of  the  holy  martyr. 

One  wonderful  miracle  took  i)lace  at  the  memorial  of  the 
saint,    so   ci-lpbr.itrd,    I    \\cn),    th;it    thrre    were   fvw   in    the 


30  NATALE  S.  STEPHANI  PROTOMAR'n'RIS. 

I^aet  ne  gesawe,  o^Se  ne  gehyrde.     Seofon  gebroSru  waeroii 
and   ^reo   geswustra,    anre   wydewan   cild,  on    Saere   byrig 
Cappadocia,  ae]?elborenre  maeg^e.    pa  wearJS  sco  uiodor  biter- 
lice  gcgremod,   aefter   hire  weres  forSsiSe,  fraui   liire   anum 
cilde,  to  "San  swi^e  ]?aet  heo  on  Easter-tide  eode  to  cyrcan, 
and  wolde  ^one  sunu  j^e  hi  getirigde  mid  wyriungum  gebin- 
dan.     pa  gemette  heo  aenne  deofol  on  niannes  hiwe,  se  befrun, 
hvvider  heo  woldc.     pset  earnie  wif  andwyrde,  and  c\va?c),  )7a?t 
heo  wolde  to  cyrcan  gan,  and  \}one  sunu  be  hi  tirigde  awyrian. 
pa  andwyrde  se  deofol  on  |?am  nienniscum  hiwe,  "  Riht  «Su 
dest  and  vvel,  gif  ^u  calle  Sine  cild  tosoinne  wyrigst ;  forlSan 
^e  hi  ealle  on  andwyrdny.sse  stodon,  SaSa  se  an  Se  tynde,  and 
noldon  )?e  ealgian  wi5  hcora  brcSer ;  ne  hi  Sinnc  tconan  ne 
besargodon  :    wyrig  hi  calle  toga^dere."     pa^t  earnie  uif  gc- 
lyfde  his  Wfelhreowuni  geSeahtc,  and  wcarS  mid  niaran  wod- 
nysse  astyrod.     Eode  ]»a  to  Sam  fantfete,  and  tolysde  hire 
feax,  and  bcdyptc  on  Sam  fanto,  and  mid  miceire  hathcort- 
nysse    ealle    hire    bcarn    miinfuUice   wirigde.     .Efter    })isum 
gecyrde  ham,  and    gemette    calle   hire  beam    mid    orma^tre 
cvvyliiiinge  cwacigcnde  eallum  limuni.      pa  we  ar'S  heo  mid 
miceire  sarnysse  Surhslegen,  |);et  heo  swa  micel  man  gefre- 
mode  ;  code  iSa,  and  hi  sylfe  on  grine  aheng  jnet  heo  fotum 
span.     Witodlice  se  ylca  deofol  Se  In  tihte  fer  to  Sjere  man- 
fullican  wyriunge,  se  hi  eft  siSSan  to  hire  agenre  hengene 
gelfprde. 

pa  carman  beam  ne  mihton  Sa  leng  for  sceame  on  )?a^re 
byrig  a^olian,  for  -Ssere  atelican  cwacunge,  ac  ferdon  wori- 
gende  geond  eallum  Romaniscum  ymbhw^rfte.  Twegen 
jiissera  becomon  to  us,  broker  and  swuster,  Paulus  and  Pal- 
ladia, wTdcu^e  ^urh  heora  yrm^e.  Hi  comon  twam  wucan 
fcer  Eastron,  and  daeghwomlice  geneosodon  ^a  halgan  cyrcan, 
on  l^aere  ^e  wees  J^aes  wuldorfullan  Stephanes  gemynd,  bid- 
dende  J?aet  he  him  God  gegladode,  and  him  ^a  ^rran  haele 
forgeafe.  pa  on  ^am  Easter-daege  eodon  hi,  swa  hi  gewunode 
waeron,  to  j^aere  cyrcan,  and  se  broSor  hine  gebaed  set  )?am 
halgiim  reliquium.     pa  wear^S  he  fa^rlice  astreht,  and  slapen- 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  STEPHEN,   PROTOMARTYR.        31 

neighbourhood  who  saw  it  or  heard  of  it  not.     There  were 
seven  brothers    and    three    sisters,  children  of  one  widow, 
in  the   city   of   Cappadocia,   of  a    noble   family.      Now  the 
mother  was  so  bitterly  irritated,  after  the  death  of  her  hus- 
band, by  one  of  her  children,  that  at  Easter-tide  she  went 
to  church,  and  would  bind  by  curses  the  son  who  had  pro- 
voked her.     She  then  met  a  devil  in  man's  i,'uise,  who  in- 
quired whither  she  was  going.     Tbe  poor  woman  answered 
and   said,  tiiat   she   would   go  to  church  and  curse  the  son 
who  had  provoked  her.     Then   answered  the  devil  in  human 
form,  "  Right  thou  wilt  do  and  well,   if  thou  curscst  all  tliy 
children  together;  for  they  all  stood  present,  when  the  one 
reviled  thee,  and  would  not  defend  thee  against  their  brother  ; 
nor  lamented  they  thy  injury  :  curse  them  altogether."    The 
poor  woman  followed  his  barbarous  counsel,  and  was  troubled 
with  greater  frenzy.     She  then  went  to  the  font-vessel,  and 
loosened  her  hair,  and  dipt  it  into  the  font,  and  with  great 
fury  sinfully  curbed  all  her  children.    After  this  she  returned 
home,  and  found  all  her  children  (juaking  with  immense  tor- 
ments in  every  limb.      riien  was  she  penetrated  with  great 
sorrow  for  having  perpetrated  so  great  a  crime  ;  and  went 
and  hung  herself  in  the  halter,  that  she  had  spvm  with  her 
feet.     Verily  the  same  devil  who  had  ere  instigated  her  to 
the  wicked  cursing,  afterwards  seduced  her  to  her  own  hang- 
ing. 

The  poor  children  then  for  shame  could  no  longer  remain 
in  the  city,  on  account  of  the  h«)rrible  (piaking,  but  went 
wandering  over  all  the  Roman  dominion.  Two  of  these  came 
to  us,  brother  and  sister,  Paul  and  Palladia,  noted  for  their 
misery.  Thev  came  two  weeks  before  Easter,  and  daily  visited 
the  holy  church,  in  which  was  the  memorial  of  the  glorious 
Stephen,  prayitig  that  he  would  reconcile  God  to  them,  and 
give  them  their  former  health.  Then  on  the  Easter-day  they 
went,  as  they  were  wont,  to  the  church,  and  the  brother 
prayed  at  the  holy  relics.      He  then*  became  siiddcnlv  pro- 


3-2  NATALE  S.  STEPHANI  PROTOMARTVRIS. 

duni  gelicost  Iseg,  na  swa-^eah  cwacigeiidc,  swa  swa  him  on 
slcepe  gewunelic  wfces.  Efiie,  Sa  he  aras,  and  nateshwon  ne 
cwacode,  for^an  ^e  he  wies  gehjeled  and  stud  gesund,  sceaw- 
igende  |?a  ]7e  hiiie  sceawodon.  Eornostlice  hwa  niilite  (Sa 
forsuvvian  Godes  herunge  ?  SoSlice  seo  cyrce  wcarS  gefylled 
mid  clypungum  ^aes  blissigendan  folces,  and  hi  urnon  to  nie, 
an  aefter  anum,  ^aer  ic  inne  stet  5a  gearo  to  ganne  ;  tele  aefter 
oSrum  cydde  me  J>aet  wundorlice  Godes  tiicn,  and  ic  S^s 
niicckim  Gode  Sancode.  pa  fet  nextan  stop  inn  sc  geh;pleda 
cniht,  and  hine  to  niiinnn  cneowum  gebigde,  and  ic  iiine  to 
niinmncosse  anerde.  Ic  eode  5a  to  Godes  5eiiunge,  and  |>a"t 
folc  gebletsode,  and  him  Godes  gerihtn  dyde.  Ic  gehi5ode 
|?one  gchjelcdan  cniht  to  urum  geroorde,  and  he  us  rclite  ealle 
his  broSerlicere  and  moderhcere  yrm^e  racu.  On  ISam  5rid- 
dan  Easterlicum  dfpge  ic  bet  standan  \>ouc  geb.eledan  broker 
aetforan  ^am  folce,  and  liis  swuster  samod,  and  ic  him  rehte 
5a  race  be  endebyrdnysse.  pa^t  folc  bchcohl  pone  bro5cr 
standan  buton  fitclicere  cwucungo,  and  sco  swuster  ealhim 
limum  egeslice  cwacode.  pa  5e  bine  a»r  ne  gesawon,  and 
nyston  fram  Invilccrc  yrm5e  Godes  mihibeorttiys  hine  ge- 
hailde,  lii  militon  tocnawan  on  5aere  swuster  bifunge. 

pa  bet  ic  aefter  tStcre  gereccednysse  in  h\\c«tlnvega  ufor 
gan ;  and  ic  ougann  be  ^am  cu5an  intiiigan  liwfethwega 
geornlicor  smeagan.  Efne  5a  faerlice  wurdon  gehyrede  o5re 
clypunga  niwre  blisse  of  )?a?s  martyres  gemynde,  and  pa^t 
folc  beah  ^yderweard.  Seo  cwacigende  swuster  code  of  5am 
stffipum,  ]^e  heo  on  astod,  to  5am  halgan  cy5ere,  wolde  hi 
gebiddan,  and  heo  ^ferrihte,  swa  heo  j^aet  gesceot  hrepode, 
laeg  swilce  heo  mid  slaepe  fornumen  waere,  and  aras  si55an 
hal.  paet  folc  5a  mid  miceh'e  faegnunge,  and  singalre  herunge, 
hi  gelaeddon  to  ^aere  stowe  paer  heo  lytle  aer  cwacigende  stod, 
and  micclum  faegnodon  j;aet  heo  vvaes  J>am  bre5er  gelic,  5am 
■5e  heo  hwene  ter  ^urh  '5a  egeslican    bifunge  ungelic  wees. 


THE  NATIVITY  OF  ST.  STEPHEN,  PROTOMARTYR.        33 

strated,  and  lay  most  like  to  one  sleeping-,  yet  not  quaking, 
as  was  usual  with  him  in  sleep.  Lo,  he  then  arose,  and 
quaked  not  at  all,  for  he  was  healed  and  stood  sound,  looking 
on  those  who  looked  on  him.  Who  could  then  refrain  from 
uttering  the  praise  of  God  ?  Verily  the  church  was  filled 
with  the  exclamations  of  the  rejoicing  people,  and  they  rati 
in  to  me,  one  after  another,  where  I  was  sitting,  ready  to  go ; 
each  after  other  declared  to  me  the  wonderful  nnracle  of 
God,  and  I  greatly  thanked  (jod  f(»r  it.  At  last  in  slept  the 
healed  youth,  and  howed  himself  to  niv  knees,  and  I  raised 
him  to  my  kiss.  I  went  then  to  God's  ministry,  and  hlessed 
the  people,  and  celehrated  God's  rites  hefore  them.  I  in- 
vited the  healed  ytuith  to  our  refection,  and  he  related  to  us 
all  the  history  of  his  fraternal  and  maternal  misery.  On  the 
third  Easter-day,  I  desired  the  healed  hrother  to  stand  hefore 
the  people,  and  his  sister  with  him,  and  I  recounted  to  them 
the  story  from  heginning  to  end.  The  people  heheld  the 
hrother  standing  without  the  horrible  (juaking,  and  the  sister, 
ill  all  her  limbs,  ([uaked  dreadfully.  Those  who  had  not  seen 
him  before,  aiul  knew  not  from  what  misery  God's  mercy 
had  healed  him,  they  might  know  it  by  the  trembling  of  the 
sister. 

After  the  narrative,  1  bade  them  go  a  little  higher,  and  I 
begati  to  iiKjuire  somewhat  more  diligently  concerning  this 
notable  matter.  Behold  then  suddenly  other  exclamations  of 
new  joy  were  heard  from  the  martyr's  memorial,  and  the  people 
bent  their  course  thitherwards.  The  (juaking  sister  had  gone 
from  the  steps  on  which  she  had  stood  to  the  holy  martyr,  she 
wished  to  pray,  and  straightways,  as  she  touched  the  railing, 
she  lay  as  if  she  had  been  seized  with  sleej),  and  afterwards 
rose  up  hale.  The  people  then,  with  great  rejoicing  and  in- 
cessant praise,  led  her  to  the  place  where  a  little  before  she 
had  stood  (juaking,  and  greatly  rejoiced  that  she  was  like  to 
her  brother,  to  whom  a  short  time  previously,  through  that 
dreadful  trembling,  she  was  unlike.     All  then  together  re- 

iiOM.  yoL.  11.  u 


34  NATALE  S.  STEPHAM  I'ROTOMARTYRIS. 

IhviBt  ^a,  ealle  saniod  blissodon  on  Godes  herungum  swa 
micclimi,  j^aet  ure  earan  earfo^lice  mihtoii  hcora  stemiie 
arsefnian.  Hwfet  wfes  on  JSfera  blissigendra  heortan  buton 
Godes  geleafa,  for  San  pe  Stcphanes  blod  agotcn  wtes  ? 
Hvvaene  niaersiaS  j^aswundra  mid  lieora  seSungc  buton  Crist, 
)7e  on  so^re  menniscnysse  geboren  wfes,  and  mid  flaesce  of 
dea^e  aras,  and  mid  flaesce  to  hcofonum  astah  r  Witodlice 
^es  halga  cy^ere  and  his  ;eftcrgcngan  waTon  gewitan  |>yscs 
geleafan,  and  Sisum  gelcafan  hi  cyddon  gecySnyssc,  ofer- 
swi^ende  |;isne  feondlican  iniddancard,  na  ongcan  foolitcndo, 
ac  sweltende. 

pes  eadiga  wcr,  Stcplianus,  pc  \vc  ymbc  sprccaS,  and  mid 
cyrclicum  Senunguni  wurJJiaS,  is  se  forma  cyScre,  J>e  iercst 
feftcr  Cristes  upstige  to  heofonan  rice  wuldorful  bcconi.  He 
filigde  Cristes  fotswaSum  swiJSe  nean,  and  his  gebysnunge 
arfjestlice  geefenhehte.  Crist  mihlheortlice  his  cwcllcrum 
to  Sam  ^Elmihtigum  F.'rdcrgcSingode,  j'aSa  he  on  rode-heng- 
ene  ahafen  wa  s,  jnis  cweSendc,  "  Min  Drihtcn,  miltsa  liim  : 
nyton  hi  hwc'pt  hi  doS."  Eft,  se  halga  Stcphanus  under  )'ani 
heardum  stanuni  his  cncowa  gcbigde,  and  for  his  staenen(hui 
slagan  ]>us  b;ed,  "  Drihten  min,  ne  sete  \>\i  him  Sas  da^da  to 
synne."  He  is  fyrmest  on  martyrdome,  and  fyrmest  on 
lareowdome,  for  San  ]>e  he  ealhnn  ey  Serum  Cristes  bysnc 
aeteowode,  betwux  Sam  he  hylt  ealdordom  a  buton  endc. 

Nis  nanum  men  al\  fed  j'lEt  lie  oSerne  wyrige,  forSan  J^e 
se  apostol  Paulus  cwyS,  j?a?t  Sa  wyrigendan  Godes  rice  ne 
geagnia^.  Ne  wyrige  nan  man  oSerne,  ne  yfeles  ne  wisce, 
J>y-l8es  ^e  he  Surh  Sa  wyriunge  his  sawle  swilce  mid  deoflicum 
rapum  gewri^,  and  Sa  wrace  Srowige  on  his  gaste  \>c  |>a't  wtf 
on  liehaman  Srowade,  ]^e  be  deofles  raede  hire  agenne  team 
mid  wyriunge  geyrmde,  and  hi  sylfe  mid  grine  acwealde. 
Gyman  ealle  fa?deras  and  moddru  ))fet  hi  heora  cild  mid 
gramlicum  wyriungum  deofle  ne  betfficon ;  and  warnian  Sa 
beam  }>ifit  hi  na^er  ne  fteder  ne  moder  mid  teonan  ne  ge- 
tyrion  to  heora  wyriungum  ;  forSan  hit  is  awriten  on  Godes 


THE  NATIVITV  OF  ST.  STEPHEN,  PROTOMARTVR.        35 

joiced  with  praises  to  God  so  greatly,  that  our  ears  might 
hardly  endure  their  voices.  What  was  in  the  heart  of  those 
rejoicing  hut  the  praise  of  God,  for  wlioni  the  hlood  of 
Stephen  had  heen  shed  ?  Whom  do  these  miracles  with  their 
confirmation  magnify,  hut  Christ,  who  was  horn  in  true 
humanity,  and  with  flesh  arose  from  death,  and  w  ith  flesh 
ascended  to  heaven  ?  Verily  the  holy  martyr  and  his  succes- 
sors were  witnesses  of  this  hclief,  and  to  this  helitf  they  hore 
testimony,  overcoming  this  hostile  world,  tiot  hy  fighting 
against  it,  but  by  dying. 

This  blessed  man,  Stephen,  concerning  whom  we  speak, 
and  with  churcli  services  honour,  is  the  earliest  martyr,  who 
first,  after  Christ's  iu*cension,  came  glorious  to  the  kingdom 
of  heaven.  lie  followed  the  footsteps  of  Christ  very  near,  and 
piously  imitated  his  example.  Christ  mercifully  interceded 
for  his  murderers  to  the  Almi^^hty  Father,  when  he  was  raised 
on  the  cross,  thus  saying,  "  My  Lord,  have  mercy  on  them  : 
thev  know  not  what  thev  do."'  Afterwar<l>  the  ludv  Stephen 
under  the  hard  stones  bowed  his  knees,  and  for  his  stoning 
slayers  thus  prayed,  *'  My  Lord,  lay  not  thc.HC  deeds  to  them 
as  sin."  He  is  fir>t  in  martyrd(»m,  and  first  in  teacher.'«hip, 
for  he  manifested  Christ's  example  to  all  martyrs,  among 
whom  he  hcdds  precedence  erer  without  end. 

It  is  permitted  to  no  man  to  curse  another,  for  the  apostle 
Paul  says,  that  the  cursers  shall  not  possess  the  kingdom  of 
God.  Let  no  man  curse  nor  wifh  evil  to  another,  lest  through 
that  cursing  he  hind  his  soul,  as  it  were,  with  devilish  ropes, 
and  sufl'er  in  his  spirit  that  penalty  which  the  woman  suflVred 
in  body,  who,  through  the  counsel  of  the  <levil,  afflicted  her 
own  family  with  cursing,  and  destroyed  herself  with  a  halter. 
Let  all  fathers  and  mothers  take  heed  that  they  with  cruel 
curses  deliver  not  their  children  to  the  devil  ;  and  let  the 
children  be  careful  not  by  contumely  to  provoke  cither  father 
or   mother  to  curse  them  ;  for   in   God's  law   it    is  written. 


36  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

fe,  "  Arwur^a  ^inne  fajder  and  ]>'me  moder,  )>8et  ]>n  lang  lif 
ofer  eorSan  wunie."  Ne  meeg  nan  man  oSerne  wyrian,  and 
him  sylfum  gebeorgan ;  ac  he  fordeS  his  agene  sa\A  Ic  mid 
)?8ere  manfullan  wyriunge,  getiniige  Sam  oSrum  swa  him  ge- 
timige.  Ure  tunge  is  gesceapen  to  Godcs  herungum,  and  to 
gesceadwisum  spreecum,  na  to  deofollicum  wyriungum.  Ne 
magon  we  mid  aninn  mu^e  blctsian  and  wyrian. 

Mine  gebro^ra,  understandaJi  pis  :  ne  slihJS  se  dcma  )>one 
forscyldgodan  sceaiSan,  ac  he  haet  his  underlSeoddan  hine 
belifian.  Witodhce  se  ^e  o^erne  wyrigS,  he  set  hine  sylfne 
to  deman,  and  God  to  slagan.  ponne  he  bitt  ]?aet  God  pone 
oSerne  fordon  sceolc,  hwiet  deS  he  bonne  baton  swilce  he 
deme,  and  God  slea  ?  Uton  boon  gemyndigc  hwjet  Driiitcn 
be  ^ysum  ta^hte  :  he  cwfeS,  "  LufiaJS  eowrc  fynd,  doiS  J?am 
tela  "Se  eow  hatiaS,  and  gebiddacS  for  eowcrum  chterum  and 
tynendum,  j'jet  ge  boon  cowrcs  Fa?der  bcarn  srbc  on  licofonum 
is."     Sy  him  wuldor  and  lof  a  on  ccnyssc.     Amen. 


VIII.  IDUS  IAN. 
SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

DES  daeg  is  gehaten  on  bocum  Swutelung-DjEG,  forSan 
pe  on  "Sisum  dtege  wearJS  Crist  mancynne  geswutclod,  merest 
^am  prym  cynegum,  ]>e  him  lac  brohton,  and  eft  gewislicor 
■SaSa  he  on  byssum  dfege  gefullod  waes. 

Se  iElmihtiga  Godes  Sunu,  paba  he  mann  beon  wolde,  ^a 
sende  he  his  bydel  toforan  him,  lohannem  pone  Fulluhtcre, 
paet  he  sceolde  Cristes  to-cyme  mannum  cyban,paet  hi,  Surh 
"bone  bydel,  gelyfdon  on  bone  godcundan  Cyning.  Se  Johan- 
nes waes  acenned  swa  swa  o^re  menn  beo^,  of  feeder  and  of 
meder,  and  wees  anfeald  man,  moere  and  gebungen,  swa  swa 
Crist  be  him  cw*^,  "  paet  on  wifa  bearnum  naPS  nan  meerra 


SERMON  OX  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  37 

"  Honour  thv  father  and  tliv  mother,  that  thou  mayest  live  a 
long  life  on  earth."  No  man  can  curse  another  and  secure 
himself;  for  he  fordoes  his  own  soul  with  that  wicked  cur- 
sing, betide  to  the  other  whatever  may  betide.  Our  tongue 
is  shapen  for  praises  of  God,  and  to  rational  speeches,  not 
for  devilish  cursinirs.  With  one  mouth  we  may  not  bless 
and  curse. 

My  brothers,  understand  this  :  the  judge  slays  not  the 
condem?ied  robber,  but  he  commands  his  sid)ordinates  to 
deprive  him  of  life.  But  he  who  curses  another  sets  himself 
up  as  judge,  and  God  as  the  slayer.  Wlicn  he  prays  that 
God  shall  fordo  the  other,  what  does  he  then  but  as  though 
lie  judges  and  (iod  slays?  Let  us  be  mindful  of  what  the 
Lord  taught  concerning  this  :  he  said,  "  Love  your  foes,  do 
good  to  those  who  hate  you,  and  pray  for  your  persecutors 
and  calumniators,  that  ye  be  children  of  your  Father  who  is 
in  heaven."  Be  to  him  glory  ami  praise  ever  to  eternity. 
Amen. 


JANUARY  VI. 
SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPNMIANV. 

THIS  day  is  called  in  books  ^L^^IFESTATIo^•-DAV,  because 
on  this  day  Christ  was  manifested  to  mankind,  first  to  the 
three  kings,  who  brought  him  gifts,  and  again,  more  espe- 
cially, when  he  on  this  day  was  baptized. 

The  Almighty  Son  of  (iod,  when  he  would  be  man,  sent 
his  proclaimer  before  him,  John  the  Baptist,  to  annoimce  the 
advent  of  Christ  to  men,  that  they,  through  that  proclaimer, 
might  believe  in  the  divine  King.  John  was  born  as  other 
men  are,  of  father  and  of  mother,  and  was  a  simple  man, 
great  and  illustrious,  as  Christ  himself  said  of  him,  "  Tliat 
among  the  children  of  women  there  was  no  greater  man  than 


38  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHAMA  DOMINI. 

mann  ]?oniie  lohannes  se  Fulluhtere."  Crist  naes  na  of  wife 
acenned,  ac  wees  of  maedene,  forSi  na^s  he  geteald  to  Syssere 
wiSmctennysse.  lohannes,  "Sat^a  he  gestiSod  wfes,  tSa  wolde 
he  forbugan  ^a  unSeawas  \>e  nienn  bcgaS,  and  ferde  "Sa  to 
westene,  and  ^fer  wunode,  oS));et  he  fulhveaxen  wtes,  and  fjaer 
swi^e  sti^lice  leofode  :  ne  dianc  he  na^or  ne  M'ln,  ne  beor, 
ne  eaUi,  ne  nan  Sfera  wietan  5e  nienn  of  (h-uncniaS  ;  ac  set 
him  ofet,  and  j^tet  ]net  he  on  \vuda  findan  niilite.  Eall  his 
reaf  wees  geworht  of  oluendcs  ha're.  pa^a  he  geSogen  wies, 
)>a  com  him  to  Godes  bcbod,  )';pt  he  sceoUle  faran  to  mannmn, 
and  bodian  fuUuht  on  synna  forgifenysse,  and  sceoklc  fulhan 
J^aet  folc  5e  liini  to  come  mid  his  iigenum  fulluhtc,  on  5am 
fuUuhte  n«'es  nan  synne  forgifcnyss  ;  and  he  gceolde  eac  cySan 
ymbe  Cristes  fulhiht,  J>e  towcard  wtes,  on  bam  "Se  beoS  calle 
synna  forgyfeiie. 

lohannes  com  "Sa,  sua  sua  him  beboden  wjrs,  to  JSare  eii 
J^e  is  gehaten  lordanis,  and  cl)  pode  to  ealhini  f(dce,  and  bus 
cvvfe^,  "  Behreowsiab  eowrc  synna,  and  wyrcab  da'dbote, 
forSan  |)e  Godes  rice  gencahehS  :"  ct  reli(iiia.  pas  word  he 
clypode  be  Criste,  forbi  j'c  Cristes  fuUuht  bwehlS  J;one  man 
aegSer  ge  utan  ge  innan  :  ]);pt  water  wibutan,  and  se  Ilalga 
Gast  wiSinnan.  lohannes  fuUuht  Swoh  ))one  mannan  wib- 
utan,  and  nan  Sing  wiSinnan,  forSi  5e  he  ne  seaUle  nane  synne 
forgifenysse,  swa  swa  Crist  dyde  ))urh  5one  Ilalgan  Gast. 

paSa  Crist  wws  j'ritig  wintra,  j?a  com  he  on  Sisuni  dtege 
to  lohannes  fulluhtc,  ict  bfere  ea  ))e  is  gehaten  lordanis,  and 
w^olde  beon  gefullod  st  his  handum.  DatSa  lohaimes  hine 
geseah  cumende  to  liim,  ]?a  cwifiS  he  be  him,  "  Her  geeS 
Godes  Lamb,  se^e  aetbryt  and  adylega^  middaneardes  synna. 
Be  "Sysum  ic  seede  eow  aer,  ^  Se  be  iefter  me  cymS,  he  is  be- 
foran  me,  forban  ^e  he  wees  eer  ic  gewurde.'  "  He  cwte^  J>a  to 
Criste,  "  La  leof,  ic  sceal  beon  gefullod  fet  ^inum  handum, 
and  ]>u  cymstto  minum  fuUuhte."  Crist  ^a  him  geandwyrde, 
"  Lffit  nil  bus,  and  gebafa  "bis  ;  swa  unc  gcdafenab,  \nBt  wit 
gefyllon  calle  rihtwisnysse."     lohannes  ba  gebafode  ]>iei  he 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  39 

John  the  Baptist."  Christ  w»as  not  of  woman  born,  but  was 
of  a  maiden,  therefore  was  he  not  reckoned  in  this  comparison. 
John,  wlien  he  was  grown  up,  would  eschew  the  vices  which 
men  commit,  and  went  to  the  wilderness,  and  there  dwelt 
until  he  was  full-grown,  and  there  lived  very  rigidly :  he 
drank  neither  wine,  nor  beer,  nor  ale,  nor  any  of  those  li(}Uors 
from  which  men  become  drunk  ;  but  ate  fruit,  and  what  he 
could  find  in  llie  wood.  All  his  raiment  was  wrought  of 
camels'  hair.  When  he  was  grown  to  maturity,  God's  com- 
mandment came  to  him,  that  he  should  go  to  men,  atid  preach 
baptism  in  forgiveness  of  sins,  and  should  bapti/e  the  people 
who  came  to  him  with  his  own  baptism,  in  which  baptism 
there  was  no  forgiveness  of  sin  ;  and  he  should  also  declare 
concerning  Christ's  baptism,  whicii  was  to  come,  iti  which 
all  sins  are  forgiven. 

John  came  then,  as  he  had  l)cen  commanded,  to  the  river 
which  is  called  Jordan,  and  cried  to  all  the  people,  and  thus 
said,  *'  lli'pent  your  sins,  and  do  penance,  for  the  kingdom 
of  God  draweth  near,"  etc.  These  words  he  cried  of  Christ, 
because  Christ's  baptism  washes  the  man  Ivith  without  and 
within  :  the  water  without,  and  the  IIol\  Ghost  within. 
John's  baptism  washed  the  man  without,  and  not  within,  for 
ho  gave  no  forgiveness  of  sin,  as  Christ  did  through  the 
Holy  (ihost. 

AVIien  Cliri^t  was  thirty  years  old,  he  came  on  this  day  to 
John's  baptism,  at  the  river  which  is  called  .Jordan,  ajid 
would  be  baptized  at  his  hands,  ^Vhen  John  saw  him  coming 
to  him,  he  said  of  him,  "  Here  cometh  the  Lamb  of  God, 
who  takcth  away  and  extirpateth  the  sins  of  the  world.  Of 
this  one  I  said  to  \f)U  before,  *  He  who  cometh  after  me  is 
before  me,  for  he  was  before  I  was.'  "  He  then  said  to  Christ, 
"  ()  beloved,  I  should  be  baptized  at  thy  hands,  and  tlio\i 
comest  to  my  baptism."  Christ  then  answered  him,  "SulTer 
it  now  thus,  and  consent  to  this  ;  so  it  befittcth  us  to  fulfil 
all  righteousness."     John  then  consented  tr)  baptize  Christ, 


40  SElliMO  IX  AEPIPHAXIA  DOMINI. 

Crist  gefuUode.  pa^a  he  gefullod  wfes,  )?a  wearci  seo  heofon 
geopenod  biifon  his  heafde,  and  Godcs  Gast  com  on  anre 
culfran  hiwe,  and  gesfet  bufon  Criste ;  and  |>ces  Fflpder  stemn 
clypode  of  heofonuni,  and  }ms  cwee^,  "  pes  is  niin  leofa  Sunn, 
and  he  me  wel  licaS." 

Her  sind  hranllice  gestede  micele  Codes  wundra,  and  we 
behofia'5  J>aet  we  wtsra  lareou  a  trahtnunga  be  Sisum  "Singum 
understandan.  lohannos  cwa^S  be  Criste,  j^iet  he  ware  Codes 
Lamb,  seSe  fetbrude  middaneardes  synna.  God  sette  on 
Saere  ealdan  te,  and  het  ninian  anes  geares  himb  set  felcum 
hiwisce,  and  snician  on  Easter-tide,  and  wyrcan  mid  j^aes 
himbes  blodc  rode-tacn  on  heora  gedyrum,  and  on  oferslegum, 
and  braedan  |>a't  liimb,  and  hit  swa  ^icgan  ;  gif  JJajr  hwjjet 
laefde,  forba'rnan  :  and  ht  wjeron  5a  jnirh  \r.vt  gebletsode  and 
gescyhle  wiJS  deofol.  pis  nis  nu  alyfed  nanum  men  to  donne, 
forSan  <Se  ]>iea  himbes  siege  getacnode  Cristes  sk*ge.  He  no 
wiSerode  ongean,  ne  ne  fealit  )'e  swi5or  ]>e  himb  deS,  ac  ge- 
■Safode  swibe  geJSyldelice  pa^t  he  wa;re  geofTrod  for  ealles 
middaneardes  symmm  ;  forSi  buton  he  JSrowode  for  us,  ne 
mihte  ure  nan  cuman  to  Godcs  rice. 

Criste  wolde  beon  gcfuUod,  na  forJSi  Se  him  neod  Wccre 
{finiges  fuUuhtcs,  forSi  «Se  he  nwfre  nane  synne  ne  geworhte, 
ac  he  wokle  mid  his  eadmodnysse  astellan  5a  bysne,  j^aet  nan 
cyniiig  ne  nan  rice  man  ne  sceolde  jnncan  to  huxlic  ]>iBt  he 
gebugc  to  Cristes  fuHuhte,  )>a5a  he  sylf  gemedcmode  j^tet  he 
wolde  gebigan  his  halige  heafod  to  his  Seowan  handum.  Da- 
"Sa  he  into  5am  waitere  code,  "Sa  waes  jjset  waiter  and  ealle 
wyll-springas  gchalgode  ]nirh  Cristes  lichaman  to  urum  ful- 
lulite.  Micel  vvaes  Cristes  eadmodnys,  "SaSa  he  com  sylf  to 
"Sam  Fulluhtere;  and  micel  waes  lohannes  eadmodnys,  5aSa 
he  ne  dorste  Crist  gefuUian,  aer^an  ^e  he  gehaten  Wres ;  ac 
forSi  ]?e  nan  eadmodnys  nis  fulfremed,  buton  hire  gefera  beo 
gehyrsunmys,  ]>n  gefylde  heeadmodlice  piet  ]>iet  he  terwi5s6c 
forhtigende.    Se  ILelcnd  cwaeS,  "GcSafa  j'^et  ic  beo  gefullod 


SERMON  OX  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  41 

When  he  had  been  baptized,  the  heaven  was  opened  above 
his  head,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  came  in  the  form  of  a  dove, 
and  sat  above  Christ ;  and  the  voice  of  the  Father  cried  from 
heaven,  and  thus  said,  "  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  and  he  well 
plcaseth  me." 

Here  great  wonders  of  God  are  (juickly  said,  and  it  be- 
hoves us  to  understand  the  commentaries  of  wise  instructors 
concerning  these  things.  John  said  of  Christ  that  he  was  the 
Lamb  of  God,  who  should  take  away  the  sins  of  the  world. 
God  appointed  in  the  old  law  and  commanded  a  lamb  of  one 
year  to  be  takt-n  of  every  family,  and  slain  on  Easter-tide, 
and  to  make  with  the  blood  of  the  lamb  the  sign  of  the  cross 
on  their  door-posts  and  on  the  lintels,  and  roast  the  lamb,  and 
so  eat  it ;  if  there  were  any  left,  to  burn  it :  and  they  wore  then 
blessed  through  tbat,  and  ^liicldrd  against  the  devil.  Tiiis  is 
not  allowed  now  to  anv  ukui  to  do,  because  the  slaving  of  the 
lamb  betokened  the  slaying  of  Christ.  He  resisted  not,  nor 
fought  more  than  a  lamb  dots,  but  consented  very  patiently 
to  be  sacrificed  for  the  sins  of  all  the  world  :  because,  unless 
he  had  sufTered  for  us,  none  of  us  could  come  to  the  kingdom 
of  God. 

Christ  would  be  baptized,  not  because  he  needed  any  bap- 
tism, for  he  had  never  wrought  any  sin,  l)\it  he  would  by  his 
humility  set  the  example,  that  no  king  nor  powerful  man 
should  think  it  too  degrading  to  submit  to  Christ's  baptism, 
when  he  himself  vouchsafed  to  bow  his  holy  head  to  the  hands 
of  his  servant.  AVhen  he  went  into  the  water,  then  was  that 
water  and  all  well-springs  hallowed  1)\  Christ's  body  to  our 
baptism.  Great  M-as  Christ's  humility,  when  he  himself  came 
to  the  Baptist  ;  and  great  was  the  humility  of  John,  when  he 
durst  not  baptize  Christ,  ere  he  was  commanded  ;  but  because 
no  humility  is  perfect,  unless  its  companion  be  obedience,  he 
then  performed  humbly  that  which  he  had  before  refused  from 
fear.     Jesus  said,  "  Consent  that  I  be  baptized  at  thy  hands 


42  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

fet  ■Sinum  handum  on  wsetere,  and  5u  sibSan,  swa  swa  ^u 
gewilnast,  beo  eet  minum  handum  gcfullod  \>\irh  bone  Halgan 
Gast  :  swa  wit  sceolon  gefyllan  ealle  rihtwisnysse;"  )'<et  is 
•Sa  soban  eadmodnysse. 

Heofonas  weeron  geopcnodc  bufon  Cristc,  baSa  he  gcfullod 
w«es,  and  him  to  com  se  Halga  Gast.  ^Efre  him  waeron 
heofonas  geopenode,  and  wfre  him  waes  se  Ilalga  Gast  mid- 
wunigende  :  ac  ]>'ceX  getaciiab  ]?{Et  us  bib  gcopcnod  heofonan 
rice  sefter  urum  fulluhte,  and  se  Ilalga  Gast,  purli  his  gife, 
onbryrt  ure  mod  to  telccre  godnyssc,  gif  we  hine  ne  drifab 
fram  us  mid  yfclum  weorcum. 

Pier  com  ^a  stemn  )>h^s  Feeder  of  hcofoinun,  buscwebende, 
"Des  is  min  leofa  Sunu,  be  me  wel  licab."  Sob  is  ]fiet  se 
seahn-wyrlita  to  Gode  gecwjeb,  "  Drihten,  bine  gecj-^bnyssa 
sindon  swibe  gelcaflicc."  II u  niihte  bcon  marc  gocybnys  be 
Criste  ];onne  bier  gcdon  wies  ?  pivv  stod  se  Suiui  on  bfere 
menniscnyssc,  and  se  Feeder  clypode  of  hcofonum,  and  se 
Halga  Gast  nibcr  astah  to  Cristc.  pair  wfes  ba  eal  sco  Ilaligc 
Drynnys,  seobe  is  an  God  untodadcdlic.  Se  Fanlcr  nis  of 
nanum  obrum  gecumcn,  ac  he  wsrs  iefrc  God.  Se  Sunu  is  of 
"bam  Fieder  call  ]nct  lie  is,  na  gcworht  ne  gesceapen,  ac  acen- 
ned  ffifre  of  bam  Fa^der,  for|;an  be  he  is  ^ffis  Feeder  Wisdom, 
J?urh  "bone  he  geworhte  calle  gesccafta.  Se  Ilalga  Gast  is 
Lufu  and  Willa  )'a^s  Ffcdcr  and  ]>ies  Sana  ;  and  hi  siiuloii  ealle 
gelice  mihtigc,  and  icfre  hi  bry  an  God  untodicledlic  :  ]u-y  on 
liadum,  and  an  on  Godcundnysse,  and  on  gecynde,  and  on 
eallum  weorcum.  Ne  trucab  hcora  nan  ana  burh  unmihte, 
ac  "burh  gecynde  anre  Godcundnysse  hi  wyrca^  ealle  aefre  an 
weorc.  Nis  na  se  Feeder  mid  jjsere  menniscnyssc  befangen, 
ne  se  Halga  Gast,  ac  se  Sunu  una  ;  beah-hwsebere  hi  ealle 
"bry  ]78et  gera^ddon  and  gefremodonj  )?aet  se  Sunu  ana  p»a  men- 
niscnyssc undcrfeng. 

Lytel  wses  se  Halga  Gast  gebuht,  ^a(Sa  he  waes  gesewen 
on  anre  culfran  anlicnyssc,  ac  hwae^ere  he  is  swa  micel  pact 
he  is  .Elmihtig  God,  and  he  gefylb  ]?urh  hine  sylfne  ealle  ^as 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  43 

in  water,  and  be  thou  afterwards,  as  thou  desirest,  baptized 
at  my  hands  through  the  Holy  Ghost :  so  wc  sliall  fulfil  all 
righteousness;"  that  is  the  true  huuiility. 

The  heavens  were  opened  above  Christ,  when  he  was  bap- 
tized, and  the  Holy  Ghost  came  to  him.  Ever  were  the 
heavens  opened  to  him,  and  ever  was  lie  co-existing  with  the 
Holy  Ghost  :  but  that  betokens  to  us  that  the  kingdom  of 
heaven  will  be  opened  to  us  after  our  baptism,  and  the  Holy 
Ghost,  through  his  grace,  will  stinmlate  our  minds  to  every 
goodness,  if  we  drive  him  not  from  us  with  evil  works. 

There  came  then  the  Father's  voice  fr»)m  heaven,  thus  say- 
ing, "  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  who  well  pleaseth  me."  True 
is  that  which  the  psalmist  said  to  (lod,  "  Lord,  thy  testi- 
monies are  very  faithful."  How  couUl  there  be  a  greater 
testimony  of  Christ  than  was  there  given  ?  There  stood  the 
Son  in  human  nature,  and  the  Father  cried  from  heaven,  and 
the  Holy  Ghost  descended  to  Christ.  There  was  then  all  the 
Holy  Trinity,  which  is  one  God  indivisible.  The  Father  is 
not  come  of  any  other,  for  he  was  ever  (lod.  The  Son  is  of 
the  Father  all  that  he  is,  neither  made  nor  created,  but  ever 
born  of  the  Father;  for  he  is  the  ^Visdom  of  the  Father, 
through  whom  he  made  all  creatures.  The  Holy  Ghost  is 
the  Love  and  Will  of  the  Father  and  nf  the  Son  ;  and  they 
arc  all  alike  mighty,  and  those  three  ever  one  God  indivisi- 
ble :  three  in  persons,  and  one  in  Godhead,  and  in  nature, 
and  in  all  works.  Not  one  of  them  fails  alone  through  weak- 
ness, but  through  the  nature  of  one  Go<ihcad  they  all  work 
ever  one  work.  The  Father  is  not  invested  with  humanity, 
nor  the  Holy  Ghost,  but  the  Son  only  ;  nevertheless  they  all 
counselled  and  efTected,  that  the  Son  alone  should  assume 
humanity. 

Little  did  the  Holy  Ghost  seem,  Mhen  he  appeared  in  the 
likeness  of  a  dove,  but  yet  he  is  so  great  that  he  is  Almighty 
God,  and  he  fills  of  him>elf  all  this  world,  as  it  is  written  of 


44  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

woruld,  swa  swa  be  him  awriten  is,  "  Godes  Gast  gcfylS 
ealre  eor^an  ymbhwyrft,"  ^Efter  Cristas  browuuge  and  his 
upstige,  com  se  Halga  Gast  bufan  bam  apostohim  on  fyres 
hivve,  and  )?set  htis  call  gefylde  mid  fyre,  ^ter  Saer  hi  inne 
Scieton,  swilce  hiteal  burne  ;  and  se  Ilalga  Gast  5a  heora  ealra 
mod,  ]?e  ^ffir-inne  wseron,  |>fet  sindon,  an  hund  manna  and 
tvventig  manna,  swa  onbryrdc  and  ona-lde,  j^a^t  hi  cubon  tele 
gereoid  \>e  on  middanearde  is,  and  hi  burh  Sone  lialgan  Gast 
ealle  ^a  bee  and  ^one  wisdom  awriton  and  asctton  be  Godes 
]?eowas  rseda^  geond  calle  ^as  wornld  ;  and  hi  \\  ;eron  swa 
gehyrte,  ]>fEt  hi  him  ne  ondredon  nabor  ne  hfebenra  cyninga 
|?eowraean,  ne  nanes  cynnes  pinunga,  ac  cpfre  hi  bodedon  )>am 
folce  rihtiie  gclcafan,  and  Godes  m<£rba,  and  his  mildlicort- 
nysse,  ob  heora  lifes  geendunge. 

liwT  com  se  Ilalga  Gast  ba  on  fyres  hiwe  ofer  bam  apo- 

stolon,  and  ofer  Criste  on  his  fulhihte  on  culfran  gclicnysse  ? 

Nis  ■bees  Ilalgan  Gastes  gecynd  oj'j'c  micehiyss  on  bam  hTwe 

wmiigcnde  be  he  ba  on  gesewen  wa^s,  ac  he  com  ofer  Criste 

on  culfran  hiwe,  forbi  ])iei  he  wolde  getacnian  mid  )>am  \net 

Crist  waes  on  bijere  menniscnysse  swibe  libe  and  uiihearm- 

georn.     He  ne  cidde,  ne  he  ne  lirymde  betwux  mannum,  ne 

he  sace  ne  astyrede,  ne  he  biterwyrde  n;es ;  ac  mid  ealre  lib- 

nysse  and  sobre  lufe  he  drohtnodeon  bisum  life.     We  nedab 

on  bocum  be  "baere  culfran  gccynde,  ]npX  heo  is  swibe  gesibsum 

fugel,  and  unsciebbig,  and  buton  geallan,  and  unrebe  on  hire 

clawuni ;    ne  heo  ne  leofab  be  wyrmum,  ac   be   eorblicum 

waestmum.     For  bjere  unsctebbignysse  waes  se  Halga  Gast 

asteowed  bufon  Criste  on  j^aes  fugeles  hiwe.    pa  apostoli  wteron 

gecorene  and  gesette  lareowas  eallum  mancynne  ;  ]n\  com  se 

Halga  Gast  ofer  him  on  fyres  hiwe,  to  ^i  ]?aet  hi  sceoldon 

beon  byrnende  and  caue  to  Godes  willan,  and  forniman  aelcne 

un^eaw  mid  heora  lare,  swa  swa  fyr  fornimb  swa  hwaet  swa 

him  to  cym^. 

On  twam  hiwum  waes  se  Halga  Gast  aeteowed,  on  culfran 
and  on  fyres,  for  J^am  getacnungum  ^e  aelc  cristen  man  hab- 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  45 

him,  "  The  Spirit  of  God  fillelh  the  circumference  of  all  the 
earth."  After  Clirist's  passion  and  liis  ascension,  the  Holy 
Ghost  came  over  the  apostles  in  form  of  fire,  and  filled  all 
the  house  with  fire,  where  they  sat  within,  so  that  it  all 
burned  ;  and  the  Holy  Ghost  tiien  so  stinndated  and  fired 
the  minds  of  all  those  who  sat  therein,  that  is,  one  hundred 
and  twenty  men,  that  they  knew  every  tongue  which  is  in 
the  world,  and,  through  the  Holy  (ihost,  they  wrote  aiul 
establisiied  all  the  books  and  the  wisdom  which  God's  ser- 
vants read  throughout  all  this  world  ;  and  they  were  so 
animated  that  they  dreaded  neither  the  threats  of  heathen 
kings,  nor  torments  of  any  kind,  hut  they  ever  preached  to 
the  people  right  belief,  and  the  glories  of  God,  and  his  mercy, 
to  their  life's  end. 

Why  came  the  Holy  Ghost  then  in  form  of  fire  over  the 
apostles,  and  over  Christ  at  his  baptism  in  likeness  of  a  dove  ? 
The  nature  and  greatness  of  the  Holy  Ghost  are  not  dwelling 
in  the  form  in  uliicli  he  was  then  seen,  but  he  came  over 
Christ  in  the  form  of  a  dove,  because  he  uould  thereby  be- 
token that  Christ  in  his  humanity  wa>  very  meek  and  harm- 
less. He  eluded  not,  nor  cried  he  among  nu  n,  nor  stirred 
he  up  strife,  nor  was  he  inclined  to  bitterness  ;  but  with  all 
meekness  and  true  love  he  lived  in  this  life.  We  read  in 
books  on  the  nature  of  tlic  dove,  that  it  is  a  very  peaceful 
and  innocent  bird,  ami  without  gall,  and  not  fierce  with  its 
claws  ;  nor  lives  it  on  worms,  but  on  earthly  fruits.  For  its 
innocence  the  Holy  Ghost  appeared  above  Christ  in  the  form 
of  that  bird.  The  apostles  were  chosen  aiul  appointed  teach- 
ers to  all  mankind  ;  therefore  came  the  Holy  Ghost  over  them 
in  form  of  fire,  to  the  end  that  they  might  be  ardent  ami 
prompt  for  God's  will,  and  consume  every  vice  with  their  lore, 
as  fire  consumes  whatsoever  comes  to  it. 

In  two  forms  the  Holy  Ghost  appeared,  in  a  dove's  and  in 
that  of  fire,  for  the  qualities  tiiat  every  christian  man  shall 


46  SERMO  IN  AEPIPIIANIA  DOMINI. 

ban  sceal,  J^aet  is,  ]fpet  he  hfebbe  bilewitnysse  ^aere  culfran, 
and  hsebbe  so^e  sibbe  to  cristenum  mannum,  and  beo  butan 
biternysse,  swa  swa  seo  culfre  is  buton  geallan,  and  ne  be- 
gange  nan  reaflac,  ne  naiies  marines  ne  ehte,  5e  uia  ]>e  seo 
culfre  de^.  Beo  he  eac  onbryrd  and  byrncnde  on  Godes  lufe 
swa  swa  fyr,  j^aet  he  celc  yfel  on  him  sylfum  adwiesce,  and 
eac  on  o^rum,  ]?sev  ^ter  he  mseg ;  and  gemetegie  J?ifit  fyr  "5a 
bilewitnysse,  )?ffit  heo  to  slcac  ne  sy  ;  and  eft  gcteniprie  seo 
bilewitnys  )jcfit  fyr,  )j?p,t  hit  to  re^e  ne  sy. 

Same  men  sind  ge<Suhte  bilcwite,  ac  hi  sind  sleace  :  hi  sind 
gescwene  mid  liSnysse,  ac  heora  liSnys  is  so^lice  asolcennys 
and  nytennys  ;  ac  se  man  (Se  n;efb  Godes  Gast  on  him,  he 
nis  na  Godes.  Se  ^e  facn  lufaJS,  and  smeaS  hu  he  mage  him 
sylfum  gestrynan  and  na  Godc,  luefS  he  na  culfran  JScawas, 
ac  haefS  ]>a?s  blacan  hrcmmes.  Se  be  rcaflac  lufaiS,  he  biS 
glida,  and  na  culfre.  05re  lytle  fugelas  sind  la^ssan  )>onne 
heo  sy,  and  hwa'bere  lu  ofsleaS  sum  Sing,  huru  5as  fleogan  ; 
ne  de^  seo  culfre  na  swa,  ne  Icofab  heo  be  nanuin  deaSe. 
Mare  we  mihton  sprccan  be  Sjere  culfran  gccynde,  gif  hit  to 
langsum  neere.  Uton  habhan  jegScr  ge  b«re  culfran  unscfe^- 
Signysse  and  ^les  fyrcs  bryne,  ]>iPt  we  bcon  ;pfrc  .scinendc  on 
bilewitnysse,  and  wcallendc  on  Godes  lare. 

lu  wieron  sume  gcdwolmen  ]>c  cvvaedon  )>aet  lohanncs  ful- 
luht  Wcpre  mare  and  betere  Sonne  'Sis  fulluht  sy  |;e  nu  stent 
on  Godes  cyrcan,  for<Si  Jwt  Crist  waes  gefullod  on  lohannes 
fulluhte ;  ac  hi  dwelodon  mid  jnere  spraece.  Nfes  nan  synne 
forgifenys  on  lohannes  fulluhte ;  on  urum  fulluhte  beo^  ealle 
synna  adylegode.  HwT  Sonne  fullode  lohannes  ?  For^i  jjaet 
he  sceolde  Crist  fullian,  seSe  ne  behofode  nanre  synne  for- 
gifenysse.  Hwi  fullode  he  a  ma  manna  );onne  Crist  £enne  ? 
ForSi  ]>ddt  we  ne  sceoldon  wenan  J^aet  his  fulluht  W{ere  swa 
god,  J>tet  nan  man  ne  moste  beon  on  ^am  gefullod  buton  Crist 
ana.  Hwanon  com  lohanne  ])xt  fulluht  ?  Fram  Criste. 
Ealle  -Sing  sind  purh  Crist  geworhte.  SoSlice  swa  swa  he 
gesceop  his  agene  moder  Marian,  and  si^tJan  wa?s  geboren  of 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  47 

have  ;  that  is,  that  he  have  the  meekness  of  the  dove,  and 
have  true  peace  towards  christian  men,  and  be  without  bitter- 
ness, as  the  dove  is  without  gall,  and  commit  no  rapine,  nor 
persecute  any  man,  any  more  than  the  dove  does.  Be  he  also 
stimuhited  and  burning  for  love  of  God  as  fire,  that  he  may 
extinguish  every  evil  in  himself  and  also  in  others,  whereso- 
ever he  may  ;  and  let  the  fire  regulate  the  meekness,  that  it  be 
not  too  slack  ;  and  again  let  the  meekness  temper  the  fire, 
that  it  be  not  too  fierce. 

Some  men  are  thought  meek,  bvit  they  are  slack  :  they 
appear  with  mildness,  but  their  mildness  is  in  sooth  sloth 
and  ignorance  ;  but  the  man  who  has  not  the  Spirit  of  God 
in  him  is  not  of  God.  He  who  loves  guile,  and  devises  how 
he  may  gain  for  himself  and  not  for  God,  has  not  the  (juali- 
ties  of  the  dove,  but  has  those  of  the  black  raven.  lie  who 
loves  rapine  is  a  kite,  and  not  a  dove.  There  are  other  little 
l)irds  less  than  it,  and  yet  they  slay  something,  flics  at  least ; 
the  dove  docs  not  so,  it  lives  by  no  death.  More  could  we 
say  of  the  dove's  nature,  if  it  were  not  too  longs(»mc.  Let 
us  have  both  the  innocence  of  the  dove  and  the  heat  of  the 
fire,  that  we  may  be  ever  shining  in  meekness,  and  burning 
^vith  the  lore  of  God. 

Formerly  there  were  some  heretics  who  said,  that  John's 
baptism  was  greater  and  better  than  this  baptism  is  which 
now  stands  in  God's  church,  because  Christ  was  baptized 
with  John's  baptism  ;  but  they  erred  with  that  speech. 
There  was  no  forgiveness  of  sin  in  John's  baptism  :  in  our 
baptism  all  sins  are  extirpated.  Why  then  did  John  bai)tize  ? 
Because  he  should  baptize  Christ,  who  needed  no  forgiveness 
of  sin.  "Why  did  he  ever  baptize  more  men  than  Christ 
only  r  Because  we  might  not  imagine  that  his  baptism  was 
so  good,  that  no  man  might  be  baptized  by  it  save  Christ 
only.  Whence  came  baptism  to  John  ?  From  Christ.  All 
things  are  wrought  through  Christ.  Verily  as  he  created 
his  own  mother  Mary,  and  was  afterwards  born  of  her,  so 


48  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

hire,  swa  eac  he  forgeaf  j'fet  fulhiht  lohanne,  and  wies  eft 
gefullod  a^t  lohanne.  Naes  nanum  men  forgifen  ])iet  he  nioste 
habban  o^Se  gecwe^an  his  agen  fulhibt  buton  lohanne  annm, 
and  for^i  he  is  gebaten  lohannes  se  Fulhihtere.  Hwilc  ful- 
luht  sealde  he  ?  His  agen  fulluht,  on  nanre  sj'iine  forgife- 
nysse,  ac  to  behreowsunge,  and  gearcunge  to  Cristes  fuHuhte. 
pa  men  ]>e  lohannes  fulk)de,  j^a  wa^ron  eft  gcfuUodc  on 
Cristes  fulhihtc,  forSan  "5e  hi  nc  inihton  beon  gehealdene  |>iirh 
loliannes  fulhihte.  Ilwilc  is  ure  fulhilit  ]>e  we  beoJS  on  ge- 
fuHode  ?  Ic  cwe^e,  Cristes  fulluht.  Fcawa  manna  Crist 
sylf  gefidlode,  ac  he  forgeaf  bone  anweald  iiis  apostolon,  and 
eallum  gehadcdum  mainium,  )';et  hi  sceoldon  fidlian  mid 
Godes  fulhihtc,  on  naman  Sjerc  Ilalgan  Drynnysse;  and  swa 
gefullod  mann  ne  bco  na  eft  olSre  siSe  gefullod,  )'a't  ne  sy 
forsewen  |?{ere  Ilalgan  Drynnysse  to-clypuug. 

Same  lareowas  sindon  beteran  Sonne  sume,  swa  swa  wapron 
}?a  apostoli ;  sunie  sind  waccran,  swa  swa  we  beoS  ;  nis  hwfp- 
iSere  forbi  |wt  fidluht,  ^e  we  nu  mid  fulliaiS,  mislic,  \)iet  is, 
na^or  ne  betere  ne  MTrse  )>urh  urum  geearnungum,  forban  Se 
]78et  fulluht  nis  nanes  mannes,  ac  is  Cristes,  seSc  «efre  is  god, 
)?eah  iSe  we  wace  sindon.  peah  Se  hwa  wiSsace  Crist  fcftcr 
his  fulluhte,  o^Se  heafod-leahtras  gewyrce,  ne  Scarf  he  beon 
eft  gefullod,  ac  he  sceal  his  synna  bcwepan,  and  mid  soSre 
behreowsunge  gebetan,  wftcr  wfsra  liircowa  ticcungc  ;  and  lie 
hsef^  ponne  Godes  rice. 

preo  healice  Sing  gesette  God  mamnini  to  cla^nsunge  :  an 
1 1  is  fulluht,  oSer  is  husel-halgung,  ))riddc  is  dredbot,  mid  ge- 
swicennysse  yfelra  dieda,  and  mid  bigencge  godra  weorca. 
pffit  fulluht  us  a|nvehS  fram  eallum  synnum,  se  husel-gang 
us  gehalga^,  seo  so^e  dfedbot  gehwlS  ure  misdfeda.  Godes 
"Scow,  seSe  had  underfehS,  sceal  beon  on  Sa  wison  gelogod 
])e  God  tffihte,  and  swa  swa  i5a  waeron  "Se  Godes  gelaSunge 
ffirest  gesta^elodon.  DoS  swa  swa  Crist  taehte.  Gif  se 
lareow  riht  taece,  do  gehwa  swa  swa  he  taec^  ;  and  gif  he  yfel 
bysnige,  ne  do  ge  na  be  his  gebysnungum,  ac  doS  swa  swa 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  49 

also  he  gave  baptism  to  John,  and  was  afterwards  baptized 
by  John.  To  no  man  was  it  granted  to  have  or  announce 
liis  own  baptism,  save  to  John  only,  and  therefore  he  is  called 
John  the  Baptist.  What  baptism  did  he  give?  His  own 
baptism,  with  no  forgiveness  of  sin,  but  for  repentance  and 
a  preparation  to  the  baptism  of  Christ.  Those  men  whom 
John  baptized  were  baptized  again  in  Christ's  baptism,  i)e- 
cause  they  could  not  be  saved  through  the  baptism  of  John. 
\Vhich  is  our  baptism  in  which  we  are  baptized  ?  I  say, 
Christ's  baptism.  Christ  himself  baptized  few  men,  but  he 
gave  the  power  to  his  apostles  and  to  all  ordained  men  t^ 
baptize  with  Ciod's  bai)tism,  in  the  name  of  the  Holy  Trinity  ; 
and  let  not  a  man  so  baptized  be  afterwards  a  second  time 
baptized,  that  the  invocation  of  the  Holy  Ghost  be  not  con- 
tenmed. 

Some  teachers  are  better  than  others,  as  were  the  apostles  ; 
some  are  weaker,  as  we  are ;  yet  the  baptism  with  which  we 
baptize  is  not  on  that  account  different,  that  is,  neither  better 
nor  worse,  throvigh  our  merits,  because  baptism  is  of  no  man, 
l)ut  ih  of  Christ,  who  is  ever  good,  though  wc  are  weak. 
Though  any  one  deny  Christ  after  his  baptism,  or  perpetrate 
deadly  sins,  he  need  not  be  again  baptized  ;  but  he  shall 
bewail  his  sins,  and  with  true  repentatjcc  atone  for  them, 
according  to  the  teaching  of  wise  doctors  ;  and  he  shall  then 
have  God's  kingdom. 

Throe  ])rincipal  things  God  has  appointed  to  men  for  puri- 
fication :  one  is  baptism,  the  second  is  housel,  the  third  is 
penance,  with  cessation  from  evil  deeds  and  practice  of  good 
works.  Baptism  washes  us  from  all  sins,  housel  hallows 
lis,  true  penance  heals  our  misdeeds.  The  servant  of  God 
who  assumes  orders  should  be  disposed  in  the  way  taught  by 
God,  and  as  those  were  who  first  established  God's  church. 
Do  as  Christ  taught.  If  the  teacher  teach  right,  let  every 
one  do  as  he  teaches  ;  and  if  he  give  evil  example,  do  ye  not 
by  his  e.xamples,  but  do  as  he  teaches.     Every  teacher  shall 

HOM.  VOL.   11.  K 


Uc. 


50  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

he  taRC^.  ^Ic  lareow  sceal  agyldan  gescead  Gode  ealra  ^H?ra 
manna  sawla  ^e  him  betaehte  syndon,  to-eacan  his  agenre 
sawle :  |7onne  gif  ^a  lareowas  wcl  tfPcaS  and  wel  bysniaS, 
];onne  beoS  hi  gehealdonc.  Gif  hi"  mist;eca5j  obJSe  mis- 
bysnia^,  hi  forpseraS  hi  sylfc. 

Be  Saes  folces  gchyrsumnysse,  c\va>;5  Crist  to  his  hircowiun, 
"  Se  ^e  eovv  gehyrsumaS,  he  gehyrsumaS  me ;  and  se  5e  eow 
'A5_  forsih^,  he  forsihJS  me."  Uton  beon  gcmyndige  h\v;et  \\q 
Gode  beheton  on  urun\  fulhihte.  Xu  cwej'st  Su,  '  llwaet 
behetic  Sa^a  ic  ciUl  wa?s,  and  sprccan  ne  mil.te  ?'  Wc  ranhiS 
on  i5am  ealdum  gcsctnyssum,  ]net  ^a  halgan  larcowas  tahton 
J»onesoban  gelcafan  |nim  mannum  J)e  to  cristendomc  gebugon, 
and  axodon  hi",  hw.PiScr  In  \voklon  wiJSsacan  deofle,  and  on 
God  gclyfan.  IIi  bchelon  j'a't  hf  \v()hh)n  swa  don,  and  wur- 
don  "Sa  gefullode  on  halgum  fantc,  mid  )>am  bcliate.  pa  un- 
spreccndan  ciUl  In  fulhjdon  Surii  gelcafan  )>;ps  fjpder  and  S;erc 
meder,  and  se  godfanlcr  Wies  )>a^s  ciUles  forspreca  and  borh 
\vi5  God,  ])a*t  hit  hcolde  )'one  cristcndoin  I)c  Godes  ta>cunge  ; 
for^an  Se  se  cwydc  is  swiSe  cgcsHc  j'e  Crist  c\va*b,  pfet  nan 
ungefullod  mann  nc  bccyniiS  to  Sam  ccan  life.  Nu  stent  Seos 
gesetnys  on  Godes  gelaSungc,  jnet  man  Sa  nnsprecendan  cild 
fullige,  and  hi  bcoS  gehcaldene  ]>urh  oSra  manna  geleafan, 
swa  swa  hi  wa^ron  ]>urh  oSra  manna  synna  geniSerade  ;  for- 
"San  iSe  hit  biS  twylic,  hwaeSer  hit  on  life  aSolige  oSj^jpt  hit 
))am  lareowe  mid  gelcafan  andwjrdan  mage. 

We  habbaS  full  swutele  bysne  pises  Singes.  Sum  wTf  waes 
"Se  com  to  Criste,  and  ba^d  for  hire  dehter,  ])e  Iteg  on  woduni 
dreame.  pa  cwae^  Crist  to  hire,  ]>iP.t  "  hit  n.-ere  na  rihtlic 
]7cEt  man  name  his  eiltlra  hlaf,  and  wurpe  hundum.  Heo  'Sa 
andwyrde,  Gca,  leof  Drihten,  and  ]>eah-hwa^^erc  oft  iSa 
hwelpas  gelasccaS  ];a  cruman  ];e  fealla^  of  |>;ps  hlafordes  beode. 
Da  andwyrde  se  Htelend,  and  cwae^,  Eala  ^u  wif,  micel  is 
■Shi  geleafa :  getimige  ^e  swa  swa  ^u  wilt.  Hire  dohtor 
wear^  ]?terrihte  gewittig."  pa  waes  seo  dohtor  gehfelcd  )?urh 
^ljji_^       geleafan   Sjere  meder ;   swa  bee's  eac   c)a  ungewittigan  cild 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD  S  EPIPHANY.  51 

render  an  account  to  God  of  the  souls  of  all  those  men  which 
are  committed  to  him,  in  addition  to  his  own  soul  :  then,  if 
the  teachers  teach  well  and  give  good  example,  they  shall  he 
saved.  If  they  misteach,  or  give  evil  example,  they  destroy 
themselves. 

Concerning  the  people's  obedience,  Christ  said  to  his  teach- 
ers, "  He  who  oheyeth  you,  obeyeth  me  ;  and  he  who  con- 
temnelh  you,  contenmelh  me."  Let  us  be  mindful  of  what  we 
promised  to  God  at  our  baptism.  Now  \\\h  thou  say,  '  ^^'hat 
did  I  j)r()mise  when  I  was  a  child,  and  could  not  speak  ?' 
We  read  in  the  old  institutes,  that  holy  teachers  taught  the 
true  belief  to  those  men  who  turned  to  tliristianity,  and 
asked  them,  whether  they  would  renounce  tlir  (li\il,  and 
believe  in  God.  They  promised  that  they  would  do  so,  and 
were  then  baptized  in  the  holy  font,  with  that  promise.  Un- 
speaking  chiklren  they  baptizi'd  through  the  belief  of  the 
father  and  of  the  mother,  and  the  godfather  was  the  child's 
sponsor  and  surety  to  God,  that  it  should  hold  Christianity 
according  to  God's  teaching  ;  for  the  sentence  is  very  awful 
that  Chri^t  spake.  That  no  imbapti/.ed  man  shall  come  to 
eternal  life.  Now  this  law  stands  in  (iod's  church,  that 
unspeaking  children  he  baptized,  and  they  shall  be  saved 
through  the  belief  of  other  men,  as  through  other  men's  sins 
they  had  been  condemned  ;  for  it  is  doubtful  \\  hether  it  con- 
tinue in  life  until  it  can  answer  the  teacher  with  belief. 

W  c  have  a  very  manifest  example  of  this  thing.  There 
was  a  woman  who  came  to  Christ,  and  prayed  for  her 
(laughter  n\  ho  lay  in  a  fit  of  frenzy.  Then  said  Christ  to 
her,  that  "  it  were  not  right  that  one  should  take  his  chil- 
dren's bread  and  cast  it  to  the  dogs.  She  answered.  Yes,  dear 
Lord,  and,  nevertheless,  the  whelps  often  lick  the  crumbs 
that  fall  from  the  master's  table.  Then  answered  Jesus,  and 
said,  ()  thou  woman,  great  is  thy  belief  :  betide  thee  as  thou 
wilt.  Her  daughter  straightways  became  sane."  The?i  was 
the  daughter  healed  through  the  belief  of  the  mother  ;  so  are 

K  2 


52  SERMO  IN  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

gehealdene  on  ^am  fulluhte  ];urh  geleafan  ^jes  fteder  and  ^aerc 
meder,  and  ^urh  foresprsece  ]?aes  godfseder.     Se  nisesse-preoi^t 
axa^  ]>iet  cild,  and  cweJS,  "WiSsaecst  ^u  deoflc  ?"     Donne 
andwyrt  se  godfeder  ]>ies   cildes  wordum,  and   ewe?!,   "  le 
wi^sace  deofle."     ponne  axaS  he  eft,  "  WiSsaecst  5u  ealluni 
his  weorcum  ?"    He  cweS,  "  To  wiSsace."    He  axaS  J;riddan 
srSe,  "  WiSsfficst  ^u  ealluni  his  gctotuni  ?"     He  cwyS,  "  Ic 
wi^sace."    ponne  hjefS  he  wiJSsacen,  on  Sisum  JSryni  wordum, 
deofle  and  ealluni  leahtruni.     Donne  axa^  lie  gyt,  "  Gelyfst 
^u  on  ^fere  Halgan  Drynnysse  and  soSre  Annysse  ?"     He 
andwyrt,  "  Ic  gelyfc."     Se  Godcs  Sen   befrinS  j;onne  gyt, 
"  Gelyfst  'Su  j'a^t  we  sceolon  callc  arisan  niin  urum  lichanian 
on  domes  d.egc,  togeanes  Criste,  and  |>a't   Ster  gehwa  onfo 
edlean  ealra  his  weorca,  swa  swa  lie  <pr  on  life  gecarnode?" 
He  andwyrt,  "  Ic  gclyfe."     And  se  preost  gefullaS  |>a^t  cild 
mid  ])isuni  geleafan.     Hit  wcxS,  and  g;eS  forS,  and  ne  cann 
l^yses  geleafan  nan   iSing.     Is  nu  forM  micel  neod  gehwum 
J?{fit  he  leornige  ;et  his  liireowc  hu  he  his  cristendom  healdan 
sceole  mid  |)am  soban  geleafan  ;  and  hu  he  mage  deofol  for- 
bugan  and  hclle-witc,  and  gecarnian  \net  ece  lif  and  Sa  ecan 
myrhSe  mid  Godc  ;  for^an  Se  se  apostol  Paulus  spra^c  swi^e 
egeslice  be  ungeh  fedum  mannum  :  he  cw^eS,  "  pa  Se  Godes 
ie  ne  cunnon,  and  buton  Godes  a^  syngiaS,  lit  eac  buton  Godcs 
w  losiaS."     And  eft,  "  Se  mann  ])e  God  forgyt,  God  forgyt 
eac  bine."     Uton  don  forSi  swa  swa  se  ylca  apostol  treble, 
"  GenealaicaS  to  Gode,  and  God  geneahebS  to  eow."     And 
se  seabn-scop  us  mynegaS  eft,  c)us  cweiSende,  "  Eadig  biS 
se  wer  seSe  bine  ondra^t  (jod,  and  auent  his  willan  to  bis 
bebodum." 

To  ^yssere  eadignysse,  and  to  "5;ere  ecan  eadignysse  ge- 
bringe  us  se  ^Imihtiga  God,  se^e  leofa^  and  rixat)  a  buton 
ende.     Amen. 


SERMON  ON  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.  53 

also  the  witless  children  saved  in  baptism  through  the  belief  of 
the  father  and  of  tlic  motiier,  and  through  the  sponsion  of  the 
godfather.  The  mass- priest  asks  the  child,  and  says,  "  Dost 
thou  renounce  the  devil  ?"  Then  answers  the  godfather  in 
the  words  of  the  child,  and  says,  "  1  renounce  tlie  devil." 
Then  again  he  asks,  "Dost  thou  renounce  all  his  works?" 
lie  says,  *'  I  renounce."  lie  asks  a  third  time,  "  Dost  thou 
renounce  all  his  vanities  ?"  lie  says,  "  I  renounce."  Then 
will  he  have  renounced,  in  these  three  sentences,  the  devil 
and  all  sins.  Then  he  yet  asks,  "  Believest  thou  in  the  Holy 
Trinity  and  true  Unity?"  He  answers,  "I  believe."  The 
minister  of  God  iiKjuires  yet  further,  "  Believest  thou  that 
we  shall  all  arise  with  our  bodies  on  doom's  day  before  Christ, 
and  that  there  every  one  will  receive  the  reward  of  all  his 
works,  as  he  has  merited  in  life  ?"  He  answers,  "  I  believe." 
And  the  priest  baptizes  the  child  with  this  belief.  It  waxes, 
and  goes  forth,  and  knows  nothing  of  this  belief.  It  is  now, 
therefore,  verv  needful  to  every  one  to  learn  of  his  teacher, 
how  he  shall  hold  his  Christianity  with  the  true  belief;  and 
how  he  may  eschew  the  devil  and  hell-punishment,  and  merit 
eternal  life  and  eternal  joy  with  God;  for  the  apostle  Paul 
spake  very  awfully  concerning  imbelieving  men  :  he  said, 
"Those  who  know  not  God's  law,  and  sin  without  God's 
law,  they  shall  also  without  (iod's  law  peri>h."  And  again, 
"The  man  who  forgets  God,  God  will  also  forget  him."  Let 
us  do,  therefore,  as  the  same  apostle  taught,  "  Draw  near 
unto  God,  and  God  will  draw  near  imto  you."  And  a^ain. 
the  psalmist  reminds  us,  thus  saying,  "  Blessed  is  the  man 
who  feareth  God,  and  turneth  his  will  to  (iod's  command- 
ments." 

To  this  blessedness,  and  to  the  everlasting  blessedness  may 
the  Almighty  God  bring  us,  who  livelh  and  reigneth  ever 
without  end.     Amen. 


54 


DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

NUPTIE  facte  sunt  in  Ghana  Galileae  :  et  reliqua. 

loliannes  se  Godspellere  cwteS  on  \neTe  godspcllican  race, 
jjset  "  gifta  waeron  gewordene  on  anum  tune  ISe  is  gcciged 
Ghana,  on  ?ani  Galilciscan  cardc,  and  tSjer  wjes  Maria,  \>ies 
Hfielendes  nioder  ;  se  Ilielciid  \v;i\s  cac  gchiSod  to  ]'ani  gift- 
uni:  "  et  rclitjua. 

Se  lareow  Beda  c\v;e^,  ])jet  Drihten  hine  sylfne  geniode- 
mode  pcfit  he  to  woruhllicum  giftuni  gehiSod  com,  and  In  mid 
]>cxin  forman  tacne  his  wundra  gehalgodc,  to  Si  }>;et  ho  \\oUle 
geswutelian  ]>iet  JSa  giftu  beoi>  l)crigcndlicc,  Se  for  bearn- 
teame  beoiS  gefremode  swiJSor  )>oiuie  for  gahiyssc.  ^Kfter 
gasthcum  andgite  Drihten  com  to  giftum  on  iSisum  middan- 
earde,  forban  Se  he  5a  halgan  gehiSunge  him  to  brydc  gcccas, 
swa  sua  se  apostol  to  geleaffuHum  folce  cwieS,  *'  Ic  bewed- 
dode  cow  anum  were,  j'irtge  gcarcian  Griste  an  cUcne  maHlcn." 
Grist  is  se  cla^ia  brydguma,  and  his  gchiSung,  |>;et  is  sec 
gclcaffullc  menigu,  is  his  bryd,  seoISe  acenS  djeghwomlice  *Sa 
gastlican  cild  )>urh  geleafan  and  fuUuht,  and  swa-Seah  JSurh- 
wunaS  on  chiMium  mjpgShade. 

pa  giftu  wseron  gcgcarcode  on  Sam  tune  ]>e  is  geciged 
Ghana  Galilciscre  scire.  Ghana  is  gereht,  '  linda,'  and  Gali- 
lea,  *  oferfterekl.'  Anchi  is  twyfeakl,  jnet  is,  yfel  and  god.  Yfel 
biS  se  anda  ))e  andaS  ongean  godnysse,  and  se  anda  is  god 
"be  mid  lufe  andaS  ongean  yfehiysse,  to  ^i  )>aet  he  yfel  onscu- 
nige,  and  god  lufige.  pa  be  ]?us  andiab  ongean  unriht,  and 
farab  fram  leahtrum  to  UKcignum,  hi  belimpab  to  bam  gast- 
licum  giftum,  J>a?t  is,  to  Gristes  geiabunge,  seobe  is  ure  gast- 
lice  moder. 

Win  ateorode  aet  bam  giftum  to  bi  ]>ast  Drihten  mid  selran 
wine  ]>ci  gebeoras  geghidode,  and  his  godcundnysse  mihta  mid 
];ani  tacne  geopenode.  Drihten  cwae^  to  his  medcr,  "  F<emne, 
hvvcfit  is  mc  and  be  to  ban  r"     Swilce  he  cwfede,  '  Ne  wyrcb 


55 


THE  SFXOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIl'llA.NV. 

NUPTLE  factK*  sunt  in  Ghana  GaUlcH"  :  ct  reliqua. 

John  the  Evan^'clist  says  in  this  cvani^clical  narrative,  that 
"  nuptials  took  phicc  in  a  town  which  is  called  Cana,  in  the 
Galilean  country,  and  there  was  Mary,  the  mother  of  Jesus  ; 
Jesus  was  also  invited  to  the  iniptials,"  etc. 

The  doctor  Beda  said,  that  the  Lord  vouchsafed  to  come 
invited  to  a  worldly  marriage,  and  hallowed  it  with  the  first 
token  of  his  miracles,  hecause  he  w<»uld  manifest  that  that 
marriage  is  praiseworthy  which  is  made  rather  for  the  sake 
of  a  family  of  children  than  for  lust.  According  to  its  ghostly 
signification,  the  Lord  came  to  a  marriiige  in  this  world 
because  he  had  chosen  the  holy  church  for  his  bride,  as  the 
apostle  said  to  the  believing  people,  "  I  have  wedded  you  to 
a  man,  that  ye  may  prepare  for  Christ  a  pure  maiden." 
Christ  is  the  pure  bridegroom,  and  his  church,  that  is,  the 
believing  multitude,  is  his  bride,  who  bears  daily  ghostly 
children  through  belief  and  baptism,  and  yet  continues  in 
pure  maideidiood. 

The  marriage  was  prepared  in  the  town  which  is  called 
Cana  of  the  G.dilean  province.  Cana  is  'iu\L'r\nQtei\  Jealoust/, 
and  Galilea,  /xissi/ii^  nrer.  Jedousy  is  twofold,  that  is, 
evil  and  good.  Evil  is  the  jealousy  which  is  jealous  against 
goodness,  and  the  jealousy  is  good  which  with  love  is  jealous 
against  evil,  so  that  it  may  shun  evil  and  love  good.  Those 
who  are  thus  jealous  against  unrighteousness,  and  go  from 
vices  to  virtues,  belong  to  the  ghostly  marriage,  that  is,  to 
Christ's  church,  which  is  our  ghostly  mother. 

Wine  was  wanting  at  the  marriage,  that  the  Lord  might 
gladden  the  guests  with  better  wine,  and  open  the  powers  of 
his  divinity  with  that  miracle.  The  Lord  said  to  his  mother, 
"  Woman,  what  is  with  me  and  with  thee  in  this  •'     As  if 


56  DOxMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMIiNI. 

seo  meniiiscnyss  ^e  ic  of  "Se  genani  )?aet  tacn  )>e  iSu  bitst,  ac 
seo  godcundnys  j^e  ic  5e  mid  geworhte.  pomie  min  ^row- 
ung-tima  cymS,  ]?onne  geswutelaJS  seo  menniscnys  hire  un- 
trumiiysse.' 

Ilydriae  sind  gehatene  waeter-fatu,  forSan  5e  on  Gieciscuin 
gereorde  is  waeter  geciged  *ydor.'  Eornostlice  wffter  gctac- 
iia^  ingehyd  haligra  gewrita,  }?aet  a^weahiS  his  hi)  steras  frain 
synna  horewum.  pa  btaMienan  waeter-fatu  sind  estfuUe  heort- 
aii  haligra  lareowa,  |ki  aheardia^  on  stanes  gecynde  oDgcan 
deoffellicuin  c(js;tnunguin.  yEt  bam  giflum  ascortode  win, 
forSan  5e  seo  ealde  gccySnys  ateorode  on  Cristcs  andwerd- 
nysse  fram  fl;csclicum  weorcum,  and  wearb  awend  to  gast- 
licum  ^eawum.  Swa  micclum  swa  wTn  is  dcorwurvSre  )?omic 
waeter,  swa  micclum  is  Cristcs  hir,  )'o  he  ]>uv\\  his  andwerd- 
nysse  hisapostolum  ta^htc,  deorwur^rc  bonne  w;ere  seo  ealde 
gesetnys,  "be  he  j^urh  Moysen  gcdihle  ;  forban  «Se  Moyses  je 
waes  flaisclic,  and  Cristcs  gesetnys  is  gastlic.  Seo  ealde  a^ 
■waes  swilce  scadii  and  gctiicnung  ;  Cristcs  bodung  is  sobfa>st- 
nys,  and  gcfylS  gastlice  swa  hwa^t  swa  seo  ealde  gecySnys 
mid  mislicum  gesetnyssum  getacnode. 

"  -iEt  ]>am  giftum  wa^ron  gesette  six  stsenene  wa?tcr-fatii, 
aifter  biera  ludeiscra  chensunge,  healdcndc  tenlipige  twyfealde 
gemetu,  obSe  |?ryfealde."  Nis  gecweden  on  bam  godspelle, 
J?aet  "Sa  waeter-fatu,  sume  heoldon  twyfealde  gemetu,  sume 
)?ryfealdc,  ac  tenlipige  hi  heoldon  twyfealde  gemetu,  obSe 
bryfealde  ;  forban  be  ba  halgan  lareowas  hwilon  sprecab  be 
bam  yElmihtigan  Faeder  and  his  Sunu,  hwilon  swutoUice  embe 
baere  Halgan  Drynnysse  ;  and  j^eah  be  se  Ilalga  Gast  ne 
beo  swutollice  genemned  to  bam  Faider  and  to  bam  Suna, 
swa-'beah  he  bib  symle  baerto  undcrgyten,  for  ban  be  he  is 
heora  begra  Lufu  and  Willa,  aefre  mid  him  bam.  pa  ludeis- 
can  waeron  swa  gebeawode  ])<&i  hi  setton  waeter-fatu  on 
flora  aet  heora  gebeorscipum ;  and  sceolde  ielc  be  inn  come 
his  handa  abwean,  aerban  'be  he  gesaete,  gif  he  buton  tale 
beon  wolde.     pa  waeron  gesette  for  bam  beawc  six  staenene 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     57 

he  had  said,  '  The  humanity  whicli  I  have  taken  of  thee 
worketh  not  the  miracle  which  thou  askest,  but  the  divinity 
by  which  I  have  created  thee.  AVhcn  my  hour  of  suffering 
Cometh,  then  will  the  humanity  manifest  its  weakness.' 

Water-vessels  are  called  hydrife,  because  in  the  Greek 
tongue  water  is  called  vSwp.  Now  water  betokens  know- 
ledge of  the  lioly  writings,  which  washes  its  hearers  from  the 
foulness  of  sins.  The  stone  water-vessels  are  the  devout 
hearts  of  holy  teachers,  which  harden  in  the  nature  of  stone 
against  diabolical  temptations.  At  the  marriage  the  wine 
ran  tihort,  because  the  old  law  ceased  in  Christ's  presence 
from  fleshly  works,  and  was  turned  to  ghostly  morals.  By 
as  nmch  as  wine  is  more  precious  than  water,  by  so  much  is 
Christ's  doctrine,  which  by  his  presence  he  taught  to  his 
apostles,  more  preciotis  than  was  the  old  law,  which  he  dic- 
tated through  Moses  ;  because  the  law  of  Mose>  was  fle^hly, 
and  Christ's  institute  is  ghostly.  The  old  law  was,  as  it 
were,  a  shadow  and  a  sign  ;  the  preaching  of  Christ  is  truth, 
and  fulfils  spiritually  whatsoever  the  old  law  by  various  pre- 
cepts betokened. 

"  At  the  marriage  were  placed  six  stone  water-vessels,  ac- 
cording to  the  purification  of  the  Jews,  holding  singly  two  or 
three  measures."  It  is  not  said  in  the  gospel  that  the  water- 
vessels  held  some  two  measures,  some  three,  but  that  they 
held  singly  two  or  three  measures  ;  because  the  holy  doctors 
speak  sometimes  of  the  .Mmighty  Father  and  his  Son,  some- 
times manifestlv  of  tlie  liolv  Trinity  ;  and  though  the  Holy 
Ghost  be  not  manifestly  named  with  the  Father  and  the  Son, 
he  is,  nevertheless,  always  understood  therewith,  because  he 
is  of  both  the  Love  and  Will,  and  ever  with  them  both.  The 
Jews  were  so  accustomed  that  they  set  water-vessels  on  the 
floor  at  their  entertaiinnents  ;  and  every  one  who  came  in 
must  wash  his  hands  before  he  sat,  if  he  wovdd  be  without 
reprehension.      There   were   set   for  that   custom   six   stone 


58  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

wseter-fatu  set  ^isum  giftuni.  pa  six  waeter-fatu  getacnodon 
six  ylda  ^yssere  worulde.  Seo  forme  yld  waes  fram  Adiime 
o5  Noe.  Seo  oSer  yld  wa?s  fram  Noe  o5  Abraham.  Seo 
)?ridde  yld  vvses  fram  Abrahanie  oh  Dauid.  Seo  feorSe  frajn 
Dauide  oSj^aet  Nabochodoiiosor  hcrgode  on  ludeiscre  Icode, 
and  hi  hwftlingas  to  Babilone  gela^ddc.  Seo  fifte  yld  wws 
fram  Babiloniscre  hereguiige  o5  Cristes  accnnednysse  tefter 
^aere  menniscnysse.  Seo  sixte  yld  stent  nu  .fram  Cristes 
acennednysse,  mid  ungewisre  geendunge  astreht  o5  Ante- 
cristes  to-cymc. 

Mine  gebrobra,  uton  sccau  ian  nil  hii  cias  .six  wfeter-fatu 
vvaeron  afyllcde  mid  hahvendum  wa'terc  bficlicra  gewrita. 
Uton  eac  under.standan  hii  |>an  vice  wjeter  wcarb  awend  on 
wynsumum  wines  swtfcce.  Witodliee  mihte  Drihten  jemtigc 
fatu  mid  wine  afyllan,  se^e  ealle  ^iing  of  nahtc  gesceop,  ac 
he  wolde  swi^or  j'a^t  wanne  wjeter  to  mH*rlicnm  wine  awen- 
dan,  and  mid  )>am  geswutelian  )?a*t  he  ne  com  to  JSy  ]>iet  he 
wolde  towm'pan  «Sa  ealdan  a^  obSe  witegan,  ac  wolde  hi  jefter 
gastlicum  andgite  gefyllan. 

On  anginne  middaneardes  w;es  Adam,  {""a  slep  Adam,  pfet 
Eua  wurde  of  his  sidan  gesceapen,  him  to  gemacan.  Crist 
gewat  on  Saere  rode,  and  his  side  wearS  mid  spere  geopenad, 
and  of  btere  fleowon  J)a  gerynu  ))e  his  gela^ung  wearS  mid 
gesceapen  him  to  cUenre  bryde.  On  5;prc  ylcan  ylde  wfes 
Abel,  Adames  sunu,  rihtwis  and  Code  andfenge,  pone  ofsloh 
Cain  his  brobor  unscyldigne  |'urh  lindan.  Sebe  nu  a^fter 
gastlicum  andgite  understent  be  Adame,  swa  swa  we  cwaedon, 
and  jjset  se  mwgslaga  Cain  getacnode  ]7a*ra  ludeiscra  geleaf- 
leaste,  "Se  Crist  mid  niSe  acwealdon,  and  pjet  Abeles  siege 
getacnode  Drihtnes  Srowunge,  buton  twyn  he  gemet  ]>iet 
wseter  to  winlicum  swwcce  awend. 

On  ^aere  oSre  ylde  |>issere  worulde  wcarlS  eal  middaneard 
mid  flodes  y^um  adylegod,  for  synna  micelnysse,  buton  Sam 
rihtwisan  Noe  anum,  and  his  seofan  hiwon,  pe  on  Sam  arce 
belocene  wseron   to  anes  geares  fyrste  ;    and   hi  sib  San  eal 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     59 

water- vessels  at  this  marriage.  These  six  water-vessels  be- 
tokened six  ages  of  this  world.  The  first  age  was  from  Adam 
to  Noah.  The  second  age  was  from  Noah  to  Abraham.  The 
third  age  was  frotn  Abraham  to  David.  Tiic  fourth  from 
David  until  Nebuchadnc//ar  warred  on  the  Jewisii  nation, 
and  led  them  captives  to  Babylon.  The  fifth  ago  was  from 
the  Babylonian  war  to  the  birth  of  Christ,  according  to 
humanity.  The  sixth  :ige  stands  now  from  the  birth  of 
Christ,  extended  with  uncertain  ending  to  the  coming  of 
Antichrist. 

Mv  brothers,  let  us  now  see  how  the  six  water-vessels  were 
filled  with  the  salutarv  \\  atcr  of  booklv  writintrs.  Let  us  also 
understand  how  the  same  water  was  turned  to  the  pleasant 
taste  of  wine.  Verily  the  Lord,  \\  iio  created  all  things  from 
naught,  could  have  filled  empty  vessels  with  wine,  but  he 
would  rather  change  tlic  pale  water  to  noble  wine,  and  there- 
by manifest  that  he  came  not  to  overthrow  the  old  law  or  the 
prf)phets,  but  in  a  ghostly  setise  would  fulfil  them. 

In  the  beginning  of  tbe  world  Avas  Adam.  Tben  ,\dam 
slept,  that  Kve  might  be  created  from  his  side  as  a  mate  for 
him.  Cbrist  died  on  the  cross,  and  his  side  was  opened  with 
a  spear,  and  from  it  flowed  the  mysteries  with  which  his 
church  was  created  as  his  pure  bride.  In  the  same  age  was 
Abel,  Adam's  son,  righteous  and  acceptable  to  (lod,  whom 
innocent  his  brother  Cain  slew  through  envy.  He  who  now 
understands  concerning  Adam  accordinij  to  a  chostlv  sense, 
as  we  have  said,  and  that  the  man>layer  Cain  betokened  the 
unbelief  of  the  Jews,  who  slew  Christ  throiigh  envy  ;  and 
that  the  slaying  of  Abel  betokened  the  Lord's  passion,  he, 
without  doubt,  will  find  the  water  turned  to  a  jileasant  taste. 

In  the  second  age  of  this  world  all  the  earth  was  destroyed 
by  the  waves  of  the  flood,  for  the  greatness  of  sins,  except  the 
righteous  Noah  alone  and  his  seven  inmates,  who  were  shut 
in  the  ark  for  the  space  of  a  year  ;  and  they  afterwards  begat 


60  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMLNI. 

mancyn  gestryndon.  Gif  we  gleawlice,  ffiftergastlicum  and- 
gite,  tocnavva^  ]?aet  se  svvymmcnda  arc  getacnodc  Codes  ge- 
laSunge,  and  ]><Bt  se  rihtwisa  Noe  getacnode  Crist,  and  ]>cet 
ySigende  flud,  ]?e  iSa  synfuUan  adylcgode,  gebicnode  ]>iEt 
halige  waiter  ures  fulhihtcs,  |'e  ure  synna  adilogaS,  |>onne 
gewisslice  biS  us  awend  ]>n't  oSer  WcPtcr-faet  to  wunderlicuni 
wtne ;  forSan  5e  we  geseoS  ure  chensungc,  and  halgunge, 
and  rihtwisnysse  gewitegode  on  h;vvc  caldan  gereccednyssc. 
Witodlice  5a  eahta  meini,  \>c  se  arc  on  liis  bosnie  abier,  wur- 
don  ahrcdde  wiS  )/'ani  yciigendnm  flodc,  and  ealle  oSre  eorS- 
lice  gesceafta  ]>iet  brade  waiter  adydde  :  swa  eac  nu,  5a  ^e 
on  Godcs  gela5ungegclcaffullc  5urhwunia5,  beo5  gehealdcne 
wiiS  woruldiiciun  y5uni  and  dwolliccrc  dcopnyssc.  Da  un- 
geleaffallan,  ])C  baton  Godcs  gclaSunge  dwollicc  drolitnia5, 
untwylice  forwur5a5  on  ecnysse. 

Precor  lunnilitcr  quosquc  pcritos,  nc  nos   uitupercnt,  co 
quod  historian!  propter  ignorantes  tani  apcrte  hie  ponimus. 

On  '5tEre  jniddan  yldc  afiindodc  God  Abrahames  gehyr- 
sumnysse,  and  het  |>;et  he  name  his  leofan  sunn  Isaac,  and 
bine  on  anre  dune  ium  gcoffrodc,  and  ofsloge.  pa  wjes 
Abraham  baton  clcunge  gearo  to  Godes  hfese,  and  si5ode 
arodlicc  to  5a3re  dune  5e  him  God  gewissode,  and  his  sunu 
samod.  Efne,  5a5a  he  5;pre  dune  gencahphtc,  jni  cw;c5  he 
to  his  cnihtum,  "  Andbidia5  lier  :  ic  and  )'is  cild  wiUa5  us 
gebiddan  fet  J^tere  stowe  |>e  us  God  geswutclode."  Isaac  pa 
baer  wudu  to  forba^rnenne  5a  offrunge,  and  Abraham  haifde 
him  on  handa  fyr  and  swurd.  Isaac  5a  befran  5one  fa^der, 
and  cwai5,  "  Efne  her  is  fyr  and  wudu,  min  fader,  hwa^r  is 
seo  oifrung  ?  "  Abraham  andwyrde,  "  Min  beam,  God  fore- 
sceawa^  him  sylfum  J?cfire  onsiegednysse  offrunge."  Hwiet 
^a,  Abraham,  5a^a  ht  to  5aire  stowe  comon,  geband  his  leofan 
sunu,  and  his  swurd  ateah,  \>ie.t  hehine  Gode  geoffrode.  Efne 
"Sa  Godes  engel  clypode  of  heofonum,  and  mid  hhiddre  stemne 
cwaeS,  "  Abraham,  ne  astrece  5u  ^ine  hand  bufon  ^am  cilde, 
ne  him  nane  dare  ne  gedo.     Nu  ic  oncneow  ]>cet  5u  God  on- 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     61 

all  mankind.  If  we  wisely,  according  to  the  ghostly  sense, 
perceive  that  the  swimming  ark  betokened  God's  church,  and 
that  the  righteous  Noah  betokened  Christ,  and  that  the  bil- 
lowing flood,  which  extirpated  the  sinful,  signified  the  holy 
water  of  our  baptism,  wliich  extirpates  our  sins,  then  cer- 
tainly for  us  will  be  changed  the  second  water-vessel  to  won- 
derful wine;  for  we  see  our  purification,  and  hallowing,  and 
righteousness  prophesied  in  the  old  narrative.  Verily  the  eight 
persons,  whom  the  ark  bare  in  its  bosom,  were  saved  from 
the  billowing  flood,  and  the  broad  water  destroyed  all  other 
earthly  creatures  :  so  also  now,  those  who  contin\ie  faithful 
in  God's  church  will  be  saved  from  worldly  billows  and  the 
abyss  of  error.  The  unbelieving,  who  live  in  error  w  ithout 
the  church  of  God,  will  undoubtedly  perish  to  eternity, 

Precor  humiliter  quosque   peritos,   ne  nos  vitnperent,  eo 
<ju()d  historiam  propter  ignorantes  tam  aperte  hie  jxuiimus. 

In  the  third  age  (iod  proved  Abraham's  obedience,  and 
connnanded  him  to  take  his  beloved  son  Isaac,  and  ofl'cr  him 
on  a  mountain,  and  slay  hin».  Then  was  Abraham  without 
delay  ready  at  God's  command,  and  journeyed  quickly  to  the 
mountain  that  God  had  pointed  out,  and  his  son  w\l\\  him. 
Lo,  when  he  drew  near  to  the  mountain,  he  said  to  his  ser- 
vants, *' Abide  here  :  I  and  this  child  will  pray  at  tlie  place 
which  God  hath  manifested  to  us."  Isaac  then  bare  wood  to 
burn  the  offering,  and  Abraham  had  in  his  hand  fire  and  a 
sword.  Isaac  then  asked  his  father,  and  said,  "  Behold  here 
are  fire  and  wood,  my  father,  where  is  the  offering  ?"  Abraham 
answered,  "'My  child,  God  w  ill  provide  for  himself  an  offering 
for  sacrifice."  Lo  then,  when  they  came  to  the  place,  Abraham 
bound  his  beloved  son,  and  drew  his  sword,  that  he  might 
offer  him  to  God.  Rohold  then  the  angel  of  God  called  from 
heaven,  and  with  loud  voice  said,  '*  Abraham,  stretch  thou 
not  thine  hand  above  thy  child,  nor  do  him  any  harm.      Now 


62  DOMINICA  11.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

draedst,  and  ]>u  ne  arodest  jnimm  ancenncdan  siina  for  his 
haese."  pa  beseah  Abraham  underbaec,  and  Saer  stod  an 
ramm  betwux  |7am  breniehiin,  getiged  be  5ain  hornuni.  He 
^a  gcniim  bone  ramm,  and  Gode  geoffrode  for  JSam  cilde. 
.^fter  bisum  clypode  eft  Godes  engcl  of  licofonum  to 
Abrahame,  )7us  cweiSende,  "  God  cwjelS,  Ic  swor  j'urh  me 
sjdfne,  forSan  'Se  j^u  j^as  dr-ede  dydest,  and  Sinum  ancennedan 
bearne  ne  arodest,  ic  gebletsige  JSc,  and  ]>inne  ofspring  ic  ge- 
menigfylde  swa  swa  steorran  on  heofenan,  and  swa  swa  sand- 
ceosol  on  Scielicuni  strande.  pin  s;^d  soISIice  geagnab  his 
feonda  gatu,  and  on  JSinum  stede  beo^  gebk^tsode  ealle  eorS- 
lice  niffigba  ;  forSan  ^e  ^u  gchyrsumedcst  niinre  stcmne." 
Abraham  <Sa  ham  gecyrde,  mid  ansuiidan  bearne  and  mid 
ecere  bletsunge. 

We  sceolon  undcrstandan  on  Abrahiimc  )'nnc  /Ehnihtigan 
Feeder,  and  on  Isaacc  his  U'ofan  Sunu,  urne  Ilfelend  Crist, 
be  "Sam  cwa^^  se  Ileofonlica  Fanlcr,  "  pes  is  min  Icofa  Sunu, 
Se  me  wel  licaS."  And  we  sceolon  tocnawan  on  Isaaces 
offrungc  Drihtnes  browungc,  be  Sam  cwieS  se  apostol  Pauhis, 
]>set  "  God  Feeder  ne  sparode  his  agenum  Bearne,  ac  for  us 
eallum  hine  to  deabe  sealde."  Isaac  bjer  ^one  wuda  to  his 
agenum  baernete,  and  his  feeder  bendum  ne  wiScwHiS  ;  swa 
eac  Crist  waes  gehyrsum  his  FaederoS  deaS,  and  him  sylf  his 
rode  abeer.  Naes  ^eah  Isaac  ofslegen,  ac  se  ramm  hine 
spelode,  for^an  "Se  Crist  waes  unSrowigendlic  on  jnere  God- 
cundnysse,  and  seo  menniscnys  ana  dcab  and  sar  for  us 
Srowade  ;  swilce  se  sunu  waere  geoffrod,  and  se  ramm  of- 
sniden.  Ge  sceolon  eac  gelyfan  ]>set  seo  bletsung  ^e  God 
behet  Abraliame  gaeS  ofer  us,  and  we  sind  Abrahames  sfed, 
swa  swa  Paulus,  ];eoda  lareow,  cwae^,  *'  Eornostlice  gif  ge 
Cristes  sind,  J^onne  sind  ge  Abrahames  seed,  and  aefter  behate 
yrfenuman."  purh  "Sis  deope  andgit  us  bib  awend  j^aet  ^ridde 
wffiter-fsRt  to  halwendum  wine,  mid  J^am  we  magon  ure  mod 
gastlice  gegladian. 

On  ^aere  feor'San  ylde    geceas    Israhela  folc  him  sylfum 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     63 

I  know  that  thou  fearest  God,  and  that  thou  didst  not  spare 
thine  only-begotten  son  at  his  behest."  Then  Abraham 
looked  back,  and  there  stood  a  ram  among  the  brambles,  tied 
by  the  horns.  He  then  took  the  ram,  and  offered  it  to  God 
for  the  child.  After  this  the  angel  of  God  again  called  from 
heaven  to  Abraham,  thus  saying,  "God  hath  said,  I  have 
sworn  by  myself,  for  that  thou  hast  done  this  deed,  and  hast 
not  spared  thine  only-bcgottcn  son,  I  will  bless  thee,  and 
thine  offspring  I  will  midtiply  as  the  stars  in  heaven,  and  as 
the  sand-grains  on  the  sea  strand.  Verily  thy  seed  shall 
possess  the  gate  of  his  foes,  and  in  thy  seed  shall  all  earthly 
tribes  be  blessed ;  because  thou  hast  ol)eyed  my  voice." 
Abraham  then  returned  lionu'  with  his  rhild  sound,  and  with 
everlasting  blessing. 

By  A])raham  \\  c  are  to  understand  the  Almighty  Father, 
and  by  Isaac  iiis  belo\cd  Son,  our  Saviour  Christ,  of  whom 
said  the  Heavenly  Father,  "This  is  my  behned  Son,  who  \\ell 
pleaseth  me."  And  in  the  offering  of  Isaac  we  are  to  perceive 
the  Lord's  passion,  of  which  the  apfistle  Paul  >ai(l,  that 
"  God  the  Father  spared  not  his  own  Child,  but  gave  him  to 
death  for  us  all."  Isaac  bare  the  wood  for  his  own  burning, 
and  refused  not  his  father's  bonds ;  so  also  was  Christ  obe- 
dient to  his  Father  unto  death,  and  himself  bare  his  rood. 
Yet  Isaac  was  not  slain,  but  the  ram  took  his  place,  because 
Christ  was  impassible  in  the  (iodhcad,  and  the  humanity  alone 
suffered  death  and  pain  for  us  ;  as  if  the  son  had  been  offered, 
and  the  ram  slain.  Ye  are  also  to  believe  that  tlie  blessing 
which  (iod  promised  to  Abraham  goes  over  us,  and  that  we 
are  Ai)raham's  seed,  as  Paul,  the  teacher  of  the  gentiles,  said, 
"  Verily  if  ye  are  of  Christ,  then  are  ye  Abraham's  seed,  and 
heirs  according  to  the  promise."  Through  this  deep  signi- 
fication, the  third  water-vessel  will  be  turned  for  us  to  salu- 
tary wine,  witii  which  we  may  spiritually  gladden  our  minds. 

In  the  fourth  age  the  people  of  Israel  chose  for  themselves 


64  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

Saul  to  cyninge,  oiigean  Godes  willan,  ]?eah  iSe  he  hit  geSyl- 
delice  forhfere  :  and  he  wearS  Gode  ungehyrsum,  and  nolde 
faran  be  his  dihte.  pa  spr*c  God  to  his  witegan  Samuhele 
^isum  wordum,  "  Hu  lange  wilt  ^u  bewepan  Saules  siiS, 
|?oinie  ic  hine  awearp,  ])pet  he  leng  ofer  Israhela  Seode  ne 
rixige  ?  Afyll  ^in  elefait,  and  far  to  ^fere  byrig  Bethleem,  to 
Isai :  ic  foresceawode  of  his  sununi  nie  gecorenne  cyning. 
Far,  and  gela^a  Isai  mid  his  sunum  to  Sinre  onsaegednysse, 
and  ic  geswutclige  5e  hwilcnc  bu  to  cyninge  gehalgian  sccalt." 
Saniuhel  Sa  ferde,  be  Godes  haese,  to  Bethlecnn,  and  God 
geceas  Dauid  of  his  seofon  gebroSruni  him  to  cyninge  ofer 
his  folce.  Hwffit  5a,  Samuhcl  gehalgode  Dauid  to  cyninge  on 
middan  his  gebroSrum,  and  Godes  Gast  liim  w;es  on  wuni- 
gende  a^fre  of  5am  dcPge.  Witodlice  Godes  Gast  gewat  fram 
Saule,  and  hine  astyrode  se  awyrigeda  gast  fram  Gode.  Si5- 
"San  aefter  ^an  genam  Saul  micelne  ni5  to  5am  gecorenan 
Dauide,  and  ofthrakllice  hine  acwellan  wolde.  Dauid  wearS 
J7a  of  his  earde  aflymed,  and  Saul  liis  symle  chte,  o5)>ret  he 
on  "Saere  dune  Gelboe  hine  sylfne  acwealde,  and  Dauid  feng 
to  his  rice,  and  on  5am  Gode  gecwemlice  feowertig  geara 
rixode. 

JEher  gastlicum  andgite  we  magon  undergytan  on  Daiiide 
Cristes  getacnunge  :  on  Saules  ehtnysse,  jnera  ungeleatTulra 
ludeiscra  ehtnysse  ongean  Crist  and  his  gela5unge  ;  and  heora 
eor^lice  rice  wearb  toworpen  for  heora  niandfedum,  fefter 
Saules  gelicnysse.  Cristes  rice  and  his  gela5unge  stent  on 
ecnysse  ofer  eallum  Seodum.  Gif  we  ^us  understandaS  J>a 
ealdan  gereccednysse,  jjonne  biS  ]?8et  waeter  us  awend  to 
winlicum  swfficce,  for5an  ^e  we  tocnawa^  urne  Cyning  Crist, 
and  his  rice  and  ure  rice  ^ler  awritene,  j^ser  we  aer  swilce  be 
o^rum  mannum  gereccednysse  raeddon. 

On  ^c-ere  fiftan  ylde  middaneardes  wearS  ]>ict  Israhela  folc 
forscjidegod  wi5  heora  Scyppend,  and  beah  se  cyning  Sede- 
chias  to  heej^engylde,  and  Israhela  folc  samod,  and  on  mis- 
licum  forgaegednyssum    )?one   iElmihtigan   getyrigdon.       pa 


THE  SECOND  SUXDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     65 

Saul  for  king,  against  the  will  of  God,  though  he  patiently 
endured  it  :  and  he  was  disobedient  to  God,  and  would  not 
walk  by  his  direction.  Then  spake  God  to  his  prophet 
Samuel  in  these  words,  *'  How  long  wilt  tiiou  bewail  the  fate 
of  Saul,  when  I  have  rejected  him,  that  he  may  no  longer 
reign  over  the  nations  of  Israel  ?  Fill  thine  oil-vessel,  and  go 
to  the  city  of  Betiilehem,  to  Jessse  :  I  have  provided  me  ft 
chosen  king  from  his  sons.  Go,  and  callJesse  with  his  sons 
to  tliy  sacrifice,  and  I  will  manifest  to  tlicc  Mhich  thou  shalt 
liallow  as  king."  Samuel  then  went,  by  Gods  command,  to 
Bethlehem,  and  God  chose  him  David  from  his  seven  brothers 
as  king  over  his  people.  So  Samuel  hallowed  David  as  king 
in  the  midst  of  his  brothers,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  was  dwell- 
ing in  him  ever  from  that  day.  But  the  Spirit  of  God  de- 
parted from  Saul,  and  the  cursed  spirit  moved  him  from  God. 
After  that  Saul  entertained  great  envy  towards  the  chosen 
David,  and  was  often  desirous  to  slay  him.  David  was  then 
driven  from  his  a)untry,  and  Saul  constantly  persecuted  him, 
until  he  slew  himself  in  the  mountain  of  (iilboa,  and  David 
succeeded  to  his  kingdom,  and  in  it  reigned  acceptably  to 
God  forty  years. 

In  a  ghostly  sense  we  may  see  in  David  a  sign  of  Christ : 
in  Saul's  persecution,  the  persecution  by  the  unbelieving  Jews 
of  Christ  and  his  church  ;  and  their  earthly  kingdom  was 
overthrown  for  their  wicked  deeds,  in  likeness  of  Saul.  The 
kingdom  of  Christ  and  of  his  church  stands  for  ever  over  all 
nations.  If  we  thus  understand  the  Old  Testament,  then  \\\\\ 
the  water  be  turned  for  us  to  a  pleasant  flavour,  because  we 
perceive  our  King  Christ,  and  his  kingdom,  and  our  kingdom 
there  recorded,  where  we  had  ere  read  the  narrative  as  of 
other  men. 

In  the  fifth  age  of  the  world  the  people  of  Israel  were  guilty 
towards  their  Creator,  and  the  king  Zedekiah  turned  to  hea- 
thenism, and  the  people  of  Israel  with  him,  and  by  divers 
transgressions  provoked  the  Almighty.     God  then  sent  the 

HOM.  VOL.  ir.  F 


66  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

sende  God  )?one  Chaldeiscan  cyning,  Nabochodonosor,  mid 
ormaRtre  fyrdinge  to  Hierusaleni,  and  hi  tobraecon  J)a  burh 
grundlinga,  and  ]>pp.t  maere  Salomones  tempi  forbterndon,  and 
J)one  msestan  dael  jjses  folces  ofslogon,  and  Sone  ofer-eacan 
haeftlingas  aweg  gelccddon  to  Chaldea  rice,  paes  cyniiiges 
sunu  111  ofslogon  a^tforan  his  gesiliiSe,  and  hine  si^ban  ablend- 
ne  to  Babilone  gelaeddon,  and  Sa  madm-fatu  )'aes  temples 
ungerime,  gyldene  and  sylfrene,  mid  oJSrum  goldliordum  forS 
samod  ferodon.  Israhela  folc  Sa  }?eowde  pam  cyningc  Nabo- 
chodonosor and  his  aeftergengum  hund-seofontig  geara,  obj^aet 
Cyrus  fengtorice,  seasende  ptet  folc  ongean  mid  wurbmynte 
to  heora  carde,  and  het  hi  ge-edsta<Selian  Sa  burh  Hierusalem, 
and  paet  tempi  eft  ar;eran  mid  his  fultume.  II\v;et  ba  lesus, 
Godes  sacerd,  be  bics  cyniiigc8  hffise  Cyrcs  and  fultume,  \>iet 
Israhela  folc  to  carde  gel^dde,  and  J?a  burh-weallas  samod 
mid  )>am  temple  ge-edstabclode,  and  Godes  biggcngas  ge- 
edniwode. 

Se  Babilonisca  cyning,  Nabochodonosor,  ])e  j'tet  synfulle 
Godes  folc  sum  acwealde  and  sum  gchieft  to  his  rice  gehedde, 
getiicnode  j'one  dcofol,  ]?e  ba  synfuUan  mislice  fordeb,  and  to 
his  byrig,  ]>iitt  is  hell,  gchaefte  geket,  to  gescyndnysse. 
Babilonia,  seo  Chaldeisca  burh,  is  gereht  'gescyndnys.'  Sen 
getacnab  belle,  on  ]>iere  beob  symle  gcscynde  }>a  be  hire  to 
cumab.  Hierusalem  is  gecwcden  *visio  pacis,'  j^aet  is,  ^  sibbe 
gesihb.'  peos  Hierusalem  luefdc  getacnunge  •bare  heofon- 
lican  Hierusalem,  on  baere  is  fulfremed  sibb,  to  ^aere  we  sind 
gelabode,  and  we  bider  cuma^  untwylice,  gif  we  hit  on  and- 
weardan  life  geearnia^.  Das  twa  burh  wibria^  betwux  him 
symle  swa  lange  swa  ]>es  middaneard  stent.  Hierusalem 
winb  for  rihtwisnysse,  and  Babilonia  winb  ongean  for  un- 
rihtwisnysse  :  seo  o'ber  for  so^faestnysse,  ober  for  ydelnysse. 
Deere  heofonlican  Hierusalem  Cyning  is  Crist ;  )>aere  scand- 
lican  Babilonian  cyning  is  deofol,  se  geherega^  ]>a.  synfullan, 
and  gehaefte  to  )?8ere  hellican  byrig  gelaet,  to  deoflicum  ^eowte. 
Seo  gode  burh,  Hierusalem,  haefb  gode  ceaster-gewaran,  and 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     67 

Chaldean  king  Nebuchadnezzar  with  an  immense  army  to 
Jerusalem,  and  they  destroyed  the  city  to  the  ground,  and 
burnt  the  great  temple  of  Solomoji,  and  slew  the  greater  part 
of  the  people,  and  the  overplus  they  led  away  captives  to  the 
realm  of  Chaldea.  The  king's  son  they  slew  in  his  sight,  and 
himself  blinded  they  afterwards  led  to  Babylon,  and  the  in- 
numerable costly  vessels  of  the  temple,  of  gold  aiid  silver, 
with  other  treasures  they  at  the  same  time  carried  away. 
The  people  of  Israel  then  served  the  king  Nebuchadnezzar 
and  his  successor  seventy  years,  until  Cyrus  obtained  the 
kingdom,  who  sent  the  people  back  witii  honour  to  their 
country,  and  commanded  them  to  re-establish  the  city  of 
Jerusalem,  and  raise  up  tiie  temple  again  witii  his  aid.  Then 
Jesus,  the  priest  of  God,  at  the  behest  of  the  king  Cyrus, 
and  with  his  aid,  led  the  people  to  their  country,  and  re- 
established the  high  walls  together  with  the  temple,  and 
renewed  the  service  of  God. 

The  Babylonian  king,  Nebuchadnezzar,  who  of  the  sinful 
people  slew  some  and  led  others  captive  to  his  kingdom,  be- 
tokened the  devil,  who  in  divers  ways  fordoes  the  sinful,  and 
leads  them  captive  to  his  city,  that  iy,  to  hell,  to  confusion. 
Babylon,  the  Chaldean  city,  is  interpreted  nnifiision.  It 
betokens  hell,  in  which  those  are  always  confounded  who  go 
to  it.  Jerusalem  is  interpreted  visio  pacis,  that  is,  sig/it  of 
peace.  This  Jerusalem  was  a  type  of  the  heavenly  Jerusalem, 
in  which  is  perfect  peace,  to  which  we  are  called,  and  we  shall 
undoubtedly  go  thither,  if  we  merit  it  in  the  present  life. 
These  two  cities  are  ever  at  strife,  each  with  other,  as  long  aa 
this  world  stands.  Jerusalem  fights  for  righteousness,  and 
Babylon  fights  against  her  for  unrighteousness  :  the  one  for 
truth,  the  other  for  vanity.  The  king  of  the  heavenly  Jeru- 
salem is  Christ ;  of  the  infamous  Babylon  the  devil  is  king, 
who  wars  on  the  sinful,  and  leads  them  captives  to  the  hellish 
city,  in  devilish  thraldom.     The  good  city,  Jerusalem,  has 


68  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHANIA  DOMINI. 

seo  yfele  Babilonia  hasfS  yfele  ceaster-gewaran.  Sindon  |?eah 
sume  menn  ])e  bellmpaS  to  ^aere  heofonlican  Hierusalem,  and 
swa-^eah  mid  sumere  ^enunge  ]>enia"S  Babilonian  ;  swa  swa 
wseron  ^a  "Sry  gelyfedan  ciiihtas,  Sidrac,  Misac,  Abdenago, 
]?e  Nabochodonosor  gesette  him  to  weorc-gerefan.  Eft,  Crist 
bebead  ]>iet  gehwa  sceolde  agildan  Sam  casere  \>iet  him  ge- 
byre^,  and  Gode  ]>set  him  gebyre^.  Petrus  se  apostol  bead 
eac  on  his  pistole  'Seowum  mannum  j'^et  lii  w;eron  heora 
hlaforde  getreowe  and  holde,  waere  se  hlaford  good,  wa*re  he 
yfel.  Sind  eac  sume  Babilonisce  ceaster-gewaran,  |>e^me 
"Senunga  doS  ]?a?re  heofonlican  Hierusalem  ;  swilcc  swa  wjeron 
ludei  ]>c  Crist  acvvealdon  us  to  alysednysse,  and  him  sylfum 
to  forwyrde ;  and  swilce  swa  sind  unrihtwise  liireowas  on 
Godes  gclaSunge,  be  'Sam  "Se  Crist  cwjeS  on  his  godspcllc, 
"DoS  swa  swa  hi  tfEcaS,  and  ne  do  ge  swa  swa  hi  doS." 
pus  sind  gemengde  J^a  godan  ceaster-gewaran  and  Sa  yfclan, 
swa  swa  corn  and  ceaf,  oS)>aet  se  Dema  cymS,  Se  gcgaderaS 
]>ip.t  clfene  corn  into  his  bcrne,  )>jet  sind  ]ni  rihtwisan  into 
heofonan  rice.  p;et  ceaf  he  forb<ernS  on  unadwaiscendlicum 
fyre,  forSan  'Se  ^aera  manfulra  smTc  astihS  on  ecnysse. 

Hiesus,  se  mtera  Godes  sacerd,  hedde  |)a^s  folces  lafe  ;pfter 
hund-seofontig  geara  fram  Babilonia  to  heora  earde,  and  Hie- 
rusalem ge-edstaSelode ;  forSan  Se  ure  Drihten  lesus  Chris- 
tus,  se^e  is  soS  Sacerd,  geliet  ]>a  dfedbetendan,  jeftcr  soSre 
daedbote,  to  Saere  uplican  Hierusalem,  ]>e  he  sylf  getimbrode 
and  gearcode  eallum  Sam  ]>e  hine  lufiaS.  Unt\r}'lice  on  Sisum 
andgite  us  biS  awend  J;aet  fifte  w»ter-faet  to  wynsumum  wTne, 
gif  we  cunniaS  hu  we  |?a  deofollican  Babilonian  forfleon  ma- 
gon,  and  becuman  to  ^aere  heofonlican  Hierusalem. 

On  Saere  sixtan  ylde  wear^  ure  Drihten  geflcESchamod  and 
to  menniscum  men  geboren,  and  on  Sam  eahteoSan  d;pge  his 
acennednysse  he  waes  ymsnyden  aefter  Moyses  te,  and  on  ^am 
feowerteoge^an  daege  he  waes  mid  aelicum  lacum  to  Godes 
temple  geferod,  and  raid  bletsunge  underfangen.  Cristes 
ymsnydennys  haefS  maenigfealde  getacnunga,  and   swa-Seah 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     69 

good  citizens,  and  the  evil  Babylon  has  evil  citizens.  Yet  are 
there  some  men  who  belong  to  the  heavenly  Jerusalem  and, 
nevertheless,  with  some  service  serve  Babylon  ;  as  were  the 
three  believing  youths,  Shadrach,  Mcshach  and  Abcd-nego, 
whom  Nebuchadnezzar  appointed  as  his  work-reeves.  Again, 
Christ  commanded  that  every  one  should  pay  to  C;esar  what 
was  due  to  him,  and  to  God  what  was  due  to  him.  Peter  the 
apostle  also,  in  his  epistle,  commanded  serving-men  to  be 
true  and  faithful  to  their  lord,  whether  the  lord  were  good, 
whether  he  were  evil.  There  are  also  some  Babylonian 
citizens  who  perform  some  services  to  the  heavenly  Jeru- 
salem ;  such  were  the  Jews  who  slew  Christ,  for  our  re- 
demption, and  for  destruction  to  themselves  ;  and  such  also 
are  unwise  teachers  in  God's  church,  of  whom  Christ  said 
in  his  gospel,  "  Do  as  they  teach,  and  do  ye  not  as  they 
do."  Thus  are  mingled  the  good  citizens  and  the  bad,  as 
corn  and  chaff,  until  the  Judge  comes,  who  shall  gather  the 
(Kan  corn  into  his  barn,  that  is,  the  righteous  into  the  king- 
dom of  heaven.  The  chalT  he  will  burn  in  unquenchable  fire, 
for  the  smoke  of  the  wicked  ascends  for  ever. 

Jesus,  the  great  priest  of  God,  led  the  remnant  of  the  j)eo- 
ple,  after  seventy  years,  from  Babylon  to  their  country,  and 
re-established  Jerusalem  ;  l)ccause  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
who  is  a  true  priest,  le.ids  the  penitent,  after  true  penitence, 
to  the  Jerusalem  on  high,  which  he  hiniself  constructed  and 
prepared  for  all  those  who  love  him.  Undoubtedly  in  this 
sense  the  fifth  water-vessel  will  be  turned  for  us  to  pleasant 
wine,  if  we  endeavour  how  we  may  flee  from  the  devilish 
BaJjylon,  and  come  to  the  heavenly  Jerusalem. 

In  the  sixth  age  our  Lord  was  incarnated  and  born  as  a 
human  being,  and  on  the  eighth  day  from  his  birth  he  was 
circumcised,  according  to  the  law  of  Moses,  and  on  the 
fortieth  day  he  was  with  the  lawful  gifts  borne  to  God's 
temple,  and  received  with  blessing.  The  circumcision  of 
Christ  has  manifold  significations,  and  yet  chiefly  points  to 


70  DOMINICA  II.  POST  AEPIPHAXIA  DOMINI. 

swi^ost  belimp^  to  "Sam  gemeenelicuni  aeriste  on  'Sissere 
worulde  geendunge,  on  ^sere  biS  seo  galnys  forwyrht,  and  on 
^aere  ablin^  aelc  hijemed,  and  biS  ure  deadlica  lichama  awend 
to  undeaSlicnysse,  and  we  beo^,  aefter  ^am  gcnifenelicum 
dome,  geferode  to  gesih^e  j^aes  godcundlican  Ma^genSrym- 
mes  mid  urum  lacum,  ]>8et  is,  mid  godum  weorcum,  and  we 
symle  sy^San  on  ^am  heofonlicum  temple  )?urhwunia5. 
Witodlice  mid  J^ssere  getacnunge  us  hvS  awend  j^aet  sixte 
waetcr-faet  to  deorwurSum  wine,  and  we  magon  clypian  so^- 
lice  to  Criste,  ]>tet  he  sparode  \xt  gode  win  o5  his  agenuni 
to-cyme,  j>aet  he  scencS  nu  geond  his  gelaSunge  o5  cnde 
)7ises  middaneardcs. 

pises  godspclles  traht  sprcc^  gyt  menigfealdlicor  ymbe  ^as 
wseter-fatu  and  heora  getticniingum,  ac  wc  ondrffduS  us  )>cet 
ge  "Sas  foresa'dan  gctacnunga  to  gymelcaste  doi5,  gif  wc  cow 
swiSor  be  5nm  gcrcccaS.  Sc  trahtnere  cwiS,  J)iet  ];set  gyftlice 
^us  M'aes  "Sry-flcre,  forban  Se  on  Godcs  gehiSunge  sind  )?ry 
stippas  gecorcnra  manna.  Sc  nj-^Semysta  sta'pe  is  on  ge- 
leaffuUum  laewcdum  mannum,  )'c  on  rihtum  sinscipe  wuniaS, 
swiSor  for  bearn-tcame  ]?onnc  for  gabiysse.  Se  o5er  sta^pe 
is  on  wydewan-liade,  |Je  aefter  rihtre  jewe  on  chennysse 
wuniaS,  for  begeate  |>aes  upplican  lifcs.  Se  hchsta  st^epe  is 
on  mapgSiiades  mannum,  pa  "Se  fram  cildhadc  cl.'enlice  Gode 
peowigende,  ealle  middancardlice  gwlsan  forhogiaS, 

"  Se  driht-ealdor  cwaeS  to  ^am  hrydguman,  -^Ic  man  syl^ 
on-foran  daege  his  gode  vrin,  and  pset  waccre  jjonne  "ba  gc- 
beoras  druncniaiS  j  ]m  so^lice  heolde  }>aet  gode  win  o^  ■Siss." 

Se  driht-ealdor  getacnab  ]>a.  lareowas  on  Codes  gelabunge  : 
hi  tociiawa^  ]'one  swaecc  Cristes  lare,  hu  micel  tostent  seo 
godspellice  so^faestnyss  fram  sceade  ^aere  ealdan  ae.  So^lice 
eal  seo  Ealde  Gecy^nys  waes  witegung  and  getacnung  fram 
Adanie  o^  lohannem  Baptistam,  and  witegode  obSe  mid 
Avordum  o^^e  mid  weorcum  Cristes  meuniscnysse  and  cris- 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  LORD'S  EPIPHANY.     71 

the  common  resurrection  on  the  ending  of  tliis  world,  at 
which  hist  will  be  extinguished,  and  at  which  all  cohabitation 
will  cease,  and  our  mortal  body  will  be  turned  to  immortality, 
and  we  shall  be,  after  the  universal  doom,  borne  to  the  sight 
of  the  divine  Majesty  with  our  gifts,  that  is,  with  good  works, 
and  we  shall  ever  after  continue  in  the  lieavenly  temple. 
Verily  with  this  signification  the  sixth  water-vessel  will  be 
t\irned  for  us  to  precious  wine,  and  we  may  truly  cry  to 
Christ  that  he  has  spared  the  good  wine  till  his  own  advent, 
which  he  now  pours  out  throughout  his  church  till  the  end  of 
this  world. 

The  exposition  of  this  gospel  speaks  yet  more  manifoldly 
concerning  these  water-vessels  and  their  significations,  but 
we  fear  that  ye  will  treat  witli  heedlessness  these  before-said 
significations,  if  we  relate  to  you  further  about  them.  The 
expositor  says  that  the  marriage-house  was  three-floored, 
because  in  God's  church  are  three  degrees  of  chosen  men. 
The  lowest  degree  is  of  believing  laymen,  who  live  in  lawful 
marriage,  more  for  the  sake  of  a  family  of  children  than  of 
lust.  The  second  degree  is  of  widows,  who  after  lawful 
matrimony  live  in  purity  for  the  attainment  of  the  heavenly 
life.  The  highest  degree  is  of  persons  of  the  virgin  Btate, 
who  from  childhood  purely  serving  God,  despise  earthly 
lusts. 

*'  The  lord  of  the  feast  said  to  the  bridegroom,  Every  man 
giveth  early  in  the  day  his  good  wine,  and  the  weaker  when 
the  guests  are  drunken  ;  but  thou  hast  holden  the  good  wine 
until  now." 

The  lord  of  the  feast  betokens  the  teachers  in  God's 
church  :  they  know  the  taste  of  Christ's  doctrine,  how  greatly 
evangelic  truth  differs  from  the  shadow  of  the  old  law.  But 
the  Old  Testament  was  prophecy  and  betokening  from  Adam 
to  John  the  Baptist,  and  prophesied  either  by  words  or  by 
works  the  humanity  of  Christ,  and  life  of  christian  men.    But 


72  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 

tenra  manna  lif.  Ac  ure  m^S  nis  ]>ist  we  ealle  Godes  ge- 
corenan  on  ^am  syx  yldum  ]7yssere  worulde  eow  namcuSlice 
gereccan  ;  god  we  tella^,  gif  we  "Syssera  gemyndige  beoS, 
]?e  ge  nu  gehyred  habbaS. 

"  pis  tacn  worhte  se  Haelend  on  angyinie  his  wundra,  on 
"Sam  Galileiscan  Ghana,  and  geswutelode  his  wuldor,  and  his 
leorning-cnihtas  on  hine  gelyfdon."  He  geswutelode  mid 
]7am  tacne  |?ffit  he  is  Wuldres  Cyning,  and  Brydguma  Ssere 
halgan  gelaSunge,  se^e  com  swa  swa  mann  to  gyftum  ge- 
laSod  ;  ac  he  awende  jjset  gesceaft,  swa  swa  vElmihtig  Scyp- 
pend.  And  swagetrymde  his  leorning-cnihtageleafaa  Htclend 
Grist,  seSe  IcofaJS  and  rixaS  mid  Feeder  and  Ilalgum  Gastc 
a  on  ecnysse.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 


DRIHTEN  sa?de  pis  bigspel  his  Icorning-cnilitum,  Kus 
cweSende,  Simile  est  regnum  ccclorum  homini  patrifamilias, 
qui  exiit  primo  mane  conducere  operarios  :  et  reliqua.  Se 
Hfelend  cwjeS  |>;et  hcofenan  rice  wtere  gelic  sumuni  hiredes 
ealdre,  se^e  ferde  on  eerne-merigen,  and  wolde  hyrian  wyrhtan 
into  his  wTngearde  :  et  reliqua. 

Gregorius  se  trahtnere  cwjeS,  ];aet  j^is  godspel  hiefS  langne 
tige  on  his  trahtnunge,  ^a  he  wile  mid  sceortre  race  befon, 
J7aet  hit  to  hefigtyme  ne  ^ince  )7am  heorcnigendum. 

Mine  gebroSra,  gelome  ic  eow  sxde  paet  heofonan  rice  ge- 
tacnaS  J>as  andwerdan  gelaSunge,  forSan  ])e  rihtwisra  manna 
gegaderung  is  gecweden  heofenan  rice.  Se  hircdes  ealdor  is 
lire  Scyppend,  seSe  gewylt  Sa  ^e  he  gesceop,  and  his  gecore- 
nan  on  ]>isum  middanearde  geagna"S,  swa  swa  hlaford  his  hired 
on  his  healle.  He  haefS  ]?one  wingeard  gewislice  ealle  ^a 
geleaffuUan  gela^unge,  swa  swa  se  witega  cwee^  Isaias, 
"  Soblice  Godes  wingeard  is  Israhela  hiwraeden."    Mid  )7am 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  73 

it  is  not  within  our  capacity  to  recount  to  you  by  name  all 
God's  chosen  in  the  six  a^es  of  this  world  ;  good  we  account 
it,  if  we  are  mindful  of  these  of  whom  ye  now  have  heard. 

"  This  miracle  Jesus  wrought  in  the  beginni  ng  of  his 
wonders,  in  the  Galilean  Cana,  and  manifested  his  glory,  and 
his  disciples  believed  in  him."  He  manifested  by  that  miracle 
that  he  is  the  King  of  Glory,  and  Bridegroom  of  the  holy 
church,  who  came  as  a  man  invited  to  the  marriage  ;  but  he 
turned  the  creature  as  Almighty  Creator.  And  so  confirmed 
the  belief  of  his  disciples  Jesus  Christ,  who  liveth  and  reigneth 
with  the  Father  and  tiie  Holy  Ghost  to  all  eternity.     Amen. 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY. 


TIIE  LORD  spake  this  parable  to  his  disciples,  thus  saying, 
Simile  est  regnum  C(L'lorum  homini  patrifamilias,  (jui  exiit 
[)rimo  mane  conducerc  operarios  :  et  relicjua.  Jesus  said  that 
the  kingdom  of  heaven  was  like  unto  a  chief  of  a  household, 
who  went  out  at  early  morn,  and  would  hire  workmen  into 
his  vineyard,  etc. 

Gregory  the  expositor  said  that  this  gospel  has  a  long 
series  for  its  exposition,  which  he  will  comprise  in  a  short 
discourse,  that  it  may  not  seem  too  tedious  to  the  hearers. 

My  brothers,  often  have  I  said  to  you  that  the  kingdom  of 
heaven  betokens  this  present  church,  because  a  gathering  of 
righteous  men  is  called  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  The  chief 
of  a  household  is  our  Creator,  who  rules  those  whom  he  has 
created,  and  owns  his  ciiosen  in  this  world,  as  a  lord  his 
houseiiold  in  his  hall.  He  has  certainly  for  a  vineyard  all 
the  believing  church,  as  the  prophet  Isaiah  said,  "  Verily 
God's  vineyard  is  the  house  of  Israel."     By  that  name  is 


?4  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 

naman  is  geswutelod  eal  Godes  folc.  Be  ^am  wingearde 
cwae^  Driliteii  to  ludeiscre  ^eode,  "  Ic  secge  eow,  |7aet  Godes 
rice  biS  eow  aetbroden,  and  bi^  forgyfen  Swre  ^eode  |>e  his 
waestmas  vvyrca^."  pes  ^vlngea^d  sprytte  Godes  gecorenan, 
frain  ^am  rihtwisan  Abel  oS  ^am  cndenextan  halgan  ^e  on 
ende  J^yssere  worulde  acenned  biS,  swilce  he  swa  fela  wtn- 
boga  getyddrode.  Witodlice  "Saes  hiredes  caldor  gehyrde 
M'yrhtan  into  his  wingearde  on  eerne-merigenj  eft  on  undern, 
and  on  midne  daeg,  on  non-tide,  and  on  Stere  endlyftan  tide ; 
forSan  ]}C  lie  frara  frymSe  middaneardcs  oShis  gecndiinge  no 
abliiiS  to  asendenne  bydelas  and  lareowas  to  herennc  his  folc, 
J>8et  hi  synile  \>a.  miswcaxendan  bogas  of-ascreadian,  j'iet  5a 
toweardan  ciconde  bcon.  Witodlice  gif  se  svingeard  nap.fS 
J?onc  ymbhwyrft,  and  ne  biS  onriht  gescrcadod,  ne  biS  he 
AVj-fistmbfere,  ac  for  hraJSc  awildaS.  Swa  eac  Godes  folc,  buton 
"Sa  lareowas  screadian  synile  5a  leahtras  )>urh  heora  lare  aweg, 
ne  bis  ])itt  laewcde  folc  wfestnibfere  on  goduni  weorcum. 
Eornostlicc  se  j'er-merigcn  w;ps  frain  Adam  o5  Noe,  se  undern 
fraiii  Noe  oi)  Abraham,  se  midda^gfram  Abraham  o 5  Moysen, 
se  non  frani  Moyse  o5  Drihtncs  to-cyme,  seo  endlyfte  tid 
fram  Drihtncs  accnnednysse  o5  ende  j'ises  middaneardcs. 
Drihten  sendc  his  wyrhtan  on  callum  ))isum  foresa^dum  tiduni 
to  beganne  his  wingeard  ;  for5an  5e  he  asende  wrest  heah- 
faederas  to  Itierenne  his  folc,  and  si55an,  a^lice  lareowas  and 
witegan,  and  ret  nextan  his  apostolas,  and  ^urh  ^a  his  folces 
•Seawas  beeode,  swilce  he  5urli  wyrhtan  on  wingeardes  big- 
gencge  swunce. 

^Ic  '58era  manna  ]>e  mid  rihtuni  geleafan  god  weorc  beeode 
Tvaes  untwylice  5ises  wingeardes  wyrhta.  Se  merigenlica 
tilia,  and  j^aere  Sriddan  tide,  and  |>aere  sixtan,  and  Saere 
nigoSan,  getacnia^  )>set  ealde  Ebreisce  folc,  ]?e  fram  frym^e 
middaneardcs  mid  rihtum  geleafan  God  wurSode,  swilce  hi 
swmicon  on  wingeardes  biggencge  mid  gecneordlicere  teo- 
Imige.  To  ^aere  endlyftan  tide  so^lice  wurdon  ]>a  hae^enan 
geclypode,  and  J^am  waes  gesced,  "  To  h\n  staiide  ge  her  ealne 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  75 

declared  all  God's  people.  Of  the  vineyard  the  Lord  said  to 
the  Jewish  nation,  "  I  say  unto  you,  that  the  kingdom  of 
God  shall  be  withdrawn  from  you,  and  given  to  the  people 
who  cultivate  his  fruits."  This  vineyard  produced  God's 
chosen,  from  the  righteous  Abel  to  the  last  saint  which  shall 
be  born  at  the  end  of  this  world,  as  if  it  sent  forth  so  many 
vine- boughs.  Verily  the  chief  of  the  household  hired  work- 
men into  his  vineyard,  at  early  morn,  again  at  the  third  hour, 
and  at  mid-day,  at  noontide,  and  at  the  eleventh  hour  j  because 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world  till  its  ending,  he  ceases 
not  to  send  mes:!cngers  and  teachers  to  teach  his  people,  that 
tlicy  may  constantly  prune  off  the  misgrowing  boughs,  that 
the  future  ones  may  be  thriving.  Verily  if  the  vineyard  have 
not  compass,  and  be  not  rightly  pruned,  it  will  not  be  fruit- 
hearing,  but  Mill  very  soon  become  wild.  In  like  manner 
the  people  of  God,  unless  teachers  constantly  prune  away  sins 
by  their  teaching,  the  lay-people  will  not  be  fruit-bearing 
in  good  works.  Verily  the  early  morn  was  from  Adam  till 
\Noah,  the  third  hovir  from  Noah  till  Abraham,  the  mid-day 
from  Al)raham  till  Moses,  the  noon  from  Moses  till  the 
Lord's  advent,  the  eleventh  hour  from  the  birth  of  the  Lord 
till  the  end  of  this  world.  Tiie  Lord  sent  his  workmen  at 
all  these  aforesaid  times  to  cultivate  his  vineyard  ;  for  he  sent 
first  patriarchs  to  teach  his  people,  and  afterwards  teachers 
of  the  law  and  proi)hets,  and  at  last  his  apostles,  and  through 
these  cultivated  the  morals  of  his  people,  as  if  by  workmen 
he  had  laboured  in  the  cultivation  of  a  vineyard. 

Each  of  those  men,  who  with  right  belief  cultivated  good 
works,  was  undoubtedly  a  workman  of  this  vineyard.  The 
morning  husl)andman,  and  those  of  the  third  hour,  and  of  the 
sixth,  and  of  the  ninth,  betoken  the  old  Hebrew  people,  who 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world  have  worshiped  God  with 
right  belief,  as  if  they  had  laboured  on  the  cultivation  of  the 
vineyard  with  diligent  tilling.  At  the  eleventh  hour  verily 
the  heathen  were  called,  and  to  them  was  said,  '*  Why  stand 


76  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 

dcfig  ydele  ? "  pa  hae^enan  stodon  ealne  dxg  ydele,  for  San  ^e 
la  forgymeleasodon  J^aes  ecan  lifes  teolunge  on  swa  lang- 
sumere  tide  middaneardes.  Ac  understandaiS  hu  hi  and- 
wyrdan  J?ees  wingeardes  hlaforde  :  hi  cwiedon,  "  ForSan  J>e 
nan  man  us  ne  hyrde."  Witodlice  mss  nan  heahftf'der,  ne 
nan  witega  asend  to  liJcSenum  folce,  ]>e  lieora  gedwyld  behlgc, 
a?r  Drihtncs  to-cyme  |?urh  his  menniscnysse.  II\v?et  is  to 
cweSenne,  J^fet  nan  man  us  to  Sam  wTngearde  ne  gehyrde, 
baton  J^.-et  nan  man  us  ne  bodade  lifes  weig  ? 

Mine  gebroSra,  hwylce  bcladunge  mage  we  habban,  gif  we 
godra  Aveorca  gcswicaS,  we  tSe  fram  cild-cradole  to  Godcs 
geleafan  comon  ?  Wc  magon  eac  tias  ylcan  mislicnyssa  Siera 
forestiedra  tida  to  aniun  gchwylcum  menn  }>urh  his  ylda  tidum 
todr'elan.  Witodlice  urcs  andgites  merigen  is  ure  cildhad, 
ure  cnihthad  swylce  undcrn-tid,  on  jnim  astihb  ure  geogoS, 
swa  swa  seo  sunne  dc5  ymbe  ]7ivTC  ISriddan  tide  ;  ure  fulfre- 
meda  waestni  swa  swa  middieg,  forSan  be  on  midne  d;pg  biS 
seo  sunne  on  Sam  ufemcstum  rync  stigcndc,  swa  swa  se  ful- 
fremeda  wfestm  biS  on  fulre  strencSe  |?e6nde.  Seo  non-tid 
bib  ure  yld,  forSan  ^e  on  non-tide  asiiib  seo  sunne,  and  ^aes 
ealdigendan  manncs  m^egen  bib  wanigcnde.  Seo  endlyfte  tid 
bi^  seo  forwcrodc  ealdnyss,  |>am  deabe  gencala^cende,  swa 
swa  seo  sunne  setlunge  gencala^hb  on  )?aes  dfcges  geendunge. 
Eornostlice  ]jonne  gume  beob  gelcedde  on  cildhade  to  goduni 
"beawum  and  rihtum  life,  sume  on  cnibthade,  sume  on  gcbun- 
genum  wsestme,  sume  on  ylde,  sume  on  forwerodre  ealdnysse  ; 
J>onne  bib  hit  swylce  hi  beon  on  mislicum  tidum  to  "bam  win« 
gearde  gelabode. 

Mine  gebroSra,  behealda^  eowere  "beawas,  and  gif  ge  gyt 
Godcs  wyrhtan  sind,  sceawia^.  Smeage  gehwilc  hwaet  he 
de^,  and  behealde  hwaeber  he  on  Godes  wingearde  swince. 
Se  ^e  on  andwerdum  life  him  sylfum  teolab,  and  na  Gode, 
ne  com  se  na  gyt  binnon  Godes  wingearde.  pa  tylia^  sob- 
lice  Gode,  l^a  ^e  ne  secab  heora  agen  gestreon  -burh  gytsunge, 
ac  smeaga^  ymbe  Godes  teolunge,  hu  hi  magon  unriht  alec- 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  77 

ye  here  all  day  idle?"  The  heathen  stood  all  day  idle, 
because  they  had  neglected  the  cultivation  of  eternal  life 
during  so  long  a  time  of  tlie  world.  But  understand  how 
they  answered  the  lord  of  the  vineyard  :  they  said,  "  Because 
no  man  hath  hired  us."  For  there  was  no  patriarch,  nor 
prophet  sent  to  the  heathen  people,  who  might  refute  their 
error,  before  the  Lord's  advent  tiirough  his  humanity.  What 
is  it  to  say,  that  no  man  hath  hired  us  into  the  vineyard,  ex- 
cept that  no  man  hath  preached  to  us  the  May  of  life  ? 

My  brothers,  what  justification  can  we  have,  if  we  abstain 
from  good  works,  we  who  from  the  child-cradle  came  to 
God's  belief?  We  may  also  divide  the  saine  unlikencsses  of 
the  before-said  times  according  to  the  periods  of  every  man's 
age.  The  morning  of  our  understanding  is  evidently  our 
childhood ;  our  boyhood  is,  as  it  were,  the  third  hour,  on  which 
rises  our  youth,  as  the  sun  docs  about  tiiat  time  ;  our  com- 
plete growth  as  mid-day,  for  at  mid-day  the  sun  is  rising  in 
his  iiighest  course,  even  as  complete  growth  is  flourishing  in 
full  strength.  The  noon-tide  is  our  age,  for  at  noon-tide  the 
sun  sinks,  and  the  senescent  man's  power  is  waning.  The 
eleventh  hour  is  worn-out  age,  approaching  to  death,  as  the 
sun  approaches  its  setting  at  the  day's  ending.  Verily  some 
arc  led  in  childhood  to  good  courses  and  righteous  life,  some 
in  youth,  some  in  mature  growth,  some  in  age,  some  in  worn- 
out  agedness  ;  then  is  it  as  though  they  had  at  divers  times 
been  called  to  the  vineyard. 


My  brothers,  behold  your  cotuluct,  and  see  if  ye  yet  are 
God's  workmen.  Let  every  one  consider  what  he  docs,  and 
behold  whether  he  labours  in  God's  vineyard.  He  who  in 
the  present  life  toils  for  himself,  and  not  for  God,  is  not  yet 
come  within  God's  vineyard.  They  truly  toil  for  God  who 
seek  not  their  own  gain  through  covctousncss,  but  meditate 
on   God's  tillage,  how  they  may  suppress  \nirighteousness 


78  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA, 

gan,  and  rihtwisnysse  fyr^rian,  o^runi  menn  fremigan  mid 
gecneordnysse  ^aere  soSan  lufe,  and  Sa  "Se  caria^  mid  wacelum 
mode  hu  hi  o^ra  manna  sawla  Gode  gestrynan,  and  mid  him 
to  "Sam  ecan  life  gelfedan.  Se  be  him  sylfuni  leofalS,  and  se 
^e  on  his  fliesclicum  lustum  liS,  rihtlice  he  is  ydel  geSread  ; 
forSan  5e  he  ue  teola^  nanes  waestmes  j^aes  godcundlican 
weorces. 

pa  "Se  mid  gymelcaste  heora  dagas  aspendab,  and  nelhvS 
Gode  lyhban  oS  heora  endencxtan  yhle,  hi  standaS  ydele  o^ 
•Sa  endenextan  tide.  To  swilcum  sleacum  cwe^  se  hiredcs 
ealdor,  "  To  hwt  stande  ge  her  eahic  dieg  ydele  ?"  Swilce  he 
swutcllice  cwccde,  '  Gif  ge  noldon  Gode  lybbaii  on  cildhiidc, 
ne  on  geogoSe,  gecyrraS  nu  huru- JSinga  on  ylde  to  lifcs  wege, 
nu  ge  habbaS  hwonlice  to  swincenne.'  And  swa-5cah  Syllice 
gelaSaS  se  hiredes  hlaford,  and  forwel  oft  hi  onfoiS  heora 
cdlean  hraSor,  forSan  ^e  hi  gewitaJS  to  hcofcnan  rice  hrfpd- 
licor  Jjonne  5a  ^e  fram  cildluide  Gode  )>eo\vodon.  Witodlice 
se  scea^a  )>e  mid  Criste  )>ro\vade,  and  on  hinc  gclyfonde  his 
synna  geandette,  com  on  "Sa^re  endlyftan  tide,  na  Surh  ylde, 
ac  "Surh  yfelnysse.  Scyldig  he  w;rs  to  hcilicerc  susle  for  his 
mandiedum,  ac  he  geandette  his  synna  Drihtnc  sylfum  on 
baere  rode-hcngene  mid  fulhun  gcleafan,  and  Cristcs  mild- 
sunge  ))isum  wordum  abfed,  "  Drihten,  beo  min  gemyndig 
]?onne  ^u  cymst  to  binum  rice."  Drihten  him  aiuhvyrde, 
"  So^  ic  "be  secge,  nu  to-daeg  J>u  bist  mid  me  on  ueorxena 
wange." 

Witodlice  fram  bam  endenextan  ongann  se  hiredes  ealdor 
to  agyldenne  Jjone  pening,  ba^a  he  gclaedde  ])one  scea^an  into 
heofenan  rice,  sermon  ^e  he  leedde  Petrum  obbe  his  obre 
apostolas,  and  rihtlice  swa,  for^an  ^e  se  scea^a  gelyfde  on 
•bam  timan  on  Crist,  ))aba  his  apostolas  on  mycelre  tvvynung 
waeron.  Eala  hti  fela  heahfaederas  aer  Moyses  ae  rihtlice 
leofodon,  and  hu  fela  witegan  under  ]?aere  ae  Gode  gecwemlice 
drohtnodon,  and  hi  s\va-t5eah  naeron  gelaedde  to  heofonan 
rice  ^r^an  ^e  Drihten  ni^er-astah,  sebe  neorxena  wanges 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  79 

and  further  righteousness,  and  benefit  other  men  with  the 
diligence  of  true  love,  and  they  who  care  with  watchful  mind 
how  they  may  gain  the  souls  of  other  men  to  God,  and  lead 
them  with  them  to  everlasting  life.  lie  who  lives  for  him- 
self, and  he  who  lies  in  his  fleshly  lusts,  is  rightly  accused  of 
idleness  ;  for  he  cultivates  no  fruit  of  divine  work. 

They  who  with  heedlessness  waste  their  days,  and  will  not 
live  to  God  till  their  last  age,  stand  idle  till  the  last  hour. 
To  such  slack  ones  the  chief  of  the  household  says,  "  Wliy 
stand  yc  here  all  day  idle?"  As  if  he  had  manifestly  said, 
'  If  ye  would  not  live  to  God  in  childhood,  nor  in  youth,  turn 
now  at  least  in  age  to  the  way  of  life,  now  ye  have  but  little 
to  labour.'  And,  nevertheless,  the  lord  of  the  household  calls 
such  ones,  and  very  often  they  receive  their  reward  sooner, 
for  they  pass  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven  more  speedily  than 
those  who  have  served  God  from  childhood.  Verily  the  thief 
who  sufi"ered  with  Christ,  and,  believing  in  him,  confessed  his 
sins,  came  at  the  eleventh  hour,  not  through  age,  but  through 
evil.  Obnoxious  he  was  to  hellish  torment  for  his  deeds  of 
wickedness,  but  he  confessed  his  sins  to  the  Lord  himself  on 
the  cross  with  full  belief,  and  in  these  words  prayed  for 
Christ's  mercy,  "  Lord,  be  mindful  of  me  when  thou  comest 
to  thy  kingdom."  The  Lord  answered  him,  "Verily  I  say 
unto  thee,  now  to-day  thou  shalt  be  with  me  in  paradise." 

Verily  from  the  eleventh  hour  the  chief  of  the  household 
began  to  pay  the  penny,  Mhen  he  led  the  thief  into  the  king- 
dom of  heaven,  before  he  led  Peter  or  his  other  apostles,  and 
rightly  so,  for  the  thief  believed  in  Christ  at  a  time  when  his 
apostles  were  in  great  doubt.  Alas,  how  many  patriarchs 
before  the  law  of  Moses  rightly  lived,  and  how  many  pro- 
phets under  the  old  law  passed  their  days  acceptably  to  God, 
and  yet  were  not  led  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven  before  the 
Lord  descended,  who  by  his  own  death  opened  the  fastness 


80  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESLMA. 

faesten  mid  his  ageiium  deaSe  geopcnode,  and  hi  Sa  mid  lang- 
sumere  elcunge  heora  mede  iindcrfcngon,  ]'a  ^e  we  buton 
elcunge,  j'cerrihte  swa  we  of  urum  lichaman  gewitaJS,  under- 
foS.  SoSlice  (5a  ealdan  heahfiederas  and  geJSungene  witegan 
bferon  "Sa  byrSene  and  ^aes  dseges  h;ietaii,  forcSan  Se  hi  frani 
angiune  niiddancardes  oS  Cristes  to-cyme  on  helliccrc  cly- 
sungc  andbidodon,  j>eah  be  hi  on  Abrahanies  wununge  buton 
pinungum  for  hcora  godnysse  wunedon,  and  swilcc  ifftcr 
ceorunge  |?onc  pening  undcrfengon,  JSaSa  hi  jeftcr  hingsunicre 
tide  to  heofonan  bccomon.  Witodlice  no  nndcrfciiJS  n;in 
ccorigende  sawul  Godcs  rice,  ne  nan  ceorian  ne  ma^g,  se^e 
to  ^ani  becynib.  Ac  jvnera  ealdf;edcra  ceorung  is  to  nndcr- 
standennc  heora  gnornung,  j'a^t  liT  rilitlice  for  licofonan  rice 
leofodon,  and  swa-JJeah  mid  hmgsuniere  elcunge  hit  undcr- 
fengon. We  soSlice,  pe  to  ^.-erc  endlyftan  tide  conion,  a'fter 
nrum  geswince,  natcshwon  ne  ccoriaJ),  and  we  underfoii  ))one 
pening,  forSan  we  Se  cumaS  .pfter  )>a^s  ILolendes  niemiisc- 
iiysse,  we  beoS  gelanlde  to  his  rice  )>a?rrihte  fefter  urnni  f()r^- 
siSc,  gif  we  jer  on  life  rihtlice  leofodon  ;  and  we  Sonne  buton 
yldingc  underfoS  j^aet  |)fet  ^a  ealdf;ederas  fefter  langsuniere 
elcunge  underfengon  :  be  Sam  cwa^S  sc  hiredes  ealdor,  "  Ic 
wille  syllan  Sisuni  endenextum  eal  swa  micel  swa  ^e.'' 

And  forSan  |^e  sco  onfangenes  jws  rices  is  of  Godcs  god- 
nysse,  rihtlice  is  her  bieftan  gecweden  on  cndebyrdnysse  ]7fes 
godspellcs,  "La  hu,  ne  mot  ic  don  ]>iet  ic  wille?"  Dyslic 
biS  mamies  ceas  ongean  Codes  godnysse.  Sum  ceorung 
mihte  beon,  gif  he  his  behat  ne  geljeste,  and  nan,  ^eah  ^e  he 
mare  ne  sealde.  Be  Sam  is  gytgclimplice  gecweden,  *'  055e 
^in  eage  is  yfel,  forSan  |?e  ic  eom  god  ?"  Ne  onhebbe  bine 
nan  man  on  his  weorcum,  ne  on  langsumum  Seowdome, 
j;onne  seo  SocSfjestnys  clypaS,  "  pus  beob  )?a  endenextan  fyr- 
meste,  and  ]?a  fyrmestan  endenexte."  Efne  nu,  ^eah  we  wMton 
hu  fela  god,  o^^e  hu  micele  we  gefremodon,  nyte  we  ^eah 
gyt  mid  hwylcere  smeaSancelnysse  se  upplica  Dema  ^a  afan- 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  81 

of  paradise,  and  they  then,  after  a  loiii^some  delay,  received 
their  reward,  whicli  we  without  delay,  straightways  as  we 
depart  from  our  bodies,  receive.  Verily  the  old  patriarchs 
and  venerable  prophets  bare  the  burthen  and  heat  of  the  day, 
for  they  fnjni  the  beginning  of  the  world  till  the  advent  of 
Christ  waited  in  the  enclosure  of  hell,  though,  for  their  good- 
ness, they  dwelt  in  Abraham's  dwelling  without  torments, 
and,  as  it  were,  after  murmuring  received  the  penny,  when 
after  a  longsome  time  they  went  to  heaven.  Verily  no  mur- 
muring soul  receives  God's  kingdiiin,  nor  may  any  one 
nuirmur  who  comes  to  it.  But  by  the  murmuring  of  the  old 
fathers  is  to  be  understood  their  mourning,  because  they  had 
rightly  lived  for  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  and  yet  received  it 
after  a  long  delay.  But  we,  who  come  at  the  eleventh  hour, 
after  our  labour,  murmur  not  at  all,  and  we  receive  the  penny, 
because  we  who  come  after  the  humanity  of  Jesus  will  be  led 
to  his  kingdom  immediately  after  our  death,  if  we  have  pre- 
viously lived  rightly  in  life  ;  and  we  then  without  delay  shall 
receive  that  which  the  old  fathers  received  after  long  ex- 
pectation :  of  these  the  chief  of  the  household  says,  '*  I  will 
give  to  these  last  as  much  as  to  thee." 

And  because  the  reception  of  the  kingdom  is  of  God's 
goodness,  it  is  here  afterwards  rightly  said  in  the  course  of 
the  gospel,  "What,  may  1  not  do  what  I  will?"  Foolish  is 
man's  contention  against  the  goodness  of  God.  Some  mur- 
muring there  might  be,  if  he  performed  not  his  promise,  but 
none  though  he  gave  not  more.  Of  this  it  is  yet  justly 
said,  "  Or  is  thine  eye  evil  because  I  am  good  ?  "  Let  no 
man  exalt  himself  on  his  works,  nor  on  long  service,  when 
the  Truth  e.xelaims,  "Thus  shall  the  last  be  first,  and  the 
first  last."  Lo  now,  though  we  may  know  how  much  or  how 
great  good  we  have  performed,  we  know  not  yet  with  what 
scrutiny  the  Judge  on   high  will  try  it  ;  and  surely  it  is  for 

HOM.  VOL.  N.  o 


fl2  DOMIXICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 

da^  ;  and  witodlice  gehwilcum  men  is  Searlc  to  blissigcnne, 
J^eah  "Se  he  endenext  on  Godes  rice  sy  gcendcbyrd. 

pises  godspelles  geendung  is  swiSe  ondra?dendIic  :  "  Fela 
sind  gela^ode,  and  feawa  gecorene."  Drihtcn  cwjeJS  on  ocire 
stovve,  l^c'et  "  fela  cumaS  fram  east-dtele  and  frani  wcst-da>lo, 
and  gerestaS  mid  j'am  hcalifffiderum,  Abrahume,  and  Isaiice, 
and  lacobe,  on  heofenan  rice."  Hwa^t  eac  jjcs  ylca  trahtnere, 
Gregorius,  on  sumes  oSres  godspelles  trahtnunge,  cwhpS,  j'iPt 
Bvva  micel  werod  menniscra  manna  sceal  astigan  ]>cjet  hcofon- 
lice  rice,  swa  fela  swa  "bcera  gecorenra  engla  on  heofonum 
belifon  aefter  "Saera  modigra  gasta  hryre.  peah  JSa  gecorenan 
Godes  cempan  sind  feawa  gebuhte  on  andwerdum  life  betwux 
fla^sclicum  mannuni,  JSe  heora  lustum  gehyisumiaJS,  ac  hi  ne 
beo5  feawa  Sonne  hi  gegaderode  beoJS.  Ne  gedafenaJS  )>am 
gastlicum  pjet  hi  5am  fltesclicum  geefenhecon,  ne  hi  hnxlice 
forseon,  forSan  "Se  we  gescoJS  hw^et  nu  to-d;pg  is,  ac  we  nyton 
hwffit  to-merigen  biS  toweard.  Forwel  oft  cyniS  se  bicftan  us, 
\>e  us  mid  swyftnysse  godre  drohtnunge  forestappS ;  and  we 
earfoiSlice  him  filiaS  to-merigen,  seSe  nu  to-d;eg  is  ure  folgcre 
geSuht.  Witodlice  SaSa  se  forma  cyJScre,  Stcphanus,  for 
Godes  geleafan  gestf^ned  w;es,  Sauhis  heold  ealra  JS^ra  stje- 
nendra  hacelan,  and  swa-tieah  Paulus  siSSan  forestop  Ste- 
phanum  on  Godes  gclaSungc  mid  mcnigfcaldum  geswincuin, 
]?one  ^e  he  <er  ehteude  martyr  gemacode. 

Twa  Sing  sind  j^e  we  sceolon  carfuUice  scrutnian  :  jerest, 
\>adt  lire  nan  be  him  sylfum  to  dyrstelice  ne  truwige  ;  sySSan, 
|>aet  ure  nan  be  his  nextan  ne  geortruwige,  Seah  Se  he  on 
leahtrum  befeallen  sy ;  for^an  J>e  us  sind  uncuSe  j^a  micclan 
welan  Godes  mildheortnysse.  pyssere  mildheortnysse  welan 
besceawode  se  sealm-sceop,  iSa^a  he  to  Gode  pus  clypode, 
"  Min  Gefylsta,  Se  ic  singe,  for^an  Se  Su,  God,  eart  min 
Andfenga,  min  God,  and  min  Mildheortnyss."  Efne  se  psalm- 
wyrhta  understod  on  hwilcum  gcdcorfum  ]?is  mennisce  Iff  is 
gelogod,  and  for^i  clypode  God  his  Gefylsta.  He  gecTgde 
Drihten  his  Andfenga,  for^an  Se  he  underfehS  (is  into  ecere 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  83 

every  man  greatly  to  rejoice,  tliough  he  be  placed  last  in 
order  in  the  kingdom  of  God. 

The  ending  of  this  gospel  is  very  a\\  ful  :  "  Many  are  called, 
and  few  chosen."  The  Lord  has  said  in  another  place,  that 
"  many  shall  come  from  the  cast  part  and  from  the  west  part, 
and  shall  rest  with  the  patriarchs,  Abraham,  and  Isaac,  and 
Jacob,  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven."  And  the  same  expounder 
also,  Gregory,  in  the  exposition  of  another  gospel,  said,  that 
as  great  a  number  of  human  beings  shall  ascend  to  the 
heavenly  kingdom  as  there  was  of  chosen  angels  remaining 
in  heaven  after  the  fall  of  the  proud  spirits.  Though  the 
chosen  champions  of  God  seem  few  in  the  present  life  among 
fleshly  men  who  obey  their  lusts,  yet  are  they  not  few  wlun 
they  are  gathered.  It  befits  not  the  ghostly  to  imitate  the 
fleshly,  nor  contumeliously  to  despise  them,  for  we  see  what 
is  now  to-day,  l)ut  we  know  not  what  is  to  come  to-morrow. 
Very  often  he  comes  after  us,  who  had  preceded  us  in  swift- 
ness of  good  conduct ;  and  we  with  difliculty  follow  him  to- 
morrow who  to-day  seems  to  be  our  follower.  For  when  the 
first  martyr,  Stephen,  was  stoned  for  God's  faith,  Saul  held 
the  garments  of  all  the  stoners,  and,  nevertheless,  Paul  after- 
wards preceded  Stephen  in  God's  church  with  many  labours, 
whom  he  had  before  persecuting  made  a  martyr. 


There  are  two  things  that  we  should  carefully  attend  to  : 
first,  that  none  of  us  be  too  boldly  confident  in  himself;  next, 
that  none  of  us  despair  of  his  neighbour,  though  he  have 
fallen  into  sins  ;  for  the  great  abundance  of  God's  mercy  is 
unknown  to  us.  The  psalmist  contemplated  this  abundance 
of  mercy,  wlun  he  thus  cried  to  God,  *'  My  Helper,  thee  I 
sing,  for  thou,  God,  art  my  Receiver,  my  God,  and  my 
Mercy."  Verily  the  psalmist  \mderstood  in  what  tribula- 
tions this  human  life  is  i)laced,  and,  therefore,  called  God  his 
Helper.     He  called  (jod  his  Receiver,  because  he  receives  us 

G  2 


84  DOMINICA  SEPTUAGESIMA. 

teste,  fram  Sisum  andweardum  geswince.     He  beheold  I'let 
God  gesih^  ure  yfelnyssa,  and  urc  gyltas  forbyldgaS ;  and 
swa-^eah  he  spara^  us  arfaestlice,  and  biirh  behreowsimge  to 
"Saere  ecan  mede  gehylt.     Da  nolde  he  gecigan  God  n\ild- 
heortne,  ac  het  hine  his  Mildheortnyss,  ]>\is  cweSende,  "  MTii 
God  and  nun  Mildheortnyss."     Uton  gemunan   \ire  i^rran 
sjTina,  and  uton  besceawian  ^a  niicchvn  Godes  arfa^stnysse, 
hu  he  uruni  gyltuni  niiltsaS,  and  5{er-t()-oacan  |>a^t  heofonlice 
rice  behiet  soSlice  da^dbetendum  iefter  gyltum.      Uton  forSi 
ealle  clypian  mid  inweardre  hcortan,  swa  swa  se  sealm-sceop 
clypode,  "  pu  eart  min  God  and  niTn  Mildheortnys."     Godes 
mildheortnys  us  forestfppS,  and  his  niihlheortnys  us  fyligS. 
paSa  we  wel  noldon,  5a  forliradode  Godes  mildheortnys  us 
Jjaet  we  wel  woldon.     Nu  wo  wel   willaJS,  us   fyligS  Godes 
mildheortnys  j^a^t  ure  willa  ydcl   ne  sy.      He  gearcaS  urnc 
godan  willan  to  fultumigenne,  and  he  fylst  ISani  willan  gc- 
gearcodne,  seSe  leofaJS  and  rixaS  nu  and  symle  on  woruldc. 
Amen. 


We  willab  eow  secgan  be  ^yssere  andweardan  tide,  hwi  seo 
halige  gelaSung  forhet   on    Godes    cyrcan    '  AUeluian  ^  and 
'  Gloria  in  excelsis  Deo,'  fram  Sisum  andwerdum  d;pge  o5 
J)a  halgan  Easter-tide.     Sum  wis  lareow  hatte  Amalarius,  se 
avvrat  ane  boo  be  cyrclicum   Seawum,  hwaet  tia  gesetnyssa 
Godes  ]7enunga  of  gearlicum  ymbryne  getucnia^,  and  cwa^JS 
be  Syssere  andwerdan  tide,  ]>e  is  gecweden  Septuagesima,  ]>{et 
heo  gefylS  ba  gctacnunge  ]>fera  hund-seofontig  gcara  )>e  Isra- 
hela  folc  on  haeftnede  Babiloniscuni  cyninge  |7eowde.     Se- 
ptuagesima is  hund-seofontigfeald  getel.     Seo  tid  ongin^  on 
"Sisum  Sunnan-daege,  nigon  wucon  eer  Eastron,  and  geenda^ 
on  ^am  Saternes-dfpge  J»aere  Easterlican  wucan  :  toiSam  daege 
sind  heonon  getealde  hund-seofontig  daga ;  and  \>i£t  Israhcla 
folc,   for    heora   mandcedum    and    forg;egednyssinn,   wurdon 
gehergode,  and  hund-seofontig  geara  on  Babiloniscum  |'eow- 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  85 

into  everlasting  rest  from  this  present  labour.  He  beheld 
that  God  sees  our  evihiesses,  and  patiently  bears  with  our 
sins  ;  and  yet  he  kindly  spares  us,  and  through  penitence 
preserves  us  for  the  eternal  reward.  He  would  not  ihen  call 
God  merciful,  but  called  him  his  Mercy,  thus  saying,  "  My 
G<k1  and  my  Mercy."  Let  us  remember  our  former  sins, 
and  let  us  contemplate  the  great  kindness  of  God,  how  he 
pities  our  sins,  and,  moreover,  promises  the  heavenly  king- 
dom to  the  truly  penitent  after  sins.  Let  us,  therefore,  all 
cry  with  inward  heart,  as  the  psalmist  cried,  "Thou  art  my 
God  and  my  Mercy."  God's  mercy  goes  before  us,  and  his 
mercy  follows  us.  When  we  desired  not  well,  God's  mercy 
has  prevented  us,  so  that  we  have  desired  well.  Now  we  will 
well,  God's  mercy  follows  us  that  our  will  be  not  vain.  He 
will  be  ready  to  support  our  good  will,  and  he  will  aid  the 
ready  will,  wlio  liveth  and  reigneth  now  and  for  ever.    Amen. 


We  will  say  to  you  at  this  present  tide,  why  the  holy  con- 
gregation onnts  in  God's  church  '  Ilalklujah'  and  '  (ilori.i  in 
excelsis  Deo,'  from  this  present  day  until  the  holy  Easter- 
tide. There  was  a  wise  doctor  called  Amalarius,  who  wrote 
a  book  on  ecclesiastical  customs,  what  the  ceremonies  of 
God's  services  of  yearly  recurrence  betoken,  and  said  of  this 
present  tide,  which  is  called  Septuagesima,  that  it  fulfils 
the  betokening  of  the  seventy  years  that  the  people  of  Israel 
served  the  king  of  Babylon  in  captivity.  Septuagesima  is  a 
seventyfold  number.  Tlie  tide  begins  on  this  Sunday,  nine 
weeks  before  Easter,  and  ends  on  the  Saturday  of  the  Easter- 
\veek  :  hence  to  that  day  are  reckoned  seventy  days,  and  the 
Israelitish  folk,  for  their  wicked  deeds  and  transgressions, 
were  harrowed,  and   for   seventy  years  continued  in   Baby- 


86  DOMINICA  SEFTUAGESIMA. 

dome,  butoii  blisse  and  myrhSe,  wunodon.  Nu  hylt  Godos 
gelaSung  ]?is  hund-seofontigfealde  getel  sylfwilles  for  hire 
gyltum,  swa  swa  se  ealda  Israhel  neadunge  heold  on  lueft- 
nunge,  o^]?8et  se  mildheorta  God  eft,  fefter  lieora  gedrcfed- 
nyssum,  hi  ahredde,  and  to  heora  earde  gelaedde. 

Se  witega  Hieremias  witegode  be  ^fere  Israhela  Seode,  })tet 
hi  sceoldon,  on  "Sam  hund-seofontig  geara  faece,  geswican 
blisse  stemne  and  ffegnunge,  brydguman  stemne  and  bryde. 
Nu  on  ^aere  gelicnysse  forl^taS  Godes  ^eowas  Sa  lieofonlican 
lofsangas,  *  AUcluian  '  and  '  Gloria  in  excelsis  Deo,'  on  JSis- 
sere  Septuagesinia,  forSan  |>e  us  gcdafenab  ptet  we  sylfwilles 
frani  ^isum  andwcrdan  d.'Pge  mid  sunicre  stiSnysse  to  Sam 
gastlicum  gefeohte  us  sylfe  gcgearcian,  swa  swa  seo  cyrclice 
}?enung  us  manaS  to  heofunge  and  to  ure  synna  bereowsunge. 

/Erest  on  «Swre  mressan  officio  we  singab  '  Circumdedcrunt 
me  gemitus  mortis  *:  *  Dea}>cs  geomerunga  mc  bccodon,  and 
hclle  sarnyssa  me  bccodon,  and  ic  on  minrc  gcdrcfcchiysse 
Drihten  clypode,  and  he  of  his  halgan  temple  mine  stemne 
gehyrde.'  Eft,  on  Stere  mfpssan  coilcctan  we  cwcSaS,  *  Qui 
juste  pro  pcccatis  nostris  affligimur,'  ]>iEt  is,  '  We  5e  riiitlice 
for  urum  synnum  sind  geswencte.'  Eac  se  apostol  on  Sam 
pistole  cwaeS,  "  -rElc  Soera  J?e  on  gecampe  winS,  forlia'fS  hine 
sylfne  fram  eallum  bingum." 

Witodlice  Sas  dfeg^erlican  Scnunga  cy  SaS  ]>a't  fram  Sisum 
dsege  o5  Eastron  is  ure  heofung-tid  and  bercowsung-tid  ure 
synna  mid  sumere  stiSnysse.  '  Alleluia '  is  Ebrcisc  word,  ])ddt 
is  on  Leden  '  Laudate  Dominum,'  and  nan  gereord  nis  swa 
healic  swa  Ebreisc.  Nu  forhete  we  ]>iet  healice  gereord  on 
ure  Septuagesima,  and  cweba^  on  Leden, '  Laus  tibi,  Domine, 
Rex  aeterne  gloriae  ';  paet  is,  '  Sy  "be,  Drihten,  lof,  eces 
wuldres  Cyning.'  We  geswuteliab  mid  j^sere  eadmodan  Leden 
sprsece,  pset  we  sceolon  us  sylfe  to  eadmodran  drohtnunge  on 
byssere  tide  gebigan.  '  Alleluia  '  is,  swa  we  cwfedon,  heofon- 
lic  sang,  swa  swa  lohannes  se  apostol  cwfeb,  pfet  he  gehyrde 
micele  stemne  on  heofonum,  sw\  Ice  bvmcna  dream,  and  hi 


J 


SEPTUAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  87 

Ionian  servitude,  without  bliss  and  mirth.  Now  God's  church 
holds  this  seventyfold  number  voluntarily  for  its  sins,  as  the 
old  Israel  held  it  by  compulsion  in  captivity,  until  the  merci- 
ful God  ai,Min,  after  their  tribulations,  delivered  them,  and 
led  them  to  their  country. 

The  prophet  Jeremiah  prophesied  of  the  nation  of  Israel, 
that  in  that  space  of  seventy  years  tiiey  should  cease  from 
the  voice  of  bliss  and  rejoicing,  from  the  voice  of  the  bride- 
groom and  the  bride.  Now  in  imitation  of  that,  God's  ser- 
vants omit  the  heavenly  hymns,  '  Hallelujah  '  and  '  Gloria  in 
cxcclsis  Deo,'  in  this  Septuagcsima,  because  it  is  fitting  that 
we  voluntarily  from  this  present  day  prepare  ourselves  Mith 
some  strictness  for  the  ghostly  fight,  as  the  church  service 
exhorts  us  to  lamentation  and  to  repentance  of  our  sins. 

First  in  the  office  of  the  mass  we  sing  '  Circunulcderunt 
me  gemitus  mortis,'  'The  moanings  of  death  surrounded  me, 
and  the  pains  of  hell  encompassed  me,  and  in  niy  affliction  I 
cried  to  the  Lord,  and  he  from  his  holy  temple  heard  my 
voice.'  Again,  in  the  collect  of  the  mass  we  say,  '  Qui  juste 
pro  peccatis  nostris  affligimur,'  that  is,  'We  who  are  justly 
afflicted  for  our  sins.'  The  apostle  also  said  in  the  epistle, 
"Each  of  those  who  strive  in  warfare,  abstains  from  all 
things." 

Verily  these  daily  services  show  that  from  this  day  till 
Easter  is  our  mourning  tide,  and  tide  of  repentance  of  our 
sins,  with  some  strictness.  *  Hallelujah  '  is  a  Hebrew  word, 
which  in  Latin  is  '  Laudate  Dominum,'  and  no  tongue  is  so 
sublime  as  Hebrew.  We  now  leave  that  sublime  tongue  in 
our  Septuagcsima,  and  say  in  Latin,  '  Laustibi,  Domine,  Rex 
.-etern.-E  gloriae,'  that  is,  '  Praise  be  to  thee,  O  Lord,  King  of 
eternal  glory.'  By  the  humble  Latin  speech  we  show,  that 
we  should  incline  ourselves  to  a  humbler  life  at  this  tide. 
'  Hallelujah'  is,  as  we  said,  a  heavenly  song,  as  John  the  apostle 
said,  that  he  heard  a  great  voice  in  heaven,  as  it  were  the 


88  DOMIXICA  IN  SEXAGESIMA. 

sungon  '  Alleluian.'  *  Gloria  in  excelsis  Deo  '  sungon  cnglas, 
J7a];a  Crist  on  middanearde  lichamlice  acenned  wjes.  Nii 
forlfete  we  "Sas  heofonlican  lofsangas  on  ure  bercowsung-tide, 
and  we  bidda^  mid  soSre  eadmodnysse  Sone  .-Elmihtigan,  j'aet 
we  moton  geseon  his  heofcnlican  Easter-tide,  sefter  jniin  gc- 
niffinelicum  jeriste,  on  5am  we  him  singaS  ecelice  Allehiian 
butan  geswince.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  IN  SEXAGESIMA. 


CUM  turba  phu-ima  conueniret  ad  lesum  :  et  rcli(iua. 

"  On  sumere  tide,  JSalSa  miccl  mcnigu  samod  com  to  ^am 
Ila^lende,  and  fram  gchwilcum  bnrgum  to  him  gcncahehton, 
\\x  s^ede  he  him  ]>is  bigspel  :  Sum  siedcrc  fcrdc  to  sawcnnc  his 
Sied  :"  et  relic ua. 

Gregorius  se  trahtuere  cw.'pS,  |?{et  forSi  wolde  Drihten 
getrahtiiiafi  ]>urli  hine  sylfiic  ]nvt  bTgspel  "5e  he  stede,  )>Jtt  we 
cutSou  sccan  o5ra  Singa  gt'tiicnuuge  on  5am,  ^e  he  nolde  j'urh 
hine  syifne  geswutelian,  and  )>a't  ge  beon  gewisse,  -Sonne  ure 
tyddernys  his  worda  gcUiciiuiiga  eow  gcopcnaS.  Ilwa  wolde 
me  aefre  gelyfan,  gif  ic  wolde  gcreccan  ))}et  5ornas  getacnodon 
welan,  Sonne  Somas  priciaS,  and  Sa  welan  gelustfuUiaS  ? 
Ac  swa-Seah  hi  sind  untwylice  •Somas,  Sonne  hi  Sa  sawla 
toteraS  mid  pricunguin  mislicra  geSolita,  and  biS,  'Sonne  hi 
"Sa  sawla  to  synne  gcteo^,  swilcc  hi  mid  on-beslagenre  wunde 
hi  geblodigian.  llihtlice  se  oSer  godspellere,  Matheus,  het  hi 
lease  welan,  forSan  "Se  hi  ne  magon  lange  mid  us  wunian. 
Lease  welan  hi  sind,  forSan  ^Se  hi  ne  adra^faS  ure  saule  hafen- 
leaste.  Ac  se  welega  nat  ]?aet  he  is  wajdla,  forSan  ^e  he 
nsefS  rihtwisnysse  speda  and  ])<fis  heofenlican  vvisdomes  gold- 
hordas,  |?e  sind  soSe  welan,  and  heora  lufigcndne  gemacia^ 
weligne  ecelice.  Gif  ge  wilniaS  |?tet  ge  rice  beon,  lufiaS  }'a 
so^an  welan,  I'c'pt  sind  halige  mtegnu.  Gif  ge  geSincSe  soSes 
wurSmyntes  secaS,  efstaS  J^onne  to  Sam  heofenlican  rice,  on 


se:xagksima  Sunday.  sq 

sound  of  trumpets,  and  they  sung  '  Hallelujah.'  Angels  sung 
'  Gloria  in  excelsis  Deo,'  when  Christ  was  born  bodily  in  the 
world.  Now  we  leave  the  heavenly  hymns  at  our  penitence 
tide,  and  with  true  humility  pray  the  Almighty  that  we  may 
see  his  heavenly  Easter-tide,  after  tiie  universal  resurrection, 
in  which  we  will  sing  to  him  eternally  Hallelujah  without 
weariness.     Amen. 


SEXAGESIMA  SUNDAY 


CUM  turba  plurima  convenirct  ad  Jcsum  :  et  rcliqua. 

"  On  a  time  wiien  a  great  multitude  came  together  to 
Jesus,  and  drew  near  to  him  from  several  burghs,  he  said  to 
them  this  parable  :  A  sower  went  to  sow  his  seed,"  etc. 

Gregory  the  expositor  said,  that  the  Lord  would  himself 
expound  that  parable  which  he  had  said,  because  we  might 
seek  the  betokening  of  other  things  in  it,  which  he  through 
himself  would  not  manifest,  and  that  ye  may  be  certain,  when 
our  infirmity  opens  to  you  the  significations  of  his  words. 
Who  woidd  ever  believe  me,  if  I  would  explain  that  thorns 
betokened  riches,  when  thorns  prick  and  riches  afford  plea- 
sure ?  But,  nevertheless,  they  arc  undoubtedly  thorns,  when 
they  tear  souls  with  the  prickings  of  divers  thoughts,  and 
are,  when  they  draw  souls  to  sin,  as  if  they  cause  them  to 
bleed  with  an  inflicted  wound.  Rightly  the  other  evangelist, 
Matthew,  calls  them  false  riches,  for  they  cannot  long  remain 
\\\\\\  us.  False  riches  they  are,  for  they  drive  not  away  the 
indigence  of  our  souls.  But  the  wealthy  knows  not  that  he 
is  poor,  because  he  has  not  riches  of  righteousness  and  trea- 
sures of  heavenly  wisdom,  which  are  true  riches,  and  make 
jiim  who  loves  them  wealthy  to  eternity.  If  ye  desire  to  be 
rich,  love  true  riches,  that  is,  holy  virtues.  If  ye  seek  honour 
of  true  dignity,  hasten  then  to  the  heavenly  kingdom,  in  wliich 


90  DOMINICA  IN  SEXAGESIMA. 

"■55. 

"Sam  ge  beo8  engla  geferan  011  wulderfulluiu  wiirtiscipc  ciule- 
leaslice.  * 

Mine  gebroSru,  us  gedafena^  )7aet  we  mid  arf.'estuui  gelca- 
fan  underfon  Drilitnes  trahtuuiige,  and  ^a  Sing  })e  he  liefde 
us  to  trahtnigenne  we  sceolon  mid  scortre  race  tSa  befon. 
Drihten  sylf  geopenab  us  |?<fit  j^aet  sfed  is  Godes  word,  and 
jjffit  mislice  land  getacna^  mislice  heortan  j^ajra  heorcnigendru 
manna,  pone  sfiedere  he  behefde  us  to  secenne.  Ac  we  ne 
magon  nwnne  s^edore  Godes  lare  rihtlicor  undergytan  JSonne 
hine  sylfnc,  Godes  Sunu,  seSe  ferde  to  sawenne  his  sted,  5aSa 
he  of  his  Fa^der  bosme  forSstjeppende,  becom  to  pisum  mid- 
danearde,  to  "Si  ]nBt  he  gcwitnysse  soJSfa^stnysse  cydde,  and 
mid  his  halgan  lare  middaneardlic  gedwyld  adwipscte. 

piet  s<ed  \)c  fcoll  be  5am  wcge  mid  twyfealdre  dare  losode, 
tJaSa  wcgfcrende  hit   fortrwdon,   and   fugelas  toba'ron.     Se 
wcg  is  SCO  fortredene  iicorte  fram  yflum  geSohtum,  J?e  ne 
gcnihtsumiaS  to  undcrfonne  Godes  word,  ne  nsenne  Wfestm 
to  spryttamie  ;  and  forSi  swa  hwa't  swa  "JS.'ps  gddan  saidcs  on 
swylcum  wcge  bcfylJS,  biJS  mid  yfelum  getSohtum  oftrcden, 
and  Surh  deoflum  gela?ht.     Dcoflu  sind  fugelas  gecigcde,  for- 
(San  <Se  hi  fleoS  gcond  pas  lyft  ungesewenlice,  swa  swa  fuge- 
las do5  gesewenlice.    Matheus  awriit  |nis  be  JSisum,  and  sjiide, 
"  ^Elc   (Sjera  "Se  gehyrJS  ]>iet  hcofcnlice  word,  and  he  hit  ne 
understent,  "Sonne  cymS  se  yfcla  and  gehehS  hit."    Mid  jnim 
is  geswutelod  }'aet  '5a  sind  wi5  pone  wcig  gesawene,  5e  Godes 
word  gehyraS,  and  hit  nellaS  mid  gclcafan  ne  mid  nanum 
andgite  onfon  ;  ponne  a^tbret  se  fleogcnda  sccocca  "Sa^rrihte 
paet  halige  sjed  of  swilcera  gedwolena  heortan. 

paet  Sisd  pe  bufon  5am  stjenigum  lande  feol  sprytte  hwfet- 
hwega,  ac  ^a5a  seo  hjete  com,  5a  forscranc  hit,  forSan  ^e  hit 
na'fde  ntenne  Wfetan.  Swa  do5  sume  menn ;  ponne  hi  gehyra^ 
Godes  word,  ponne  beotS  hi  onbryrde  to  sumum  fyrste,  and 
ponne  seo  hcete  cym^,  pset  is,  seo  costnung  and  earfo^nyss, 
ponne  abreo5a5  In,  forSan  pe  se  weeta  ne  gefaestnude  hcora 
wvrtruman.      Ilweet  is  seo  staenigc  eorSe  buton  hcard-heort- 


SEXAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  91 

ye  will  be  comp:inions  of  angels  in  glorious  worship  without 

CMcl. 

My  brothers,  it  is  befitting  us  that  with  pious  belief  we 
receive  the  Lord's  exposition,  and  that  the  things  which  he 
left  for  us  to  expound  \\c  should  then  comprise  in  a  short 
discourse.  The  Lord  himself  discloses  to  us,  that  the  seed  is 
Ciod's  word,  and  the  unlike  lands  betoken  the  unlike  hearts 
of  hearkening  men.  The  sower  he  left  us  to  seek.  But  we 
cannot  more  rightly  understand  any  sower  of  God's  precepts 
than  himself,  the  Son  of  God,  u  ho  went  out  to  sow  his  seed, 
when,  proceeding  from  the  bosom  of  his  Father,  he  came  to 
this  world  that  he  might  bear  witness  of  the  truth,  and  ex- 
tinguish worldly  error  by  his  holy  doctrine. 

The  seed  that  fell  by  the  way  perished  by  a  double  injury, 
when  the  wayfaring  trod  it  down,  and  the  birds  bare  it  away. 
The  way  is  the  heart  corrupted  by  evil  thoughts,  which  are  in- 
capable of  receiving  God's  word,  or  of  sending  forth  any  fruit ; 
and,  tlierefore,  whatsoev<>r  good  seed  falls  on  such  a  way,  is 
troddi'U  down  by  evil  thoughts,  and  snatched  away  by  devils. 
Devils  are  called  birds  because  they  fly  invisibly  through  this 
air,  as  birds  do  visihly.  Of  these  Matthew  wrote  thus,  and 
said,  "  Every  of  those  who  hear  the  heavenly  word,  and  un- 
derstand it  not,  then  cometh  the  evil  one  and  seizeth  it."  Hy 
this  is  shown  that  those  are  sown  by  the  way  who  hear  God's 
word,  and  \\\\\  not  receive  it  with  belief  nor  with  any  under- 
standing ;  then  the  flying  devil  straightways  takes  away  the 
holy  seed  from  the  hearts  of  such  heretics. 

The  seed  that  fell  on  the  stony  land  sent  forth  a  little,  but 
when  the  heat  came  it  shrank,  because  it  had  no  moisture. 
So  do  some  men  ;  when  they  hear  the  word  of  God  they  arc 
stinndated  for  a  time,  and  when  the  heat  comes,  that  is, 
temptation  and  difliculty,  then  they  perish  because  no  moisture 
had  fastened  their  roots.     What  is  the  stonv  earth  but  hard- 


02  'DOMINICA  IN  SEXAGESIMA. 

nyss  ?  Hvvaet  is  se  wtetii  butoii  lufu  and  anrffidnys  ?  ILebbc 
se  mann  heard-heortnysse  and  ungewyldelic  mod,  and  njebbe 
■5a  so'San  lufe  and  anra^dnysse,  }>onne  forsearaS  swiSe  hraSe 
l^aet  halige  sjed  on  his  heortan. 

Hwene  ^r  we  spnecon  be  ^ani  stede  ]>e  betwux  )?ani  5or- 
num  sprang,  and  mid  heora  waestme  forSrysmod  wearS. 
Drihten  sylf  truhtnode  be  Sisum  :  p^et  5a  sind  |;e  Godes 
word  geiiyraS,  ac  hi  sind  gebysgode  mid  heora  weUnn,  and 
mid  heora  lifes  lustuui  forsmorode,  and  ne  bcra5  nienne 
waestm.  Woruld-cara,  and  wchm,  and  fl;esclice  lustas  for- 
smoria^  ^aes  modes  Srotan,  and  ne  geSafiaS  godne  wiUan 
infaran  to  his  heortan,  swilcc  hi  JSone  liflican  bla'd  forSrtestne 
acwellon.  Twii  wiScrnedc  5ing  gcSeodde  Drihten  on  (Sisum 
owyde,  jnet  sind  ymlmlignyssa  and  lustas.  Ymhidignyssa 
ofSricca^  |)jpt  mod,  and  unhistas  tolysaS.  pwyrlice  Sing, 
"5e  heora  Idafordas  do5  geswcncte  frani  carum,  and  slipere 
J;urh  unst;e55ignysse.  Witodlice  on  oSrum  tiiiian  hi  gc- 
swenca5  heora  hlaford  )nnli  ymhidignysse  heordrt'edene,  and 
on  oSrum  timan,  jnirh  ofcrflowednysse,  to  unhistum  ge- 
hnexiaS ;  forSan  Se  Sam  histe  and  geswenccdnysse  naht  ea^e 
on  anuni  timan  ne  gewyrS. 

Se  dael  |>aes  stedes  Se  on  godre  eorSan  befool,  )'it't  sind  Sa 
'5e  Godes  word  on  godre  heortan  healdaS,  and  bringaS  wjestm 
on  geSylde.  SoiSlicc  gcJSyld  is  micel  mrt'gen  on  haligre 
drohtnunge,  swa  swa  Drihten  cwstj  to  his  leorning-cnihtum, 
"  On  eowrum  geSylde  ge  jiabba^  eowcre  sawla."  Seo  gode 
eorSe  agifS  hire  wjestmas  |mrh  ge^yld,  "Sonne  seo  eslfulle 
heorte,  ye  Godes  word  underfehS,  ne  biS  tobryt  for  nunum 
ungelimpum,  ne  eft  on  nanum  gesundfulnyssum  ne  bib  bc- 
paeht,  ac  biS  gebyld  on  Gode  betwux  ungelimpum,  and  ead- 
mod  betwux  gesundfulnyssum. 

Se  o'Ser  godspellere  awrat,  ]>iet  sum  d;el  J^aes  saedes  pe  on 
"Sam  godan  lande  asprang  ageaf  Sritigfealdne  weestm,  sum 
sixtigfealdne,  sum  hundfealdne.  Agustinus  Magnus  sic  docet : 
GelealTulle  la^wedo  menu, ]>e  on  rihtum  sinscipe  hbbaS,  agifaS 


SEXAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  93 

lieartcdncss  ?  What  is  the  moisture  hut  love  and  stead- 
fastness ?  If  a  man  have  hard-heartedncss  and  an  unifovern- 
ahle  mind,  and  have  not  true  love  and  steadfastness,  then 
the  holy  seed  is  very  soon  seared  up  in  his  heart 

A  little  before  we  spake  of  the  seed  which  sprani;  among 
tliorns,  and  was  choked  up  by  their  growth.     Tlic  Lord  him- 
self expounded  this  :   Tiiat  they  are  those  who  hear  God's 
word,  but  are  busied  with  their  riches,  and  choked  with  the 
pleasures  of  their  life,  and  bear  no  fruit.     Worldly  cares,  ai'.d 
riches,  and  fleshly  lusts  choke  the  throat  of  the  mitid,  and 
suffer  not  good  will  to  enter  the  heart,  as  if  they  killed  by 
crushing  the  living  fruit.     The  Lord  associated  two  contrary 
things  in  this  sentence,  wiiich  are  solicitudes  and  lusts.    Soli- 
citudes choke  the  mind,  and  evil  desires  relax  it.     Perverse 
things,  which  make  their  possessors  troubled  with  cares,  and 
slippery   through    unsteadiness.      Verily    at    one   time   they 
trouble  their  possessor  through  solicitude  of  guarding,  and  at 
another  time,  through  superfluity,  seduce  to  evil  desires  ;  for 
desire  and  trouble  do  not  easily  agree  together  at  one  time. 


The  part  of  the  seed  that  fell  on  good  earth  is  those  who 
hold  the  word  of  God  in  a  good  heart,  and  bring  fruit  in 
patience.  Verily  patience  is  a  great  virtue  in  holy  life,  as 
the  T^ord  said  to  his  disciples,  "  In  )Mur  patience  ye  have 
your  souls."  The  good  earth  yields  its  fruits  through 
patience,  when  the  pious  heart,  which  receives  (iod's  word, 
is  not  broken  by  any  calamities,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
seduced  by  any  prosperity,  but  is  bold  in  God  amid  calamities, 
and  humble  amid  prosperity. 

The  other  evangelist  wrote,  that  some  part  of  the  seed 
which  sprang  up  on  the  good  land  yielded  fruit  thirtyfold, 
some  sixtyfold,  some  an  hundredfold.  Augustinus  Mjignus 
sic  docet :    Believing  laymen,  who   live  in    lawful   wedlock. 


94  DOMINICA  IN   SEXAGESIMA. 

}?riti<rfealthic  wa^stni  godrji  woorca,  gif  hi  hcora  aewe  aefter 
boclicum  gesetnyssuni  liealdaiS,  Jnet  is,  paet  ht  for  bcarnes 
gestreonc,  on  alyfeduin  timan,  h;emcd  began,  and  bcarn- 
eacnigende  vvif  and  nionab-seoc  forbiigan  ;  and  eionne  hco 
leng  tynian  ne  nia^g,  geswican  hi  hfeniedes.  Sind  sua-iieah 
niiccle  ma  ba^ra  }'c  be  hcora  tigenuni  kistuni  lybban  wilhiJS, 
l^onne  'Saera  ]fe  Sysre  deopnyssc  cepan.  pis  is  hewedra 
manna  rcgol,  a?ftcr  bocliccre  gesetnysse  ;  so  ISc  jns  tobrecc, 
bete  swa  him  his  scrift  tiecc.  Da  <Se  chenlicc  on  wydewan 
hade  for  Godes  hifon  ])^rh\vunia^,  lii  agyfaiS  sixtigfealdne 
waestm.  Hit  is  swiSe  ungedafenlic  and  scandlic,  pa^t  for- 
werode  mcnn  and  untymende  gifta  wilnian,  ^onne  gifta  n*c 
sind  gesette  for  nanuni  Sitige  baton  for  bearn-tcanic.  pa  ^e 
on  chpnuni  nKeg^hil(lc  SurhuuniaJS,  for  gefcan  5;es  ccan  lifes, 
ht  bringaiS  forS  Innidfealdne  Wifistm.  pes  st<rpe  belimp^ 
swiSost  to  Godes  Scowuni  and  (Sinemnn,  |»a  JSe  frani  cildhiide 
chenlice  on  Gofles  JJeowdonic  singallice  drolitniaJJ. 

yElcnni  menn  gedafcnaiS  cltcnnyss,  and  swiiSostgehadothnn 
Godes  Seowuni.  pa^t  is  jm^s  hewedan  niannes  cbennys,  J'a't 
he  his  a'we  healdc,  and  alyfcdlice,  for  folces  eacan,  beam 
gcstreone.  p;pt  is  Jijes  gehadodan  mannes  chennyss,  ]>aM'a 
Se  Gode  j'eniaiS,  pa't  iii  eallunge  fram  fla'sclicuni  lustum  In" 
forhabbon,  and  hini  gedafenaJS  J>a*t  hi  Gode  gestrynon  5a 
cild,  |>c  Sa  hewedan  menn  to  iSysscre  worulde  gestryndon. 
Gemtenes  hades  preostuni  is  alyfeii,  a-fter  eia-s  halgan  Gre- 
gorius  taicinge,  }?eet  hi  syferlice  sinscipes  brucon.  Witodliec 
"Sam  obrum  J^>e  fet  Godes  weofode  |>enia(S,  |>a^t  is  nifessc- 
preostum  and  diaconum,  is  eaUunge  forboden  ie\c  htemed. 
preo  hund  biscopa  and  eahtatyne  gesetton  5one  canon,  \>iet 
nan  mresse-preost  o<55e  diacon  on  his  wvmunge  uifhades 
manii  na^bbe,  baton  hit  sy  his  modcr,  o<Sbe  sweoster,  obJSe 
faSu,  obbe  moddrie ;  and  gif  he  dearnunge  oSbe  eawunge 
wTfes  bruce,  ]>iet  he  his  hades  Sohge.  Ne  heora  nan  gercf- 
scipe  oSbe  mangunge  ne  drife,  forSan  Se  hi  sind  gecorene  of 


SEXAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  95 

yield  tliirtyfold  fruit  of  good  works,  if  they  keep  their 
marriage  according  to  the  written  institutes,  that  is,  that 
they  coliabit  for  the  procreation  of  children  at  pcrniilted 
times,  and  abstain  from  a  pregnant  and  month-sick  woman  ; 
and  when  they  can  no  longer  procreate,  cease  from  cohabita- 
tion. Tliere  are,  nevertheless,  many  more  of  those  who  will 
live  according  to  their  own  lusts,  than  of  those  who  keep 
this  precept.  This  is  the  rule  for  laymen,  according  to  the 
written  institute  ;  let  him  w  ho  breaks  it  make  atonement  as 
his  confessor  shall  teach  him.  Thev  who  chastlv,  for  love  of 
(jod,  continue  in  widowhood,  yield  fruit  sixt\fold.  It  is 
very  unfitting  and  shamefvd  that  worn-out  and  impotent  men 
desire  marriage,  while  marriage  is  ordained  for  nothing  hut 
the  procreation  of  children.  They  who  continue  in  pure  vir- 
ginity, for  till-  joy  of  everlasting  life,  bring  forth  fruit  an 
hundredfold.  This  degree  belongs  chiefly  to  (iod's  servants, 
male  and  female,  those  who  from  childhood  ever  chastlv  live 
in  the  service  of  Clod. 

Chastity  is  befitting  to  every  man,  and  above  all  to  tiie 
ordained  servants  of  God.  The  cha.-tity  of  a  lavman  is,  that 
he  hold  to  his  marriage,  and  lawfully,  for  the  increase  of 
l)eoplc,  beget  children.  The  cha&tity  of  a  man  in  orders,  of 
those  who  serve  (iod,  is,  that  they  wholly  abstain  from  fleshly 
lusts,  and  it  is  befitting  them  that  they  beget  to  God  the 
children  which  laymen  have  begotten  to  this  world.  To 
priests  of  common  order  it  is  allowed,  according  to  the  teach- 
ing of  St.  Gregory,  that  they  may  chastly  enj«)y  wedlock. 
15ut  to  the  others  who  serve  at  God's  altar,  that  is,  to  mass- 
priests  and  deacons,  all  sexual  intercourse  is  wholly  forbid- 
den. Three  hundred  and  eighteen  bishops  established  the 
canon,  that  no  mass-priest  nor  deacon  should  have  any  female 
in  his  dwelling,  unless  it  be  his  mother,  or  sister,  or  father's 
sister,  or  mother's  sister  ;  and  if  he  secretly  or  publicly  have 
intercourse  with  woman,  that  he  forfeit  his  order.  Let  none 
of  them  midertake  any  reeveship  or  mongering,  for  thev  art- 


96  DOxMINICA  IN  SEXAGESIMA. 

woiukl-niajinum  to  Godes  tcoliingum,  ]>iv.t  lii  "Surh  hyra  lare 
and  cristendome  ]>ipt  hewede  folc  Gode  gestrynan.  We 
sceolon  callum  Godes  folce  samod  j^a  boclicaii  lare  secgan, 
j^aet  ^am  goduin  ]>e  hit  gehealdan  \\  illaJS,  ne  sy  oftogen  sco 
gastlice  dcopnyss ;  and  |;a  bwyran  beon  gcSreade,  jnet  hi  spt 
sumuni  Sffile  to  Godes  rihte  gebugan.  Se  apostol  Petrus  ha'fde 
vvif  and  cild,  and  eac  sume  SaoSre  apostohis,  ler  hi  to  Cristes 
lareowdoine  gecyrdon  ;  ac  hi  geswicon  flfesclicera  lusta  and 
dffida  si5<San  he  hi  to  JSani  apostolican  hade  geceas  :  su  a  swa 
Petrus  to  Drihtne  gecwreS,  "  Efne  we  forleton  calle  Sing, 
and  -Se  folgiab." 

Hwjet  wille  we  fiirJSor  ynibc  "Sis  smeagan,  hutoii  ]'a>t  se 
beef 5  )ni  mede  Se  he  geearnaS,  sctSe  tobrecS  )ja  canon ican 
gesetnyssc  :  iiiin  is  but  alyfed  and  geswicon\  s  ;  se  5e  on  for- 
ga^gednyssc  jnirhwunae),  he  geniet  swiSc  stiSne  doin  on  Sam 
tovveardan  life. 

Gregorius  rehte  sunie  b}sMe  be  JSain  worde  Se  Drihten 
cwa^S,  jjrpt  SCO  gode  eorSe  hire  wicstmas  forSbrincS  on  ge- 
Syldc.  He  cwieS  j^a^t  he  cuSe  sunine  man  on  llomcbyrig, 
his  nania  w;es  Scruulus,  Searfa  on  a'htum,  and  welig  on  ge- 
earnungum.  Sc  la^g  bedryda  fram  cildhadc  oS  his  geendunge. 
He  Iceg  singallicc,  and  iifefrc  sittan  ne  nnhte,  ne  bine  on  o"Sre 
sidan  bewendan,  ne  his  handa  to  his  muSe  gera?can.  Him 
•Senode  his  moder  and  broSer,  and  swa  hwjet  swa  him  Godes 
frynd  on  felmcssan  forgeafon,  j'fct  he  daelde  forS  oSrum 
"Searfum.  Ne  cuSe  he  bodice  stafas,  ac  begcat  him  halige 
bee,  and  gclaSode  him  to  geherede  mcnn,  and  him  olcjehte, 
\>set  hi  Saera  boca  andgit  singallice  him  trahtnodon  ;  and  he 
swa  becom  to  "Sfera  boca  andgite,  ]?eah  ^e  he  sylf  nrenne  staef 
ne  cu^e.  He  symle  on  his  legere  Gode  Sancode,  and  daeges 
and  nihtes  mid  lofsangum  bine  wur^ode.  pa^a  se  tima  becom 
J>iEt  his  miccle  geSyld  wurde  gewuldrod  fram  Gode,  ^a  awende 
seo  sarnyss  ealra  his  lima  to  ^xre  heortan.  Efne  ^a^a  he 
ongeat  );ifit  se  deaS  him  genealeehte,  ]?a  baed  he  ^a  ael^eodigan 
weras,  Se  on  cuman  liTwe  him  mid  wunodon,  \>ift  hi  astodon, 


SEXAGESIMA  SUNDAY.  1*7 

chosen  from  worluly  men  to  Gods  labours,  that  through  their 
doctrine  and  cliristianity  th(>y  may  gain  the  lay  people  to 
God.  We  should  declare  the  written  doctrine  to  all  God's 
people  together,  that  its  ghostly  deepness  be  not  withheld 
from  those  who  are  desirous  of  observing  it  ;  and  that  the 
perverse  may  be  reproved,  so  that  they  at  some  time  turn  to 
God's  right.  The  apostle  Ptter  had  a  wife  and  children,  and 
also  some  of  the  oilier  apostlciv,  before  they  turned  to  Christ's 
doctrine  ;  but  they  ceased  from  fleshly  lusts  and  deeds  after 
they  had  chosen  the  apostolic  state  :  as  Peter  said  tn  the 
Lord,  '•  Behold  we  have  forsaken  all  things,  and  follow  thee." 

What  shall  we  further  consider  concerning  this,  but  that  he 
w  ill  have  the  meed  which  he  merits,  who  breaks  the  canonical 
institute  ?  atonement  is  permitted,  and  cessation  ;  he  who  per- 
sists in  transgression  will  find  a  very  stern  doom  in  the  life 
to  come. 

Gregory  has  related  an  example  relative  to  the  words  which 
ihc  Lord  spake,  that  good  earth  brings  forth  its  fruits  in 
patience.  lie  said  that  he  knew  a  man  at  Rome,  whose  name 
was  Servulus,  poor  in  posses&ions,  and  rich  in  deserts.  lie 
lay  bedridden  from  childhood  to  his  end.  He  lay  constantly, 
and  could  never  sit,  nor  turn  himself  on  the  other  side,  nor 
r(  iich  his  hand  to  his  mouth.  His  mother  and  brother 
ministered  to  him,  and  whatsoever  the  friends  of  God  gave 
iiim  in  alms,  he  distributed  toother  indigent  ones.  He  knew 
no  book-characters,  but  got  him  holy  books,  and  invited  to 
him  learned  men,  and  prevailed  (»n  them  constantly  to  ex- 
pound to  him  the  sense  of  those  books,  and  he  so  arrived  at 
the  sense  of  thotjc  books,  ihougli  he  himself  knew  not  a  letter. 
On  his  bed  he  incessantly  thanked  God,  and  day  and  night 
honoured  him  with  hymns.  When  the  time  came  that  his 
great  patience  should  be  glorified  by  God,  the  disease  of  all 
his  limbs  turned  to  the  heart.  When  he  was  sensible  that 
death  \\  as  a[)proaching  him,  he  prayed  those  strangers,  who 
dwelt    wiih   him  as   -uests,  that  they  would  stand   by,   and 

IJOM.  VOL.   II.  11 


98  DOMINICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

and  on  his  forSsiSe  heora  sealnias  sungon.  Hwaet  8a,  for- 
lice,  "Sa^a  he  sylf  mid  J?am  ael^eodigum  preostum  sang,  Sa 
clypodc  he  mid  micclum  ogan,  and  heora  sang  gestikle,  and 
cwtE^,  "  Suwia^  :  hwaet  la ;  ne  gehyre  gc  hii  myrige  lofsan- 
gas  swegaS  on  heofonum?"  Efne  Sa,  mid  |>am  pe  he  hlyste 
"Sees  heofonlican  sanges,^a  gewathis  sawul  of  5am  geswcnctan 
lichaman  to  ecere  reste.  pa  wear5  |>cfit  hus  afylled  mid  wun- 
derlicuni  brfe^e,  svva  ]>8et  ealle  '5a  licmenn  wurdon  afyllede 
mid  ^am  wynsumum  stence,  and  se  braeS  on  heora  nos5yr- 
lum  ne  ateorode,  o^paet  se  halga  lichama  bebyriged  wa^s. 
Swa  agcaf  );es  goda  mann  his  wsestm  Gode  jjurh  ge5yhl,  for- 
5an  ])e  he  forbaer  Godcs  swingcle  switJe  emlicc,  and  si55an 
to  edlcanes  cCcre  becom. 

Mine  gcbroora,  understandaS  be  Sisum  hwilce  beladunge 
haibbe  we  c'et  Godes  dome,  gif  we  asleac  ia5  fram  godum 
weorcum,  we  5e  habba5  urc  h;ele  and  adita,  mi  j'cs  hnna 
Wiiedla  baton  handcnefte  Godes  bebo(hi  irefv^Ie.  Ic  bidde 
cow,  gcbro5ra,  tihtaS  eowcr  mod  to  gccnyrihiysse  godra 
weorca,  Jjtet  ge  mid  gebylde  go(hie  WcBstm  to  Godcs  handa 
gebringon,  j^wt  gc  mid  him  and  his  halgnm  |>fet  ece  lif  hab- 
ban  moton  on  ealra  worulda  worukl.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

MEN  \>a  leofostan,  eow  callum  is  cu5  ])fet  Ses  gearlica 
ymryne  us  gebrinc5  efne  nu  |>a  chenan  tid  Lexctenlices 
Fi^ESTENES,  on  bam  we  sceolon  ure  gymeleaste  and  forgwged- 
iiysse  urum  gastlicum  scrifte  geandetian,  and  us  mid  ffestenc, 
and  wajccum,  and  gebcdum,  and  aihnes-djedum  fram  synnum 
a^wean,  j^aet  we  bealdlice,  midgastlicere  blissc,  ba  Easterlican 
nifersunge  Cristes  aeristes  wurbian  moton,  and  j^aes  halgan 
busies  l^igene  mid  gcleafan  underfon,  us  to  synne  forgifen- 
nysse,  and  to  gescyldnysse  deofellicera  costnunga. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IX  LENT.  99 

sing  their  psalms  at  his  departure.  Lo  then,  suddenly,  while 
lie  hiuiself  was  singing  with  the  stranger  priests,  he  cried 
with  great  awe,  and  stilled  their  song,  and  said,  "  Be  silent: 
what  is  that  ?  hear  ye  not  how  merrily  the  hymns  sound  in 
heaven  ?"  Lo  then,  while  he  was  listening  to  the  heavenly 
song,  his  soul  departed  from  the  afflicted  body  to  everlasting 
rest.  Tiicn  was  the  house  611ed  with  a  wondrous  odour,  so 
that  all  the  corpse-bearers  were  filled  with  the  winsome 
fragrance,  and  the  odour  ceased  not  in  their  nostrils  until 
tlie  holy  body  was  buried.  Tiius  did  this  good  man  yield  his 
fiuit  to  God  by  patience,  for  he  bare  God's  scourging  very 
calmly,  and  afterwards  went  to  the  field  of  reward. 

My  brothers,  understand  by  this  what  justification  we  can 
have  at  God's  doom,  if  we  slacken  from  good  works,  we  who 
have  our  health  and  possessions,  while  this  lame  pauper  with- 
out handicraft  fulfilled  God's  commandments.  I  pray  you, 
brothers,  stimulate  your  minds  to  the  cultivation  of  good 
works,  that  with  patience  yc  may  bring  good  fruit  to  God's 
hand,  that  with  him  and  his  saints  ye  may  have  everlasting 
life  to  all  eternitv.     Amen. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

MEN  most  beloved,  it  is  known  to  you  all  that  this  yearly 
course  just  now  brings  us  the  pure  time  of  the  Lenten 
Fast,  during  which  we  should  confess  our  heedlessness  and 
transgressions  to  our  ghostly  confessor,  and  wash  ourselves 
from  sins  with  fasting,  and  watchings,  and  prayers,  and 
alms-deeds,  that  we  may  boldly,  with  ghostly  joy,  honour  the 
Easter  celebration  of  Christ's  ascension,  and  with  faith  par- 
take of  the  holy  housel,  for  the  forgiveness  of  our  sins,  and 
protection  against  devilish  temptations. 

II  2 


100  DOMINICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

Witodlice  ]>is  feowertij^fealde  faesten  wies  asteald  on  ScTre 
Ealdaii  Gecy^nysse,  ^aSa  se  heretoga  Moyses  f*ste  feower- 
tig  daga  and  feo\vertig  nilita  tosamne,  to  "bi  yeei  he  mosto 
Godes  ie  underfon.     Eft  siSSan  se  maera  uitcga  Elias  eal- 
swa  laiig  fffisten,  jjurh  Godcs  mihte,  swa  sua  se  o^er  gefylde, 
and  si^ban  he  wear^  geferod  lichamlice  on  heofenlicuni  craete 
to  ^ain  npplican  life,  and  c\  inS  eft,  he  and  Enoch,  togcanes 
Antecriste,  to  ^i  ]>ffit  hi  j^a^s  deofles  Icasunge  mid  Godes  soiS- 
ffestnysse  ofersta^lan.     Drihten  eac  on  "Saere  Niwan  GecyS- 
nysse  faeste  jnirh  his  godcnndan  niihte  fcowertig  daga  and 
nihta  frani  ealhun  corblicuni  bigleofuni.      pus  wjbs  ure  lenc- 
tenlice  frPsten  astcahl ;   ac  \vc  ne  iwagon  for  ure  tyddernysse 
"Sillic  f;esten  jnirliteon.    Nu  is  us  alyfcd,  }'urh  lareowa  ealdor- 
doni,  I'.et  \vc  d.i'glmonilice,  on  |>ysscrc  lenctcnlican  tide,  ure 
liclianian  geroordigan  mid  forhjefednysse,  and  syfernyssc,  and 
cljfinnysse.     Stunt liie  fa'st  se  lenctenlic  fiesten  seJSe  on  bisum 
claenum  timan  hinc  s\lfne  mid  "ahiyssc  bcfylb.     Unrilitlic 
bib  \>8dt  se  cristena  nnann  lliesclice  histas  gefrcmmc  on  bam 
timan  |>e  he  fl;esc-mettas  forgan  sccal.     Witodlice  on  ealhun 
tidum   gedafenab    cristenum    manmim,    |?a't    hi    gode   weorc 
began,    and    a^lmcs-dieda,  and  swa-'beah  swibost    on    ]>isum 
gemjenelicum  faestene.     Se   be  on  obrum  dagum  slcac  wajie 
to  godnysse,  he  sccal  huru-biiiga  on  bisum  dagum  acucian 
on  godum  biggengum.     Se  ^e  aer  gla^dlice  mid  godum  weor- 
cum   bine  sylfne   geglengde,   him  gedafenab  j^aet  he  nil  on 
"bisum  dagum  geornlicor  mid  weallendre  hife  his  godnysse 
gecybe.     Ne  bi^  nan  faesten  Gode  gecwcme,  buton  se  mann 
hine  sylfne  fram  leahtrum  forhwbbe.     Beob  gemyndige  baera 
twegra  worda  ]>e  Drihten  cwae^  on  his  godspelle  :  lie  cwae^, 
*'  Forgyfab,   and   eow  bib  forg}fen.     Syllab,   and    eow   bib 
geseald."     pas  tvva  aelmessena  cynn  us  sind  to  beganne  mid 
micelregecnyrdnysse  :  ]>8et  we  obrum  mannum  mid  inweardre 
heortan  forgifon,  gif  hi  awar  us  getebiligdon,  to  bi  )?aet  God  us 
forgyfennysse  do  ure  synna.     And    uton   don  J>carfuni  and 
wannspedigum  sume  hi^^e  ure  goda,  |;ara  iElmihtigum  Gode 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  I.\  LENT.  101 

Manifestly  this  fortyfold  fast  was  established  in  tiie  Old 
Testament,  when  the  leader  Moses  fasted  forty  days  and  forty 
nights  together,  in  order  that  he  might  receive  God's  law. 
Again   afterwards  the   great   prophet   Elijah   accomplished, 
through  God's  might,  a  fast  as  long  as  the  other,  and  he  was 
afterwards  borne  bodily  in  a  heavenly  car  to  the  life  above, 
and  will  come  again,  he  and  Enoch,  against  Antichrist,  that 
they  may  confute  the  devil's  leasing  with  God's  truth.     In 
the  New  Testament  also  the  Lord,  through  his  divine  might, 
fasted  forty  days  and  nights,  without  all  eartiily  food.     Thus 
Mas  our  lenten  fast  established,  but  we  cannot,  by  reason  of 
our  weakness,  accomplish  such  a  fast.     Now  it  is  allowed 
us,  by  the  authority  of  teachers,  daily  at  this  lenten  tide  to 
nourish  our  bodies  with  abstemiousness,  and  soberness,  and 
chastity.     Foolishly  he  fasts  the  lenten  fast,  who  at  this  pure 
time  defiles  himself  with  libidinousness.      Unlawful  it  is  for 
a  christian  man  to  iudulire  in   flcshlv  lusts  at  the  time  when 
he  shall  forgo  flcbh  meals.     Verily  it  is  irt,  all  times  befitting 
christian  men  to  perform  good  works  and  alms-deeds,  and 
yet  most  of  all  at  this  general  fast.     He  who  on  other  days 
may  be  remiss  in  goodness,  should  at  least  on  these  days  be 
active  in  good  practices.     To  him  who  previously  had  ghidly 
adorned  himself  w  ith  gfiod  works,  it  is  fitting  that  he  on  these 
days  more  earnestly  with  ardent  love  show  his  goodness.    No 
fait  will  be  acceptable  to  God,  unless  a  man  abstain  from 
sins.     Be  mindful  of  the  two  sentences  which  the  Lord  spake 
in  his  gospel  :   he  said,  '*  Forgive,  and  ye  shall  be  forgiven. 
Give,  and  to  you  shall  be  given."     These  two  kinds  of  alms 
are  to  be  practised  by  u.s  witii  great  diligence  :  that  with  in- 
ward  heart   we   forgive   other    men,    if   in  aught  they  have 
offended  us,  to  the  end  that  God  may  grant  us  forgiveness  of 
our  sins.     And  let  us  bestow  some  advantage  of  our  goods 
on    tiie   poor  and  needy,  for  the  honour  of  Almighty  God, 


102  DOMINICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

to  wurSmynte,  ])e  hit  us  alaende,  ]>{et  he  us  mare  on  iSam  to- 
weardan  forgife. 

Mildheortnyss  is  synna  Isecedom  ;  heo  alyst  fram  ^am  ecan 

dea^e,  and    ne  ge^'afa^   us   jjfet  we  to  forwyrde  becnmoii. 

Mildheortnys  ana  gemundaS  us  on  ^ani  miccluni  dome,  gif 

we  on  andwerdum  life  hi  o^runi  mannum  cy^aiS.     "Witc/dlice 

^am  biS  dom  baton  mildhcortnvsse,  seSc  nn  oiSruni  denrS 

buton  mildheortnysse.     Of  rihtwisuiii  gestreonuni  man  sceal 

aelmessan  d«lan,  swa  swa  hit  aAvriten  is,  "  ArwurSa  'Sinne 

Drihten  mid  J^inum  «htum,  and  of  c5innm  fruiu-Mfestmum 

syle  Searfum."      ]?a  sehuessan  J>e  of  rcaflace  beo5  gcsealde 

sind  Gode  swa  gecweme,  swilce  hwa  acwelle  oSres  mannes 

cihl,  and  bringc  "Sam  feeder  \veX  hcafod  to  lace.     God  bebyt 

l^aet  man  eelmessan  wyrce,  and  he  forbead  I'acn  and  reaflac. 

Se  unrihtwisa  bcryp^  o^re  and  blissa^  :  eft,  gif  se  Searfa 

hine  bitt  felmessan,  )?onne  geunrotsaS  he,  and  awent  his  neb 

aweg,  and  forgyt  |?a^s  witegan  cwyde,  j'e  cwa?5,  "  Se  "Se  awent 

his  neb  fram  clypigcndum  Searfan,  lie  sylf  clypaJS  eft  to  Gode, 

and  his  stemnc  ne  bi^  gehyrcd.     Ahyld  ^in  eare  to  5;es 

wfedlan  bene,  jjset  God  eft  iSine  stemne  gcl\yrc.    Dtel  of  Sam 

■Se  "Se  God  forgeaf,  and  ]jin  god  beoS  gemenigfyldc.     Gif  "Su 

forgymcleasast  to  di^lenne  selmessan,  God  J?e  benaemS  pinra 

goda,  and  jni  belifst  siSSan  wiedla." 

God  forgifS  ricum  welan  genihtsumlice,  and  "Sam  pearfum 
oftihS.  IIwi  swa  ?  pa^t  he  afandige  ^a  rican  j)urh  his  ^ear- 
fena  hafenleaste.  God  geworhte  welegan  and  Searfan,  and 
wolde  )78p.t  se  waedla  waere  afedd  ];urh  ^one  rican.  God  ge- 
sette  "Sone  welegan  dselere  on  his  godum  :  hwi  sceal  he  Sonne 
him  anum  geagnian  )?ffit  him  bam  is  forgifen  ?  Gif  Su  talast 
to  'Sinum  geswince  j^iet  ]?;fit  ^u  haefst,  o^Se  gif  ^u  wenst  j^fet 
•Saere  eorSan  weestmas  -Sine  sind,  "Sonne  cwe^S  se  ^Imihtiga 
Wealdend  to  "Se,  *  Efne  nu  ic  "Se  ofteo  minne  fultum,  and 
hafa  Se  \\w  geswinc.  Ic  ofteo  mine  ren-scuras,  and  ic  wyrce 
iSin  land  unw;=estmb8ere.     Gif  j^set  land  ^in  is,  se  ren  is  min. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IX  LENT.  103 

who  has  lent  them  to  us,  that  he  may  give  us  more  in  the 
future. 

Mercy  is  the  medicine  of  sins ;  it  redeems  from  eternal 
death,  and  allows  us  not  to  come  to  perdition.  Mercy  alone 
will  be  our  guardian  at  the  great  doom,  if  in  the  present  life 
we  show  it  to  other  men.  But  to  those  shall  be  doom  with- 
out mercy,  who  now  without  mercy  judge  others.  From 
righteous  gains  one  should  distribute  alms,  as  it  is  written, 
"  Honour  thy  Lord  with  thy  possessions,  and  of  tliy  first 
fruits  give  unto  the  poor."  The  alms  that  arc  given  from 
rapine  arc  as  acceptable  to  God  as  if  any  one,  having  killed 
another  man's  child,  should  bring  to  the  father  its  head  as  a 
gift.  God  commanded  alms  to  be  given,  and  he  forbade  fraud 
and  rapine.  Tiie  unrighteous  robs  others  and  rejoices  :  then, 
if  the  needy  ask  alms  of  him,  he  is  offended,  and  turns  his 
face  away,  and  forgets  the  saying  of  the  prophet,  who  said, 
"  He  who  turns  his  face  from  the  crying  poor,  shall  after- 
wards himself  cry  unto  God,  and  his  voice  shall  not  be  heard. 
Incline  thine  ear  to  the  prayer  of  the  needy,  that  God  may 
afterwards  hear  thy  voice.  Deal  from  that  which  God  hath 
given  thee,  and  thy  goods  shall  be  nmltiplicd.  If  thou  neg- 
lectest  to  deal  alms,  God  will  take  from  thee  thy  goods,  and 
thou  shalt  afterwards  remain  poor." 

God  gives  to  the  rich  wealth  in  abundance,  and  takes  it 
away  from  the  poor.  Why  so  ?  That  he  may  try  the  rich 
through  the  indigence  of  his  poor.  God  made  the  wealthy 
and  the  needy,  and  woiild  that  tiie  poor  should  be  fed  by  the 
rich.  God  appointed  the  wealthy  a  distributer  of  his  goods  : 
why  tlien  should  he  appropriate  to  himself  alone  that  which 
is  given  to  both  ?  If  thou  ascribe  to  thy  labour  that  which 
thou  hast,  or  if  thou  ween  that  the  fruits  of  the  eartii  are 
thine,  then  will  the  Almighty  Ruler  say  unto  thee,  '  Behold 
now  I  will  withdraw  from  thee  my  support,  and  have  thou 
thy  labour.  I  will  withdraw  my  rain-shoMcrs,  and  I  will 
make  thy  land  barren.    If  the  land  is  thine,  the  rain  is  niinc. 


101  DOMINICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGKSIMA. 

Teoh  5u  for^  ren-scuras,  gif  ^n  niiht,  and  gcwaetera  tJine 
a^ceras.  Gif  ^u  mage,  do  j^rpt  suiine  scTiie,  jjaet  ^ine  aeceras 
ripion.'  AVitodlice  \>xt  sylfe  land  ]>e  ^u  Se  geagnast  nis  5iii, 
ac  is  "Sees  -^Elniihtigan,  swa  swa  se  witcga  cwa^S,  *'  Seo  eorSe 
and  hire  gefyllednys  is  Godes."  God  cwylS  eft  to  "Se,  '  Mine 
Searfan  lybbaS  buton  ^e  ;  leofa,  gif  "Sii  mage,  buton  me. 
Mine  ^earfan  habbaS  ealle  tiing,  gif  hi  me  ienne  habbaS. 
Hwa?t  hffifst  ^u,  gif  Su  me  nwfs-t?'  pu  hiwast  swilce  ]n\ 
^inum  cildum  hit  sparige,  and  nast  liwam  hit  gcscyt,  swa 
swa  se  witega  cwa^b,  "  On  idel  swincS  se  "Se  goldiiordalS, 
and  iiat  hwam  he  hit  gegadera^."  peah  ^e  |>in  feoh  ne 
ateorige,  "Scah  geenda^  )'in  lif  ponne  ^u  la^sl  wenst  ;  swa 
swa  Crist  sylf  cwjeS  be  sumon  rtcan  menn  on  his  godspcUe  : 
he  cw£fi5,  "Sum  welig  mann  wws  on  worulde,  and  liis  wa^st- 
mas  genihtsumlicc  |?ugon.  pa  smeade  se  rlca,  and  cwjeS, 
Hwiet  do  ic  la,  nu  ic  n;ebbe  hw.er  ic  nifpge  callc  mine  w;est- 
mas  gegaderian  ?  Eft  he  cwjeS,  Ic  wille  ryman  minne  ber- 
tun,  and  mine  bernu  gecacnian,  and  cSidcr  gogadrian  callc 
mine  wwstmas,  and  cwc^all  to  minre  sawlc,  Min  sawul,  Sii 
hjefst  fcla  god  to  mancgra  gcara  bricc  :  gcrest  be  nu,  and  et, 
and  drinc,  and  gewislfulla.  pa  cw;e^  God  to  iSam  rican,  Du 
stunta,  nu  to-niht  ^u  sccalt  Mn  ITf  ahetan.  Ilwa^s  bcoJS 
l^onnc  ]nne  tcolunga  ?  Swa  biS  se  "5e  him  sylfum  gold- 
horda^,  and  nis  on  Gode  welig.".'  Efne  bu  ondrwtst  5e  on 
]>am  gcdale  :  ne  ondraet  5u  iSc  to  dfe.lenne,  \>\i  ^e  nast  hwaeSer 
"Su  merigenes  gebide.  Cy5  mildhcortnysse  earmuin  mannum 
mid  J^inum  bcgcate ;  lie  forliet  se  ^-Elmihtiga  God  ^e,  se^e  iSe 
to  dteiere  gcsette.  Be  ^isum  cwfeS  Drihten  on  his  godspelle, 
"  Ne  bchydc  ge  eowcrne  goldhord  on  eorSan  ]>xv  iS;jer  onim 
and  moS^an  hit  awestab,  and  "Seofas  adelfaS  and  forstelaxS ; 
ac  hordiacS  eowerne  goldhord  on  heofenum,  }>aer  ne  cym^  to 
ne  om  ne  nio^^e,  ne  );eofas  ne  delfaS  ne  ne  jetbreda^.  So5- 
lice  'Saer  'Sfer  j^in  goldhord  is,  j'.'cr  bib  ])in  heorte."  Ilu  mage 
we  iivno  goldhord  on  heofonum  bchvdan  buton  burh  wlmcs- 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  lOJ 

Draw  thou  forth  rain-slio\Aerb,  if  thou  canst,  aud  water  thy 
fields.  If  thou  canst,  cause  the  sun  to  shine,  that  thy  fields 
may  ripen.'  Verily  the  very  land  which  thou  ownest  is  not 
thine,  but  is  the  Almighty's,  as  the  prophet  said,  "  The  earth 
and  her  fullness  are  God's."  God  will  again  say  unto  thee, 
'  My  poor  will  live  without  thee  ;  live,  if  thou  canst,  without 
me.  My  poor  uill  have  all  things,  if  they  have  me  only. 
What  hast  thou,  if  thou  hast  not  me?'  Thou  pretendest 
that  thou  sparest  it  for  thy  children,  and  knowest  not  to  whom 
it  may  fall,  as  the  prophet  said,  "  In  vain  he  laboureth  who 
hoardeth  gold,  and  knoweth  not  for  whom  he  gathcretli  it." 
Though  thy  money  fail  not,  yet  thy  life  ends  when  thou  least 
imaginest,  as  Christ  himself  said  in  his  gospel  of  a  rich  man  : 
he  said,  "  There  was  a  rich  man  in  the  world,  and  his  fruits 
throve  abundantly.  Then  the  rich  man  meditated,  and  said, 
What  shall  I  do,  now  I  have  not  where  I  can  gather  all  my 
fruits  ?  Again  he  .said,  I  will  clear  my  barton,  and  cidargr 
mv  barns,  and  thither  gather  all  mv  fruits,  and  sav  to  my 
.soul,  My  soul,  ihou  hast  much  good  for  many  years'  use  : 
rest  thee  now,  and  eat,  and  drink,  and  be  u)crry.  Then  said 
God  to  the  rich  man.  Thou  fool,  now  to-night  ihou  shalt  yield 
up  thy  life.  Who^e  then  will  be  what  thou  hast  provided  ? 
So  is  he  who  hoardeth  for  himself,  and  is  not  rich  in  God." 
Lo  thou  fearest  to  distribute  :  fear  not  to  distribute,  thou  who 
knowest  not  wlu  ther  thou  wilt  abide  the  morrow.  Show 
mercy  to  poor  nun  with  thy  gain  ;  the  Almighty  God  v.  ill 
not  forsake  thee,  who  has  appointed  thee  as  a  distrihuter. 
Of  this  the  Lord  said  in  his  gospel,  "  Hide  not  your  treasure 
in  the  earth,  where  rust  and  moths  destroy  it,  and  thieves 
delve  and  ste.'.l ;  but  hoard  your  treasure  in  heaven,  where 
neither  rust  nor  moth  comes,  nor  thieves  delve  nor  take  it 
away.  For  where  thy  treasure  is,  there  \\  ill  be  thy  heart." 
How  can  we  hide  our  treasure  in  heaven  but  throusjh  ahns  ? 


1)6  DOMLNICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

san  ?  Swa  hwaat  swa  we  be  anfealdan  Godes  )?earfum  for  his 
Jufan  syllaiS,  lie  hit  us  forgylt  be  huudfealduin  on  Sam  to- 
weaidan  life. 

Gif  ealle  nieim  on  worulde  rice  waeron,  ]?onne  naefde  sco 
niildheortnyss  n.enne  stede,  )?8et  seo  iehnysse  ure  synna  lig 
adwtfiscte,  swa  swa  hit  awriten  is,  "  Swa  swa  waeter  adwrescS 
fyr,  swa  adweesc^  seo  jehnysse  synna."  Nis  nan  Searfa  fram 
a;lmes-d<edum  ascyred.  Witodlice  sum  earm  wydewe  njefde 
cah'a  fehta  buton  ienne  feorSling,  pone  hco  brolite  to  Godes 
wcofode  on  Cristes  andwerdnyssc,  and  he  hi  Sjerrihte  mid 
his  liulgan  mu^e  gehcrodc,  and  cwjeS,  "  SoiS  ic  eow  secge, 
pset  Seos  earmc  wydewe  brohte  maran  lac  ^ionne  fenig  oScr 
mann  on  JSisum  da^ge  ;  forSan  JSe  hco  brohte  eal  j^a^t  heo 
h;(>fde  mid  cstfullum  mode."  Eft  on  o«Sre  stowe  cwieS 
Drihten  on  his  godspcllo,  "  Swa  hwa  swa  syl5  anum  ISur- 
stigum  mcmi  c^ald  Wictcr  on  minmn  naman,  ne  foriyst  he  his 
mcde  p.ere  da^de."  Soblice  ne  bib  lis  to  jelmessan  gctcald, 
gif  we  bam  mannuni  syllab  ]'e  hcora  neodc  sylfe  habbatS, 
forSan  ^e  God  ne  het  us  gewelgian  Sa  h;ebbcndan,  ac  |';et  wc 
Sa  wa^dliijciulan  ijcfultumedon. 

We  willab  gyt  jeime  cwyde  Jnere  godspcllican  gcrecccd- 
nysse  eow  gcreccan  on  ]/isum  ylcum  andgite  :  Drihten  sprtec 
ynd)e  his  to- cyme  to  5am  micclan  dome,  and  |>us  cwfeiS, 
"  Witodlicc  maiincs  Bcarn  cymS  on  his  maegcnSrymme,  and 
ealic  englas  samod  mid  him  to  Sam  niicclum  dome ;  )jonne 
sitt  he  on  ^am  setlc  his  m;egenSrymnyssc,  and  beo5  gega- 
derode  ffitforan  him  ealle  ^eoda,  and  he  toscaet  hi  on  twa,  swa 
swa  scephyrde  toscjet  seep  fram  gatum.  ponne  gelogab  he 
"Sa  seep  on  his  swibran  hand,  and  Sa  gset  on  his  wynstran." 
We  willaS  eow  geswutelian  mi  rt-rcst,  gif  cower  hwilc  nyte 
hwfet  mannes  Beam  sy,  jjifit  Crist  sylf  is  mannes  Beam,  se^e 
is  anes  mannes  Sunu,  ]>isre  cadigan  Marian,  on  'Saere  mcn- 
niscnysse,  and  seo  menniscnys  biS  gesewen  on  Sam  dome, 
];onne  he  sylf  sitt  on  his  dom-setle,  and  'Sa  rihtwisan  on  his 
swi^ran    hand   gesett,    and   ^a    synfullan  on  his  wynstran. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  107 

Whatsoever  we  give  single  to  God's  poor,  for  love  of  him,  he 
will  requite  us  an  hundredfoM  in  the  life  to  come. 

If  all  men  in  the  world  were  rich,  then  would  mercy  have 
no  place,  that  alms  might  extinguish  the  flame  of  our  sins,  as 
it  is  written,  "  As  water  exti'iguisheth  fire,  so  do  alms  ex- 
tinguish sins."  No  needy  person  is  exempted  from  alms- 
deeds.  Verily  a  poor  widow  had  for  her  whole  property  but 
one  farthing,  which  she  brought  to  God's  alUir,  in  Christ's 
presence,  and  he  straightways  with  his  holy  mouth  praised 
her,  and  said,  "  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  that  this  poor  widow 
hath  brought  a  greater  gift  than  any  other  person  on  this  day; 
for  she  hath  brought  all  that  she  had  with  a  devout  mind." 
Again,  in  another  place,  the  Lord  said  in  his  gospel,  '*  Who- 
soever giveth  to  one  thirsty  man  cold  water  in  my  name, 
shall  not  lose  his  meed  for  that  deed."  liut  it  will  not  be 
accounted  as  alms,  if  we  give  to  those  men  who  themselves 
have  for  their  need ;  for  God  commands  us  not  to  enrich  those 
who  have,  hut  to  aid  the  indigent. 

We  will  yet  recount  to  you  one  sentence  of  the  evangelical 
narrative  in  this  same  sense  :  the  Lord  spake  of  his  advent 
to  the  great  doom,  aiid  thus  said,  "  Verily  the  Son  of  man 
will  come  in  his  majesty,  and  all  the  angels  together  with 
him,  to  the  great  doom  ;  then  will  he  sit  on  the  seat  of  his 
majesty,  and  all  nations  shall  be  gathered  before  him,  and  he 
will  part  them  into  two,  as  a  shepherd  parts  the  sheep  from 
the  goats.  Then  will  he  place  the  sheep  on  his  right  hand, 
and  the  goats  on  his  left."  We  will  now  fH>t  manifest  to 
you,  if  any  of  you  know  not  who  the  Son  of  man  is,  that 
Christ  himself  is  the  Son  of  man,  who  is  the  Son  of  one  per- 
son, the  blessed  Marv,  in  humanity,  and  his  humanity  will  be 
visible  in  the  doom,  when  he  himself  will  sit  on  his  doom- 
seat,  and  the  righteous  be  placed  on  his  right  hand,  and  the 


108  DOMIXICA  I.  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

''  ponne  cwyS  se  Cyning  Crist  to  ■Sum  )?e  on  his  swiSran 
hand  btandaS,  Cunia^  ge  bletsodc  mines  Feeder,  and  geag- 
niaS  jjcfit  rice  Se  eovv  gegearcod  Wfes  fram  frimSe  mid- 
daneardes.  Me  hingrode,  and  ge  me  gcrcordodon  ;  me 
(Syrste,  and  ge  me  scencton;  ic  wies  cuma,  and  ge  me  under- 
fengon  on  eowerum  gest-husum  ;  ic  Wies  nacod,  and  ge  me 
strryddon  ;  ic  waes  gcuntrumod,  and  ge  me  gencosodon  ;  ic 
wjES  on  cweaiterne,  and  ge  comon  to  me  and  me  gcfrcfrodon. 
Donne  andswariab  ]?a  riht\vi.>?an  Criste,  and  cwcSaS,  Drihlen, 
hwffinnc  gesawe  we  ^e  hungrinc,  and  \\c  5e  gereordodon  ? 
o5Se  Jnirstignc,  and  we  5c  scencton  ?  o55e  hwjeiuie  wa;re  Su 
cuma,  and  we  Se  undeifongon  ?  oSSe  hwa^nne  gesawe  we 
Se  imtrumne  o|>]'e  on  cwoartcrnc,  and  we  'Se  gencosodon  ? 
ponnc  andwyrd  se  Cyning  Sam  rihtwisum  ]>isum  wordum, 
Sob  ic  cow  secge,  swa  hinge  swa  ge  dydon  linum  J^isum  Ijpstan 
on  minum  naman,  ge  hit  dydon  mc  sylfum.  Dotme  cweS  he 
eft  to  Sam  synfullum,  |>c  on  liis  wynstran  licalfe  standaS, 
GevvitaS  fram  me,  ge  awyrigedan,  into  Sam  ecan  fyre,  j?e  is 
gegearcod  Sam  deofle  and  his  awyrigechnn  gastum.  Me  hin- 
grode, and  ge  me  aetes  forwyrndon ;  me  Syrste,  and  ge  me 
drincan  ne  srahlon  ;  ic  wa's  cuma,  and  ge  me  underfon  nol- 
don  ;  ic  w;es  nacod,  noUle  ge  mc  wreda  tiSian  ;  ic  wies  un- 
trum  and  on  cwearternc,  noldc  gc  me  gcneosian.  ponne 
andbwariaS  Sa  unrihtwisan  manfulhin.  La  icof,  hwjennc  ge- 
sawe we  ^e  hungrine,  oSSe  Surstine,  oSSe  cuman,  o|>J?c  na- 
codne,  oSSe  gcuntrumodnc,  o]>]>e  on  cwearterne,  and  we  ^e 
noldon  Senian  ?  ponne  andwyrd  se  Cyning  him,  and  cwyS, 
SoS  ic  eow  secge,  swa  lange  swa  ge  forwyrndon  anum  of 
^isum  lytlum,  and  noldon  him  on  minum  naman  tiSian,  swa 
lange  ge  me  sylfum  his  forwyrndon.  ponne  fara^  ^a  uncys- 
tigan  and  Sa  unrihtwisan  into  ecere  cwic-susle,  mid  deofle 
and  his  awyrigedum  englum  ;  and  ^a  rihtwisan  gecyrraS  fram 
"Sam  dome  into  Sam  ecan  life  "  mid  Criste  and  his  gecorcnum 
englum,  mid  |>am  hi  libbaS  and  rixiaS  on  lichaman  and  on 
sawlc  on  ealra  worulda  woruld.     Amen. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  109 

sinful  on  his  left.     "Then  will  the  King  Christ  say  to  those 
who  stand  on  his  right  hand,  Come,  ye  blessed  of  my  Fatlier, 
and  possess  the  kingdom  which  hath  been  prepared  for  you 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world.      I  was  hungry,  and  ye  fed 
me  ;  I  was  thirsty,  and  ye  gave  me  to  drink  ;  I  was  a  stranger, 
and  ye  received  me  in  your  hostels ;   I   was  naked,  and  ye 
clothed  me  ;   I  was  sick,  and  ye  visited  me  ;  1  was  in  [)rison, 
and  ye  came  to  me  and  comforted  n>e.    Then  will  the  righteous 
answer  Christ,  and  say.   Lord,  when  sa^v  we  thee  iiungry, 
and  we  fed  thee  ?   or  thirsty,  and  we  gave  thee  to  drink  ?   or 
when  wast  thou  a  stranger,  and  we  received  thee  ?  or  w  hen 
faw  we  thee  sick  or  in  prison,  and  we  visited  thee?     Then 
Mill  the  King  answer  the  righteous  in  tliese  words,  Verily  1 
say  imto  you,  as  long  as  ye  did  it  for  one  of  these  least  in  n)y 
name,  je  did  it  for  myself.     Then  will  he  afterwards  say  lo 
the  sinful,  who  stand  on  his  left  side.  Depart  from   me,  ye 
accursed,  into  the  everlasting  fire,  which  is  prepared  for  the 
devil  and  his  accursed  spirits.      I  was  hungry,  and  ye  denied 
nu-  fotnl  ;  I  was  thirsty,  and  ye  gave  me  not  to  drink  ;    1  was 
a  stranger,  and  \  i'  would  not   ri'ccive  me  ;    I  \".  a>  naked,  and 
ye  wovdd  not  give  me  clothing  ;    I  was  sick  and  in  prison,  ye 
would  not  visit  me.    Then  will  the  unrighteous  sinful  answer, 
Lord,  when  saw  we  thee  hungry,  or  thirsty,  or  a  stranger,  or 
naked,  or  sick,  or  in  prison,  and  we  would  not  serve  thee  ? 
Then  will  the  King  answer  them,  and  say,  Verily  I  say  unto 
you,  so  long  as  ye  denied  to  one  of  these  little  ones,  and 
would  not  give  to  them  in  my  name,  so  long  denied  \e  it  lo 
myself.     Then   will  the  avaricious   and   the   unrighl<:'ous  go 
into  everlasting   torment,   with   the   devil   and    his   accursed 
angels;    and    the    righteous    will    pass    from   the   doom  into 
eternal  life"  with  Christ  and  his  chosen  angels,  wit);  whom 
they  w  ill  live  and  reign  w  ith  body  and  w  ith  soul  for  ever  and 
ever.     Amen. 


110 


DOMINICA  SECUNDA  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

EGRESSUS  inde  lesus,  secessit  in  partes  Tyri  ct  Sidonis  : 
ct  reliqua. 

Drihtcn  Hfelend  ^reade  mid  worduiu  J^a^ra  ludeiscra  tSwyr- 
nysse  and  geleafleaste,  and  tii  mid  liospe  liis  lare  forsawon. 
pa  ferde  he  JSanon  to  "Sfere  burhscire  ]>e  is  gehaten  Tyrus,  and 
to  hiere  oSre  j^e  is  geliaten  Sidon.  Efnc  6a  ferde  an  C'hana- 
neisc  wTf  of  bam  gema^rum  togeanes  bam  (lajlende,  and  him 
to  clypode,  J?us  cwebende  :  et  relicjiia. 

pis  Ciiananeisce  wif  wa?s  of  ha^benum  folce,  and  h;efde 
getacnuiigc  Godcs  gelabunge,  j^e  frani  h^ebenscipe  to  Ciiste 
mid  sobum  geleafan  gtbeah,  J;a5a  J>a  ludeiscan  hinc  forleton. 
pa't  wif  Wifis  afaren  fram  gemaTum  hire  e  Seles,  for  ban  be 
hco  forlet  ba  <'akhin  gedwyld  liire  haibenseipes,  and  mid 
geleaiTuihnn  mode  J^one  soban  lla^lend  gesohte,  to  biddenne 
hire  wodan  dehter  gesundfuhiysse.  lleo  elypode,  "  Dauides 
Beam,  gemiltsa  me  :  min  dolitor  is  yfele  fram  deofle  gech'eht." 
Hit  WcEs  soblice  swa  geddn.  Ac  seo  dolitor,  ]^e  on  wodum 
dreame  Iteg  dweligende,  geiacnode  J)fera  luebenra  manna  sawle, 
Se  Wferon  yfele  };urh  deofol  gedrehte,  baba  hi  ne  ciibon  heora 
Seyppend,  ac  gelyfdon  on  deofolgyldum.  Seo  modcr  cwteb, 
*'  Dauides  Beam,  gemiltsa  min  j"  and  Godesgelabung,  seobe 
is  ure  moder,  gelyfb  |)iet  Crist  is  Danides  Beam  on  piere 
menniscnysse,  and  heo  bitt  us  miltsunge  tet  him,  forban  be 
he  is  God  -^Elmihtig  ure  Alysend. 

-^fter  beawlicum  andgite,  se  ^e  leahtras  begye^,  deofle  to 
gecwemednysse,  his  Scyppcndc  on  teonan,  his  dohtor  is  un- 
twylice  awedd,  forban  be  his  sawul  is  bearle  burh  deofol 
gedreht ;  ac  him  is  neod  ])ist  he  his  agenc  wodnysse  tocnawe, 
and  mid  geleafan  aet  Godes  halgum  }>ingunge  bidde,  and  mid 
micelre  anraednysse  Drihtnes  fet  gesece,  biddende  J^a^t  he  his 
sawle  fram  bam  wodan  dreame  ahredde,  swa  swa  he  dyde 
l^tet  Chananeisce    mseden.     He  ne  andwyrde   bam  wife  ast 


HI 


THE  SECOXD  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

EGRESSUS  indc  Jesus,  seccssit  in  partes  Tyri  et  Sidonis  : 
et  reliqua. 

The  Lord  reproved  witli  words  the  perversity  and  unbelief 
of  the  Jews,  and  they  with  contumely  despised  his  doctrine. 
Then  went  he  thence  to  the  territory  which  is  called  Tyre, 
and  to  the  other  which  is  called  Sidon.  Behold,  there  came 
a  Canajinitish  woman  from  the  confines  towards  Jesus,  and 
cried  to  him,  thus  saying,  etc- 

This  Canaanitish  woman  was  of  a  heathen  people,  and  had 
for  tokening  the  churcii  of  God,  which  from  heathenism 
turned  with  true  belief  to  Christ,  when  the  Jews  forsook  him. 
The  woman  came  from  the  confines  of  her  country,  because 
she  forsook  the  old  error  of  her  heathenism,  and  with  be- 
lieving mind  sought  the  true  Jesus,  to  pray  for  the  health  of  her 
insane  daughter.  She  cried,  *'  ('hild  of  David,  have  pity  on 
me  :  my  daughter  is  grievously  tormented  by  a  devil."  Verily 
it  was  so  done.  But  the  daughter,  who  lay  delirious  in  a  state 
of  madness,  betokened  the  soul  of  heathen  men,  who  were 
grievously  tormented  by  the  devil,  when  they  knew  not  their 
Creator,  but  believed  in  idols.  The  mother  said,  "  Child  of 
David,  have  pity  on  me  ;"  and  God's  church,  which  is  our 
mother,  believes  that  Christ  is  a  Child  of  David  in  his 
humanity,  and  she  prays  him  to  have  pity  on  us,  for  he  is  God 
AlinigliLy  our  Redeemer. 

According  to  the  figurative  sense,  he  who  commits  sins,  to 
the  gratification  of  the  devil,  and  in  contumely  to  his  Creator, 
his  (laughter  is  undoubtedly  mad,  for  his  soul  is  sorely  tor- 
mented by  the  devil ;  but  it  is  needfid  to  him  that  he  know 
his  own  madness,  and  with  belief  pray  to  God's  saints  for 
their  intercession,  and  with  great  steadfastness  seek  the  feet 
of  the  Lord,  praying  him  to  save  his  soul  from  that  state  of 
madness,  as  he  did  for  the  Canaanitish  maiden.     He  did  not 


112  DOMINICA  SFXUNDA  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

fruinan,  na  for  modignysse,  ac  he  nolde  liis  cwyde  awendan 
•Surh  ^one  ]'e  he  bead  his  Iconiing-cnihtuni  ier  his  Srowunge, 
|?us  cvve^ende,  "  Ne  fare  ge  on  hieSenra  manna  wege,  and  on 
Saaiaritaniscra  burgmn  ne  became  ge."  He  nolde  syllan 
intingan  J^am  ludeiscum,  Jjtet  lie  hi  forsawe  <Se  Godes  a?  heokl- 
on,  and  ]>'ddt  haeSene  folc  him  to  getuge,  pe  deofolgiUl  be- 
eodon.  Nu  suwade  Crist  aet  fruman  \vi5  ]}ie.s  wifes  clypungc, 
foreman  5e  he  ^a  liflican  bodiuigc  on  his  aiidwcrdnysse  ha^bc- 
imni  leodum  bt  digclode.  AVitodlice  a^ftcr  iiis  a^ristc  of  deaSe, 
lie  behead  his  apostolum,  ]>us  cweSende,  "'  Fai-aS,  and  heraiS 
calle  Seoda,  and  fulliaS  hi  on  naman  }>{es  yEhnihtigan  Fjedcr, 
and  his  Suna,  and  |^aes  Ilalgan  Gastcs  ;  and  hi'raJS  hi  ))iet  hi 
healdon  eallc  5a  5ing  jn-  ic  cow  behead." 

Cristcs  Icorniiig-cnditas  lo  him  geneahi'Iiton,  and  JSam  wife 
to  him  ge^ingodon,  )nl^-  cweJSende,  "  La  Icof,  forhet  hi,  forJSan 
■5e  heo  clypaJS  a>ftor  us."  SwiU-e  \i\  c\\K*don,  Forhet  JSone 
gylt,  and  forgif  hire  j'ine  milttiunge,  forSaii  ^e  heo  in-iie 
fultum  mid  inweardrc  hcortan  sehS.  Ne  clypode  heo  synder- 
liee  to  Petre,  ne  heo  ne  manode  Andream,  ne  hcoia  naniio 
synderlice,  ac  eal  j^jet  apostolice  werod  samod  mid  miceirc 
anr;ednysse  b;ed,  |';jet  hi  to  bam  mlldheortan  Iladende  hire 
geSingodon.  Drihten  andwyrde  his  apostolum  mid  |^isum 
woidum,  and  cwa'b,  "  Ne  com  ic  ascnd  huton  to  Sam  sceap- 
um  Israiiela  hiwra-'dene,  \>e  losedon."  SoSlice  se  yElmiiitiga 
Fanler  asende  his  ancenncdan  Sunu  mid  soSre  mennisciiysse 
befiingenne  to  Sam  ludeiscum  folce,  j^aet  hi  sceoldon  terest, 
gif  hi  vvoldon,  to  fulluhte  bugan,  ■Surh  Cristes  lare.  Him 
gedafenode  )?jet  hi  wrest  on  Crist  gelyfdon,  forSan  Se  hi 
heoldun  pa  ealdan  ae,  and  ha?f<l()n  cyS^e  to  Code  fram  ealdum 
dagum.  Da  bodadc  Crist  purh  bine  sylfne  "Sam  anum  folce, 
and  of  ^am  his  apostolas  geceas  and  fela  o^re  gecorene  hal- 
gan  :  ac  SaSa  he  geseah  J^aet  se  mtesta  diel  Sijere  Seode  his 
lare  forsawon,  and  sume  eac  ymbe  his  lif  syrwdon,  ^a  forlet 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY   IN  LENT.  113 

answer  the  woman  at  first,  not  from  pride,  but  he  would  not 
that  his  speech  should  be  inconsistent  with  that  in  which  he 
enjoined  his  disciples  before  his  passion,  thus  saying,  "  Go 
not  in  the  way  of  heathen  men,  and  come  not  into  the  cities 
of  the  Samaritans."  He  would  not  give  the  plea  to  the  Jews, 
that  he  despised  them  who  held  God's  law,  and  drew  to  him 
the  heathen  folk  who  worshiped  idols.  Now  Christ  was  silent 
at  first  on  the  crying  of  the  woman,  because  while  present 
he  would  conceal  his  vital  announcement  from  the  heathen 
nations.  But  after  his  resurrection  from  death,  he  commanded 
his  apostles,  tjuis  saying,  **  Go,  and  teach  all  nations,  and 
bapli/x'  them  in  the  name  of  the  Almighty  Father,  and  of 
his  Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost  ;  and  teach  them  that  they 
observe  all  the  things  which  I  have  commanded  to  you." 

Christ's   disciples   approached   him,  and   interceded  willi 
him  for  the  woman,  thus  saying,  *'  O  Sir,  dismiss  her,  for 
she  crieth  after  us."     As  if  they  had  said,  Dismi.ss  the  sin, 
and  grant  her  thy  mercy,  for  she  seeks  our  aid  with  inward 
heart.     She  did  not  crv  exclusively  to   Peter,  nor  did  she 
exhort  Andrew,  nor  any  of  them  exclusively,  but  besought 
all  the  apostolic  company  together  with  great  earnestness, 
that  they  would  intercede  for  her  with  the  merciful  Jesus. 
The  Lord  answered  his  apostles  with  these  words,  and  said, 
"  I  am  not  sent  save  unto  the  sheep  of  the  family  of  Israel 
that  arc  lost."     Verily  the  Almighty  Father  sent  his  only- 
begotten  Son  invested  with  true  humanity  to  the  Jewish  peo- 
ple, that  they  might  the  first,  if  they  would,  turn  to  baptism 
through  Christ's  doctrine.      It  was  befitting  them  th.it  they 
should  the  first  believe  in  Christ,  because  they  held  the  old 
law,  and  had  knowledge  of  God  from  old  days.    Christ,  there- 
fore, preached  himself  to  that  ong  people,  and  from  them  chose 
his  apostles  and  many  other  chosen  saints  :  but  when  he  saw- 
that  the  greatest  part  of  that  people  despised  his  doctrine, 
and  that  some  also  plotted  against  his  life,  he  left  them  in 

noM.  voi>.  II.  I 


114  DOMINICA  SECUNDA  IN  QUADRAGESIMA. 

he  hi  on  heora  geleaflsRste,  and  geceas  5a  hseSenan  leoda,  |?e 
geond  ealne  middaneard  on  deofolgyhhnn  gelyfdon  oS  ]>;et. 

paet  wtf  com,  and  hi  astrehte  ietforan  Urihtne,  J)us  cwe^- 
ende,  "  Drihten  leof,  lielp  min."  prco  halige  nifegnu  we 
gehyra^  be  ^isum  Avife  on  Sissere  ra^dinge  :  )>aet  is,  gcleafa, 
and  geSyld,  and  eadmodnyss.  Gcleafan  lico  h;<^fde,  foi^an 
■5e  heo  gelyfde  ]>a^t  Drihten  niihte  hire  awcddan  dohtor  gchie- 
lan.  GeSyld  hco  liiefdc,  iSa^a  heo  forseMen  waes,  and  swa- 
"Seah  anrfedlice  on  liire  benum  jmrhwunade.  Eadniod  hco 
vvaes,  ^a^a  hco  hi  sylfc  to  hwclpum  gcemnette.  Drihten 
cwae^  to  "Sam  wife,  "  Nis  na  god  ]><'pt  man  nime  his  bcarna 
hlaf,  and  wurpe  hundum."  pa-t  Isralula  folc  mjps  gyo 
gcteakl  to  Godes  bearnum,  and  hfpJSen  folc  geond  ealle  woruUl 
to  hundum,  for  heora  fuhnn  Scawum.  Nu  is  seo  cndebyrd- 
nys  )';era  nanicna  awcnd  mid  ^am  geleafan.  Hi  sind  gchii- 
tene  hundas,  and  we  seep.  Witodlice  se  wTtega  cwa^IS  be 
Cristes  ehterum,  ^e  hine  acweahlon,  "  Fehi  hundas  me  ymbe 
codon."  Se  wTtega,  ]>urh  Godes  Gast,  hct  "ba  ludciscan 
Cristes  slagan  hundas,  ])e  hine  mid  fiicenfulhnn  mode  ymbe 
eodon.  Eft  Crist  sjlf  cwfeS  be  us.  "  Ic  h;ebbe  o5rc  seep,  j^a 
"Se  ne  sind  of  byssere  eowde,  and  '5a  ic  sceal  ItSedan,  and  la 
gehyra5  mine  stemne." 

piet  wif  cwa?5  to  Criste,  "  Gea,  leof  Drihten,  swa-5eah  ^a 
hwelpas  etartS  of  ^am  crumon  ]>e  fcalla5  of  heora  hlafordes 
mysan."  Swi5e  getacnigcndlice  sprfec  )ns  wTf.  Witodlice 
seo  niyse  is  seo  bodice  lar,  seo^e  us  ^ena^  lifes  hlaf.  Be 
^sere  mysan  cwse^  se  witega,  '*  Drihten,  ])u  gegearcodest 
mysan  on  minre  gesihSe,  togeancs  ^am  j;e  me  gcdrfefdon." 
So^lice  oefter  gastlicum  andgite  |?a  hwelpas  eta^  5a  cruman 
|?e  of  heora  hlafordes  beode  feallaS,  ]^onne  ^a  ^eoda,  ]>e  on 
h8e5enscipe  ^r  lagon,  nu  sind  mid  geleafan  to  heora'  Scyp- 
pende  gebigede,  and  j^aere  gastlican  lare  haligra  gewrita 
bruca^.  We  hedaS  )>a^ra  cntmena  iSses  hlafes,  and  5a  ludeis- 
can  gnaga^  ]>a  rinde ;  for^an  ^e  we  understanda^  J?aet  gast- 
lice  andgit  j^eera  boca,  and  hi  raeda^  }?a  staeflican  gerecced- 


THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  ii5 

their  unbelief,  and  chose  the  heathen  nations,  which  through- 
out all  the  world  believed  in  idols  until  then. 

The  woman  came  and  prostrated  herself  before  the  Lord, 
thus  saying,  "  Dear  Lord,  help  me."  Three  holy  virtues  we 
hear  of  this  woman  in  this  reading  :  namely,  belief,  and 
patience,  and  lowliness.  She  had  belief,  because  she  believed 
that  the  Lord  could  heal  her  distracted  daughter.  Patience 
she  had,  when  she  was  neglected,  and  yet  steadfastly  persisted 
it)  her  prayers.  Lowly  she  was,  when  she  compared  herself 
to  the  whelps.  The  Lord  said  to  the  woman,  ''  It  is  not 
good  that  a  man  take  his  children's  bread,  and  cast  it  to  the 
dogs."  The  people  of  Israel  were  of  yore  accounted  as  the 
children  of  God,  and  the  heathen  people,  throughout  all  the 
world,  as  dogs,  for  their  foul  practices.  Now  is  the  order  of 
those  names  changed  with  the  belief.  They  are  called  dogs, 
and  we  sheep.  Verily  the  prophet  said  of  Christ's  persecutors, 
who  slew  him,  '*  Many  dogs  encompassed  me."  The  prophet, 
through  the  Spirit  of  God,  called  the  Jew  ish  slayers  of  Christ 
dogs,  who  with  guileful  mind  encompassed  him.  Afterwards, 
Christ  himself  said  of  us,  "  I  have  other  sheep,  which  are 
not  of  this  fold,  and  those  I  will  lead,  and  they  will  hear  my 
voice." 

The  woman  said  to  Christ,  "  Yea,  dear  Lord,  yet  the 
whelps  eat  of  the  crumbs  that  fall  from  their  master's  table." 
Very  significantly  spake  this  woman.  Verily  the  table  is  the 
written  lore,  which  ministers  to  us  the  bread  of  life.  Of  the 
table  llie  prophet  said,  "  Lord,  thou  hast  prepared  a  table 
in  my  sight,  against  those  who  troubli-d  me."  But  in  a 
ghostly  sense  the  whelps  eat  the  crumbs  that  fall  from  their 
master's  table,  when  the  nations,  which  before  lay  in  heathen- 
ism, are  now  with  belief  turned  to  their  Creator,  and  partake 
of  the  ghostly  lore  of  the  holy  writings.  We  heed  the  crumbs 
of  the  bread,  and  the  Jews  gnaw  the  crust ;  for  we  under- 
stand the  ghostly  signification  of  those  books,  and  they  read 
the  literal  narrative  without  signification.     All  their  books, 

I  2 


IIG  S.  GREGORII  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

nysse  buton  andgite.  Ealle  heoia  bee,  "Se  se  lieretoga  Moyses 
o^^e  witegan  be  Godcs  dihte  gesetton,  calle  hi  sprecaS  ymbe 
Ci'istes  menniscnysse,  and  ymbe  cristenra  nuiiiiia  lif  mid 
digehim  andgite,  and  ^a  ludeiscan  nc  hedaS  na  mare  buton 
"Sfere  sUeflican  gerecccdnysse.  We  cristene  men  soJSIice 
licgaS  under  Godes  mysan,  and  etab  ]ni  cruman  liis  gastlican 
lare ;  forSan  "Se  we  sind  eadmodlice,  mid  lichaman  and  mid 
sawle,  godcundlicum  spra?cum  undeiLJcodde  to  gefyllcnne  his 
bcboda,  |>fet  he  us  his  bchat  gelfeste. 

"  Drihten  andwyrde  J>am  Chananeiscum  wife,  and  cwie^, 
Eala  ^u  wif,  micel  is  ^in  geleafa.  Getimige  Se  swa  swa  Su 
M'ylt.  And  liire  dolitor  wearS  )?a  geha^led  of  ^;ere  tide."  For 
•Sam  micclum  gelcafan  j'a^re  meder  forlet  se  deofol  Sa  dohtor. 
Mid  "Sam  is  geseald  bysen  urum  fulhihte,  |>;et  ^a  unspre- 
cendan  cild  beoS  gehealdene  on  Sam  fuUuhte,  Surh  gelcafan 
]>iBS  ffeder,  aiul  Sa'iv  moder,  and  }'ais  forcsprcccndan  god- 
fa^der,  Seah  ^e  pjet  cild  nytcn  sy. 

Cristenra  manna  gelcafan  hfefS  se  .Elmilitiga  (jod  mid 
maneguni  lacnum  gewurSod  |)urh  his  halgan  :  a'rest  on  heora 
life,  and  siSSan  a^t  heora  halgum  l)yrgen\un,  )>am  gy  wuldor 
and  wurSmynt  a  on  ecnysse.     Amen. 


nil.  ID.  MART. 
SCI  GREGORTI  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  IXCLITI. 

GREGORIUS  se  hfdga  papa,  Engliscrk  ^kode  apostol, 
on  "Sisum  andwerdan  dcjege,  fcfter  menigfealdum  gedcorfum, 
and  halgum  gecnyrdnyssum,  Godes  rice  gesa?liglice  astiih. 
He  is  rihtlice  Engliscre  ^eode  apostol,  for  San  ^e  he,  |;urh  his 
I'tfid  and  saiide,  us  fram  deoflcs  biggengum  ;etbrced,  and  to 
Godes  gelcafan  gebigde.  Manega  halige  bee  cy  SaS  his  droht- 
nunge  and  his  halige  lif,  and  eac  '  Historia  Anglorum,'  Sa  "Se 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT,  POPE  OF  ROME.  117 

which  the  leader  Moses  or  the  prophets  composed  by  God's 
direction,  all  speak  of  Christ's  humanity,  and  of  the  life  of 
christian  men,  with  a  hidden  signification,  and  the  Jews  heed 
no  more  than  the  literal  narrative.  We  christian  men  truly 
lie  under  God's  table,  and  eat  the  crumbs  of  his  ghostly  lore; 
for  we  are  humbly,  with  body  and  with  soul,  and  by  divine 
precepts,  made  subservient  to  the  fulfilling  of  his  conunand- 
ments,  that  he  may  perform  his  promise  imto  us. 

*'  The  Lord  answered  the  Canaanitish  woman,  and  said, 
O  thou  woman,  great  is  thy  belief.  Betitle  thee  as  thou  wilt. 
And  her  daughter  was  healed  from  that  time."  For  the 
great  belief  of  thi'  mother  the  devil  forsook  the  daughter. 
Thereby  is  given  an  example  for  our  baptisni,  that  the  un- 
speaking  children  will  be  saved  by  baptism,  through  the 
belief  of  the  father  and  of  the  mother,  and  of  the  responsible 
godfather,  though  the  child  be  unconscious. 

The  Almighty  God  has  honoured  the  belief  of  christian 
men  by  many  tokens  through  his  saints  :  first  in  their  lives, 
and  afterwards  at  their  holy  sepulchres,  to  whom  be  glory 
and  dignitv  ever  to  cternitv.     Amen. 


MARCH  XH. 
ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT.  POPE  OF  ROME. 

GREGORY  the  holy  pope,  ruK  atostlk  of  thk  E.nglish 
NATION,  on  this  present  day,  after  manifold  labours  and  holy 
studies,  happily  ascended  to  God's  kingdom.  He  is  rightly 
the  apostle  of  the  English  nation,  for  he,  through  his  c<mnscl 
and  mission,  withdrew  us  from  the  worship  of  the  devil,  and 
ttirned  us  to  the  belief  of  God.  Many  holy  books  manifest 
his  conduct  and  his  holy  life,  and  also  the  *  Ilistoria  Anglo- 


118  S.  GREGORII  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

-Alfred  cyning  of  Ledeiie  on  Englisc  awende.  Sco  boc 
sprecS  genoh  swutelice  be  ^isum  halgan  were.  Nu  wylle  we 
sum  ^ing  scortlice  eow  be  him  gcreccan,  forSan  ^e  sec 
foresaede  boc  iiis  cow  callum  cuS,  )>euh  Se  heo  on  Englisc 
awend  sy. 

pes  eadiga  papa  Gregorius  waes  of  teSelborcnre  mffg"5e 
and  eawfjestre  acenned  ;  Romanisce  witan  wjeron  his  magas ; 
his  fffider  hatte  Gordianus,  and  Felix,  se  eawfjesta  papa,  vnes 
his  fifta  faider.  He  Wfes,  swa  sua  we  cwa^don,  for  Moruldc 
ffiSelboren,  ac  he  oferstah  his  jp5ell)orcnnyssc  niiil  iialgum 
"Seawum,  and  mid  goduni  weorcnm  geglende.  Gregorius  is 
Grecisc  nama,  se  sweigJS  on  Lcdenum  gcreorde,  *  Uigilan- 
tius,'  pipt  is  on  Englisc,  '  Wacolre.'  He  wjps  swiSe  wacol 
on  Godes  bebodum,  JSaSa  he  sylf  herigendlice  leofode,  and  he 
wacollice  ynibo  mancgra  Seoda  j'carfe  hogode,  and  him  lifes 
weig  gcswiitelode.  He  w;ps  fram  cildhade  on  boclicum  liirum 
getyd,  aiul  he  on  (Sjere  hire  swa  gcsa^liglice  Scab,  ]rddt  on 
ealre  Romana-byrig  n.-es  nan  his  gclica  getSuht.  He  ge- 
cneordlffihte  lefter  wisra  liireowa  gebisiunigum,  and  mea  for- 
gyttol,  ac  gefjestnode  his  lare  on  faesthafelum  gemynde.  He 
hlod  ^a  mid  )>urstigum  breoste  ^a  flowendan  lare,  tSe  he  eft 
aefter  fyrste  mid  hunig-swettre  ]>rotan  jneslice  bealcette.  On 
geonglicum  gcarum,  5aSa  his  geogo^  a^fter  gccynde  woruld- 
"Sing  lufian  sccolde,  ]ni  ongann  he  bine  sylfne  to  Gode  getSeo- 
dan,  and  to  eSele  Jjses  uppllcan  lifes  mid  eallum  gewilimngum 
or^ian.  Witodlice  a?fter  his  ffeder  fortSsiSe  he  arierde  six 
munuc-lif  on  Sicilia-lande,  and  ])aet  seofoSe  binnon  Roniana- 
burh  getimbrode,  on  'Sam  he  sylf  regoUice  under  abbodcs 
hfesum  drohtnode.  pa  seofon  niynstru  he  gelende  mid  his 
agenum,  and  genihtsumlice  to  deeghwomlicum  bigleofan  ge- 
godode.  pone  ofer-eacan  his  aehta  he  aspende  on  Godes 
]?earfum,  and  ealle  his  woruldlican  aeSelborennysse  to  heo- 
fonlicum  wuldre  awende.  He  code  eer  his  gecyrrcdnysse 
geond  Romana-burh  mid  pcellemmi  gyrlnm,  and  scinendum 
gymmum,  and  readum  golde  gefrretewod  :  ac  fefter  his  gecyr- 


ST.  GREGORY  THIi  GREAT,  POPE  OF  ROME.  119 

rum,'  which  king  Alfred  turned  from  Latin  into  English. 
Tiiis  book  speaks  manifestly  enough  of  this  holy  man.  We 
will  now  briefly  relate  to  you  something  concerning  him, 
because  the  aforesaid  book  is  not  known  to  you  all,  all  hough 
it  is  turned  into  Englis-h. 

This  blessed  pope  Gregory  was  born  of  a  noble  and  pious 
family ;  his  relations  were  Roman  senators ;  his  father  was 
called  Gordianus,  and  Feli.x,  the  pious  pope,  was  his  fiftii 
father.  He  was,  as  we  have  said,  of  noble  birth  in  the  eyes 
of  the  world,  but  he  surpassed  his  noble  birlh  by  holy  prin- 
ciples, and  adorned  it  with  good  works.  Gregorius  is  a 
Greek  iiame,  which  in  the  Latin  tongue  signifies  I'igilantius, 
that  is  in  English,  Ifntcliful.  lie  was  very  watchful  of  God's 
commandments,  seeing  that  he  himself  praiseworthih'  lived, 
and  watchfully  meditated  for  the  need  of  many  Jiations,  and 
nuinifested  to  them  the  \\ay  of  life.  He  was  from  childhood 
instructed  in  book-learning,  and  in  that  learning  he  so  happily 
throve,  that  in  all  the  city  of  Rome  there  was  none  thought 
his  like.  He  was  studious  of  the  examples  of  wise  teachers, 
aiul  was  not  forgetful,  but  fastened  his  learning  in  a  retentive 
memory.  He  then  drew  in  with  a  thirsty  breast  the  flowing 
lore,  which  he  again,  after  a  time,  aptly  poured  forth  with  a 
throat  sweeter  than  honey.  In  his  young  years,  when  his 
youth,  according  to  nature,  might  love  worldly  things,  he 
began  to  attach  himself  to  God,  and  to  breathe  with  all  his 
desires  towards  the  realm  of  life  on  high.  For  after  his 
father's  decease  he  raised  six  monasteries  in  Sicily,  and  built 
a  seventh  within  the  city  of  Rome,  in  which  he  himself 
lived  according  to  rule,  under  the  commands  of  an  abbot. 
These  seven  niynsters  he  endowed  with  his  own  lands,  and 
enriched  abundantly  for  their  daily  subsistence.  The  overplus 
of  his  possessions  he  distributed  among  God's  poor,  ami 
turned  all  his  worldly  nobilitv  to  heavenlv  clorv.  He  went 
before  his  conversion  through  tlie  city  of  Rome  with  ptirple 
garments,  and  shining  gems,  and  adorned  with  red  gold  ;  but 


120  S.  GREGORII  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

rednysse  he  "Seiiode  Godes  ^earfuiii,  he  sylf  ^earfa,  mid 
waciim  wsefelse  befangeii. 

Svva  fulfi'emedlice  he  drohtnode  on  anginiic  liis  gecyrred- 
nysse  swa  J^aet  he  mihte  ^a  gyu  bcon  geteald  on  fulfremcdra 
halgena  getele.  He  hifode  forhtefednysse  on  mettuni  and  on 
drence,  and  waeccan  on  syndriguni  gebeduni ;  ]>;ier-to-eacan 
he  ^rowade  singallice  untruninyssa,  and  swa  he  stiJSlicor  mid 
andwerdum  untrumnyssum  ofsett  wfes,  swa  he  geornfullicor 
Y^ea  ccan  lifes  gewilnode. 

pa  undergeat  se  papa,  ]>c  on  JSain  tiinan  ])fet  apostolicc  sell 
gesaet,  hu  se  eadiga  Gregorius  on  halgum  nifegimm  Seonde 
waes,  and  he  Sa  liine  of  (Sjere  nminiclican  drohtnungc  gcnam, 
and  him  to  gefylstan  gesettc,  on  diaconhiide  gccndebyrdne. 
Da  gelamp  hit  jet  sninum  Side,  swa  swa  gyt  for  oft  deS,  ^lei 
Englisce  cVpnicnn  brohton  heora  ware  to  Roniana-byrig,  and 
Gregorius  eodc  be  ^fere  strait  to  JSam  Engliscum  mannum, 
heora  ^ing  sceawigcnde.  pa  gescah  he  bctwux  ^am  waruni 
cype-cnilitas  gesette,  })a  wa^ron  hwites  lichaman  and  fa^geres 
andwlitan  menn,  and  ffibcllico  gefoxode.  Gregorius  Sa  be- 
heold  )7ffira  cnapcna  wlite,  and  bcfran  of  hwilccre  peode  hi 
gebrohte  wferon.  pa  sfetle  him  man  j^ffit  hi  of  Engla-huide 
wieron,  and  j'tet  'Sffirc  ^code  mennisc  swa  wlitig  wajre.  Eft 
'?a  Gregorius  befran,  hwffiScr  ]);es  landes  folc  cristen  waere  ^e 
hffiSen.  Him  man  ssede,  ]>^t  hi  hfe^ene  wferon.  Gregorius 
"Sa  of  inn\Aeardre  heortan  langsnme  siccetunge  teah,  and 
fwaeS,  "  Wahiwa,  J?aRt  swa  faegeres  hiwes  menn  sindon  ^am 
sweartan  deofle  under^eodde."  Eft  he  axode,  hu  "Saere 
Seode  nania  waere,  j^e  hi  of-comon.  Him  wjes  geandwyrd, 
jjfet  hi  Angle  genemnode  wsercn.  pa  cwae^  he,  "  Rihtlice  hi 
sind  Angle  gehatene,  forSan  Se  hi  engla  wlite  habbaS,  and 
swilcum  gedafenaS  |7<et  hi  on  heofoinim  engla  geferan  beon." 
Gyt  Sa  Gregorius  befran,  hu  ^tere  scire  nama  waere,  ]>e  ^a 
cnapan  of-alffidde  wferon.  Him  man  stede,  ]>iet  ^a  scirmen 
Wcfiron  Dere  gehatene.  Gregorius  andwyrde,  "  Wei  hi  sind 
Dere  gehatene,  forSan  ^e  hi  sind  frani  graman  gencrode,  and 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT.  POPE  OF  ROME  121 

after  his  conversion  he  ministered  to  God's  poor,   himself 
poor,  clad  in  a  mean  habit. 

So  perfectly  he  lived  at  the  beginning  of  his  conversion, 
that  he  might  then  have  been  already  reckoned  in  the  number 
of  perfect  saints.  He  loved  abstinence  in  meats  and  in  drink, 
and  watchingo  in  solitary  prayers  ;  in  addition  to  which  he 
suffered  incessant  infirmities,  and  the  more  severely  he  was 
alHicted  with  present  infirmities,  the  more  earnestly  he  desired 
the  eternal  life. 

Then  the  pope,  who  at  that  time  occupied  the  apostolic  scat, 
learned  how  the  blessed  Gregory  was  thriving  in  holy  virtues, 
and  he  took  him  from  the  monastic  life,  and  appointed  him 
his  assistant,  after  he  had  been  ordained  deacon.  It  happened 
then  at  one  time,  as  it  yet  often  does,  that  English  ciiapmen 
brought  their  wares  to  Rome,  and  Gregory  went  along  the 
street  to  the  Englishmen,  viewing  their  things.  He  then 
saw  among  their  Mares  youtiis  placed  for  sale  ;  they  were  men 
wjiite  of  body  and  of  comely  countenance,  with  noble  heads 
(if  hair.  Gregory  then  beheld  the  beauty  of  the  lads,  and 
iiupiired  from  what  country  they  had  been  l)rought.  ^Vhere- 
upon  they  said  to  him  that  they  were  from  England,  and  that 
the  people  of  that  country  were  as  comely.  Gregory  then 
again  a>ked  whether  tlu-  people  of  that  country  were  chris- 
tians or  heathens.  'J'hey  said  to  liim  that  they  were  heathens. 
Gregory  then  from  his  inwaid  heart  drew  a  long  sigh,  and 
said,  "  Alas  that  men  of  such  fair  appearance  should  be  sub- 
ject to  the  swart  devil."  Again  he  asked  what  the  name  of 
the  nation  was,  whence  they  came,  lie  \\as  answered  that 
they  were  named  Angles.  Then  said  he,  "  Uii^htly  thev  are 
called  Angles,  for  they  have  the  beauty  of  angels,  and  it  is 
fitting  that  they  shoidd  be  the  companions  of  angels  in 
heaven."  Gregory  yet  inquired  what  the  name  of  the  shire 
was,  from  which  the  youths  had  been  brought.  They  said  to 
him  that  the  shiremen  were  called  Dere.  Gregory  atiswered, 
"  Well  are  they  called  Dere  (Ueira).  for  they  are  saved  from 


122  S.  GREGORII  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  LNCLITI. 

to  Cristes  mildheortiiysse  gecygedc."  Gyt  ^a  lie  befran, 
"  Hu  is  ^aere  leode  cyning  geliaten  ?"  Him  waes  geand- 
swarod,  |?;fit  se  cyning  ^lle  gehaten  waerc.  H\v<et  "Sa  Gre- 
gorius  gamenode  mid  iiis  wordum  to  ^am  naman,  and  cwaeS, 
"  Hit  gcdafenaS  J^aet  Alleluia  sy  gesungen  ou  Sam  lande,  to 
lofe  l^ies  /Elniihtigan  Sc}'ppendcs." 

Gregorius  ba  sona  code  to  <Sam  papan  ]>ves  apostolican 
setles,  and  hine  baed,  ]?fet  he  Angelcynne  same  Uircowas 
asende,  "Se  hi  to  Criste  gebigdon,  and  cwa^S,  j'fet  he  sylf  gcaro 
waere  j^aet  weorc  to  gefrcmmemie  mid  Godes  fultiime,  gif  hit 
Sam  papan  swa  gelicode.  pa  ne  niihte  se  papa  \>iet  geSafian, 
)?eali  Se  he  eall  wolde ;  forSaii  Se  Sa  Romaniscan  ccastcr- 
gewaran  noldon  geSafian  jm^t  swa  gctogen  iiiann,  and  swa 
goSungen  lareow  pa  burli  oallunge  forletc,  and  swa  fyrlen 
wraecsiS  genamc.  .Efter  Sisum  gelainp  )'a't  miccl  mann- 
cwealm  becom  ofer  S.ere  Romanisican  leode,  and  merest  Sone 
papan  Pelagium  gestod,  and  baton  yldingc  adydde.  Witod- 
lice  c-efter  Sws  papan  gcendunge  swa  miccl  cwcalm  wearS  Jues 
folccs,  l^wt  geliWtfir  stodon  aweste  hus  geond  )>a  burh,  buton 
bugigendum.  pa  ne  milite  swa-^eah  sco  Romana-burh  buton 
papan  wunian,  ac  eal  folc  "Sone  eadigan  Gregoriuni  to  Sane 
geSincSe  anmodlice  gcccas,  J^eali  Se  he  mid  eallum  nia\gne 
wiSerigende  wfere.  Gregorius  Sa  asende  fenne  pistol  to  Sam 
casere  Mauricium,  se  wtes  his  gefa^dera,  and  hine  halsode, 
and  inicclum  baed  |><et  he  nfefre  Sam  folcc  ne  geSafode  ]>iBt 
he  mid  ];»s  wurSniyntes  wuldre  geuferod. waere,  forSan  Se  he 
ondred  |>;et  he  Surh  Sone  micclan  had  on  woruldlicum  wuldre,  I 

]>e  he  iev  awearp,  set  sumum  saele  bepa;lit  wurdc.     Ac  ^aes  ' 

caseres  heah-gerefa  Germanus  gelsehte  "Sone  pistol  iet  Gre- 
gories  eerendracan,  and  hine  totaer ;  and  si^San  cydde  )>am 
casere,  ]>aet  J^aet  folc  Gregoriuni  to  papan  gecoren  haefde. 
Mauricius  Sa  se  casere  j^tes  Gode  Sancode,  and  hine  gehadian 
het.  Hvvaet  "Sa  Gregorius  fleames  cepte,  and  on  dymhofon 
aetlutode  j  ac  hine  man  geliehte,  and  teali  to  Pctrcs  cyrcan. 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT,  POPE  OF  ROME.  123 

wrath,  and  called  to  Christ's  mercy."  He  yet  inquired, 
*'  IIo\v  is  the  king  of  that  country  called  r"  He  was 
answered,  that  the  king  was  called  .Elle.  Then  Gregory 
played  with  his  words  at  that  name,  and  said,  "  It  is  fitting 
that  AUelujah  be  sung  in  that  land,  to  the  praise  of  the 
Almighty  Creator." 

Gregory  then  immediately  went  to  the  pope  of  the  apostolic 
see,  and  besought  him  to  send  some  teachers  to  the  English 
people,  that  they  might  turn  to  Christ,  and  said  that  he  him- 
self was  ready  to  perform  that  work,  with  tiie  aid  of  God,  if 
it  so  were  pleasing  to  the  pope.  But  the  pope  could  not 
consent  to  it,  though  he  all  desired  it  ;  for  the  Roman  citizens 
would  not  consent  that  so  learned  and  so  venerable  a  teacher 
should  wholly  leave  the  city,  and  undertake  so  far  a  journey. 
After  this  it  happened  that  a  great  plague  came  over  the 
Roman  people,  and  first  attacked  the  pope  Pelagius,  and 
without  delay  carried  him  off.  Verily  after  the  death  of  the 
pope  the  mortality  of  the  people  was  so  great,  that  every- 
where throughout  the  city  houses  stood  desolate  without  in- 
habitants. Hut  the  city  of  Rome  might  not,  however,  con- 
tinue without  a  pope;  but  all  the  people  unanimously  chose 
the  blessed  Gregory  to  that  dignity,  although  he  with  all  his 
might  opposed  it.  Gregory  then  sent  an  epistle  to  the 
emperor  Mauricius,  who  was  his  gossip,  and  besought  him, 
and  earnestly  prayed  that  he  would  never  consent  that  he 
should  be  exalted  with  the  glory  of  that  dignity,  for  he 
dreaded  that,  through  that  high  oflSce,  he  might  at  sopietime 
be  seduced  by  worldly  glory,  which  he  had  before  renounced. 
But  Gcrmanus,  the  emperor's  prefect,  seized  the  epistle  from 
Gregory's  messenger,  and  tore  it  to  pieces  ;  and  afterwards 
informed  the  emperor  that  the  people  had  chosen  Gregory  for 
pope.  The  emperor  Mauricius  then  thanked  God  for  it,  and 
commanded  him  to  be  consecrated.  Whereupon  Gregory 
took  flight,  and  concealed  himself  in  obscure  places  ;  but 
they  seized  him,  and  drew  him  f<i  St.  Peter's  church,  that  he 


124  S.  GREGORII  PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  IXCLITI. 

])iet  he  ^{er  to  papan  gehalgod  \Mirde.  Gregorius  Sa  wr  his 
liadunge  |7aet  Romanisce  folc  for  Sam  onsigendum  cwcalinc 
"Sisum  worduni  to  bereowsunge  tihte  : 

"  Mine  gebroSra  ]>i\  leofostan,  us  gedafeuaS  ]>ist  we  Godes 
swingle,  j^e  we  on  aer  towearde  ondnedaii  sceoldon,  ]'fet  we 
hum  nu  andwcrde  and  afandode  ondripdan.     Geopenige  ure 
sarnys  us  infter  soSre  gec)  rrednysse,  and  ptet  wite   ^e   we 
"Srowia^  tobrcce  ure  heortan  licardnysse.     Efnc  nu  Jiis  folc 
is  mid  swurde  ]\es  heofonlican  graman  ofslegen,  andgehwilce 
aenlipige  sind  mid  frerlicum  slihte  awcste.     Ne  seo  adl  5am 
deaSe  ne  forcsta^pb,  ac  ge  gcseoS  \nei  se  sylfa  deae)  )>;ere  adle 
yldinge   forhradaS.     Se  geslagcna  biS  mid  doaSe  gcgripcn, 
terJSan  ^e  he   to  hcofungum   soJSie   bchrcowsunge  gecyrran 
ma\ge.     IlogiaJS  forbi  hwilc  so  bccumc  ffitforan  gesihJSe  p-.es 
strecan  Deman,   se5c   nc   ma^g  ]>a>t  yfel  bewepan  "Se  he  ge- 
frcmode.       Gehwilce    eorSbugigende    sind    jotbrodene,    and 
hcora  bus  standaS  awcste.     Fffderas  and  moddru  bestandaiS 
hcora  bearna  lie,  and  hcora  yrfcnuman   him  sylfum  to  for- 
wyrde  forcsta^ppaiS.       Uton    cornostlice    flcon    to    heofunge 
sotSrc  d;cdbotc,  )'a  hwilc  be  we  moton,  fcrSan  J?e  se  facrlica 
siege  us  astrecce.     Uton  gcmunan  swa  hwiet  swa  we  dwdi- 
gende  agylton,   and  uton   mid  wope  gewitnian  ]»cet  ]>;et  we 
munfuUicc    adrugon.       Uton    forhradian    Godes    ansync    on 
andetnysse,  swa  swa  se  witcga  us  mana^  :   '  Uton  ahcbban 
ure  heortan   mid  handmu  to  Gode;'  j^aet  is,  )7?et  we  sccoloii 
Sa  gccnyrdnysse  ure  bene  mid  geearnunge  godes  weorces  up- 
areeran.     He  forgifb  truwan    ure  forhtunge,   seSe  p>urh  his 
witegan  clypaS,  *  Nylle  ic  ]>aes  synfuUan  deaS,  ac  ic  wille  j^aet 
he  gecyrre  and  lybbe.'  " 

"  Ne  gcortruwige  nan  man  bine  sylfne  for  his  synna  micel- 
nysse :  witodlice  ^a  ealdan  gyltas  Niniueiscre  "Seode  'Sreora 
daga  bereowsung  adilegode  ;  and  se  gecyrreda  scea^a  on  his 
dcabes  cwyde  j^tes  ecan  lifes  mede  gecarnode.  Uton  awcndan 
ure  heortan,  hrwdlice  bi"S  se  Dema  to  urum  benum  gebTgcd, 
gif  we  fram  urum    bwyrnyssum    beoS    gcrihtlcfihte.      Uton 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT,  POPE  OF  ROME.  125 

niisifht  there  be  hallowed  for  pope.  But  Grec^ory,  before  his 
consecration,  stimulated  the  Roman  people  to  repentance,  on 
account  of  the  impending  pestilence  : 

"  My  dearest  brothers,  it  is  befitting  us  that  God's  scourge, 
which  we  before  ought  to  have  dreaded  as  future,  we  should 
certainly  now  dread  present  and  experienced.    Let  our  aOlic- 
tion  open  to  us  the  entrance  to  true  conversion,  and  let  the 
punishment    wc    sufTer    i)reak    the    hardness  of   our  hearts. 
Behold  now  this  people  is  slain  with  the  sword  of  hcaveidy 
anger,  and  every  one  individually  is  destroyed  by  a  sudden 
stroke.      Disease  precedes  not  death,  for  ye  see  that  death 
itself   prevents  the    tarrying  of  disease.      The  stricken  arc 
seized  by  death  ere  they  can  turn  to  the  sighs  of  true  repent- 
ance.     Reflect  therefore  of  what  like  he  will  come  before  the 
face  of  the  stern  Judge,  who  camiot  bewail  the  evil  which  he 
has  perpetrated.     Many  of  earth's  inhahitants  are  carried  off, 
and  their  houses  stand  desolate.      Fathers  and  mothers  stand 
around  the  corpses  of  their  children,  and  their  heirs  precede 
themselves  to  dissolution.      T^el  us  earnestly  flee  to  the  sigh- 
ing of  true  penitence,  while  we  may,  ere  the  sudden  stroke 
lay  lis  prostrate.      Let  us  remember  whatever  sins  we  erring 
have  perpetrated,  and  let  us  with  weeping  chastise  that  which 
we  sinfully  have  tolerated.    Let  us  hasten  God's  coimtenance 
by  confession,  as  the  pro[)het  exhorteth   us  :   '  Let   us   raise 
our   hearts    with   hands   to   God;*    that   is,   that  we  shoidd 
heighten  the  fervency  of  our  prayer  Mith  the  merit  of  good 
works.      lie  giveth  confidence  to  our  fear,  w  ho  through   his 
prophet  callcth,   *  I  doire  not  the  death   of  the  sinful,  but  I 
desire  that  he  turn  and  live.'  " 

*'  Let  no  man  despair  of  himself  for  the  greatness  of  his 
sins;  for  a  rei)entance  of  tlireedays  obliterated  the  old  trans- 
gressions of  the  Ninevitisli  people  ;  and  the  converted  thief 
by  his  dying  words  earned  the  meed  of  everlasting  life.  Let 
us  turn  our  hearts ;  the  Judge  will  quickly  be  inclined  to  our 
prayers,  if  we  be  corrected  from  our  prrvor^Itiev..     Lit  us 


126  S.  GREGORII  I'APK  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

standan  mid  gemaglicum  wopum  ongean  Sam  onsigcndiim 
sw'urde  swa  miccles  domes.  Soblice  gcmagiiys  is  ]nim  soSan 
Denuui  gecvveme,  j^eah  ^e  heo  mannum  unSancwurSe  sy ; 
forSan  Se  se  arfeesta  and  se  mildiieorta  God  wile  ]ni>t  we  mid 
gemaglicum  benum  his  mildheortiiysse  ofgan,  and  he  nele  swa 
micclum  swa  we  geearniaS  us  geyrsian.  Be  Sisum  he  cwcbS 
purh  his  witegan,  '  Clypa  me  on  dfege  ^inre  gedrefednyssc, 
and  ic  ^e  ahredde,  and  Su  m;ersast  me.'  God  sylf  is  his 
gewita  l^aet  he  miltsian  wile  him  to  clypigcndum,  seSe  nianaX 
)7{fit  we  him  to  clypian  sceolon.  ForcSi,  mine  gcbroSra  j'a 
leofostan,  nton  gecuman  on  liam  feorSan  djpge  j^ysre  wucan 
on  aerne-merigen,  and  mid  estfulluin  mode  and  tcarum  singan 
seofonfcalde  laetanias,  J'aet  se  streca  Dema  us  gciiiige,  |>oimc 
he  gesihb  ]?;et  we  sylfe  ure  gyltas  wrecab." 

Eornostlice  5a5a  miccl  mcnigu,  a^gScr  ge  preosthades  ge 
munucluidcs  menu,  and  )>;et  la'wcdc  folc,  ;i'ftcr  Saes  eadigan 
Gregories  ha;se,  on  ])one  Wodnes-da^g  to  «Sam  scofonfealdum 
letanium  gecomon,to  Sam  swiSe  awcddc  se  forcsjedacwealm, 
)?set  hund-eahtatig  manna,  on  ^{ere  anre  tide  fcallcndc,  of  life 
gewiton,  ba  hwTle  ]>e  jjaet  folc  ^a  letanias  sungon.  Ac  se 
halga  sacerd  ne  geswac  )>a't  folc  to  manigenne  ]?aet  hi  Stjere 
bene  ne  geswicon,  o5|?aet  Godes  miltsung  J?one  reSan  cwealin 
gestilde. 

Hwaet  Sa  Gregorius,  siiSJSan  he  papan-had  undcrfeng,  ge- 
munde  hw;et  he  gcfyrn  Angelcynne  gemynte,  and  ^^errihte 
J^aet  luftyme  weorc  gefremode.  He  na  to  Saes  hwon  ne  mihte 
)?one  Romanifecan  biscop-stol  eallunge  forlfetan,  ac  he  asende 
oSre  bydekis,  geJSungene  Godes  ^eowan,  to  Sysum  Tglande, 
and  he  sylf  micclum  mid  his  benum  and  tihtingum  fylste,  ]>iBt 
Saera  bydela  bodung  for^genge,  and  Gode  waestmbeere  wurde. 
paera  bydela  naman  sind  |>us  gecigede  :  Augustixus,  Mel- 
LiTus,  Laukkntius,  Petkus,  Iohanxes,  Justus.  Das 
lareowas  asende  se  eadiga  papa  Gregorius,  mid  mancgum 
obrum  munecuui,  to  Angelcynne,  and  hi  i5isum  wordum  to 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GRfZAT.  POPE  OF  ROME.  127 

ptaiid  with  persevering  weeping  against  the  descending  sword 
of  so  great  a  judgement.  Verily  perseverance  is  pleasing  to 
the  true  Judge,  though  it  be  not  grateful  to  men  ;  for  the 
benignant  and  merciful  God  desires  that  we  with  persevering 
prayers  implore  his  mercy,  and  he  will  not  be  angry  \\i\\\  us 
so  much  as  we  deserve.  Of  this  he  spake  thro\igh  his  pro- 
phet :  *  Call  to  me  in  the  day  of  thy  trouble,  and  I  will  save 
thee,  and  thou  shall  glorify  me.'  God  himself  is  his  witness 
that  he  will  be  merciful  to  those  who  cry  unto  him,  who 
exhorts  us  that  we  should  cry  unto  him.  Therefore,  my 
dearest  brothers,  let  us  come  on  the  fourth  day  of  this  week 
at  early  morn,  and  with  devout  mind  and  tears  sing  seven- 
fold litanies,  that  the  stern  Judge  may  have  compassion  on 
us,  when  he  sees  that  we  ourselves  avenge  our  sins." 

But  when  the  great  multitude,  of  men  both  of  the  priest- 
hood and  the  monastic  order  and  the  layfolk,  according  to 
the  command  of  the  blessed  Gregory,  were  come  on  the 
Wednesday  to  the  sevenfold  litany,  the  aforesaid  pestilence 
raged  to  that  degree,  that  eighty  men,  falling  at  that  one 
hour,  departed  from  life,  while  the  folk  were  singing  the 
litanies.  liut  the  holy  priest  ceased  not  to  exhort  them  not 
to  cease  from  prayer,  until  God's  mercy  should  have  stilled 
the  cruel  pestilence. 

But  Gregory,  after  he  had  undert;iken  the  papal  dignitv, 
remembered  what  he  of  old  had  meditated  for  the  English 
race,  and  forthwith  completed  that  grateful  work.  He  could 
not  on  any  account  altogether  forsake  the  Roman  episcopal 
see,  but  he  sent  other  messengers,  venerable  servants  ol  God, 
to  this  island,  and  he  himself,  by  his  prayers  and  exhorta- 
tions, greatly  aided,  that  the  preaching  of  those  messengers 
succeeded  and  bare  fruit  to  God.  The  names  of  these  mes- 
sengers are  thus  called:  Augustinus,  Mellitus,  L.\u- 
renth;s,  Pktris,  Joii.\nnes,  Justus.  The  blessed  pope 
Gregory  sent  these  teachers  with  many  other  monks  to  the 
English  nation,  ar)d  stimulated  them  to  the  journey  in  these 


128  S.  GREGORII   PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

^fCre  fare  tihte  :  "  Ne  bco  ge  afyrhte  ^urh  geswince  y^es  laiig- 
sunian  faereldes,  o^Se  );urh  yfelra  manna  y!nbe-sprnece  ;  ac 
niicl  ealre  anrpednysse  and  wylnie  J^jere  soSan  lufe  pas  ongun- 
nenan  Sing  JHirh  Godes  fultum  gefrenimaS.  And  witc  ge 
)7aet  eower  med  on  Sam  ecan  edleane  swa  miccle  mare  biS, 
swa  micclum  swa  ge  mare  for  Godes  willan  swincaS.  Ge- 
hyrsumiab  eadmodlice  on  eallum  Singnm  Augustine,  j'onc 
"Se  we  eow  to  ealdre  gcsettoji  :  lilt  fremaS  eowruni  sawlum 
swa  hwffit  swa  ge  be  his  myncgunge  gefyllaS.  Se/EImibtiga 
God  |?urh  his  gife  eow  gescylde,  and  geunnc  me  j?fet  ic  mote 
eoweres  gesvvinces  Wfestm  on  Sam  ecan  eSele  geseon,  sua 
]>iRt  ic  beo  gemet  saniod  on  blissc  eoweres  edleanes,  Seah  Sc 
ic  mid  eow  swincan  ne  uuege ;  forSon  Se  ic  wille  swincan." 
Augustinus  Sa  mid  his  geferum,  \net  sind  gcrehte  feowerlig 
weru,  ferde  be  Gregories  h;ese,  oS)'K>t  In"  to  Sisuni  ighmdc 
gesundfullice  becomon. 

On  ciam  daguin  rixode  .Ej'clbyrht  cyning  on  Cantware- 
byrig  riclice,  and  his  rice  Wfcs  astreht  fram  Sa're  micchm  ea 
Ilumbre  oS  suS  sae.  Augustinus  h;efde  gcmnnen  wealhstodas 
of  Francena  rice,  swa  swa  Grcgorius  him  behead,  and  he, 
Surh  Stf  ra  wealhstoda  muS,  ))am  cyninge  and  his  leode  Godes 
word  hodadc  :  lui  se  mikilieorta  Hjck'nd,  mid  his  agenre 
Srowunge,  ]>ysne  scykiigan  middaneard  alysde,  and  geleatTul- 
lum  mannum  heofonan  rices  infaer  geopenode.  paandwyrde 
se  cyning  ^ESelbrilit  Augustine,  and  cwaeS,  j^ict  he  ffegere 
word  and  beliat  him  cydde ;  and  cwicS,  J?iet  he  ne  mihte  swa 
hrsedlice  ])one  ealdan  gewunan  Se  he  mid  Angelcyime  heold 
forl{€tan  :  cwieS  ])iet  he  moste  freolice  Sa  heofonlican  lare  his 
leode  bodian,  and  ]>iet  he  him  and  his  geferan  bigleofan  Senian 
woklc  ;  and  forgeaf  him  "Sa  wununge  on  Cantwarebyrig,  seo 
vvflBS  ealles  his  rices  heafod-burh. 

Ongann  Sa  Augustiims  mid  his  munecum  to  geefenlaecenne 
]?aera  apostola  lif,  mid  singalum  gebedum,  and  waeccan,  and 
faestenum  Gode^eowigende,  and  lifes  word  ])am  Se  hi  mihton 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT.  POPE  OF  ROME. 


129 


words  :  "  Be  ye  not  jifraid  throu^li  the  toil  of  the  tedious 
journej',  or  through  tlie  speeches  of  evil  men  ;  but  with  all 
steadfastness  and  fervour  of  true  love  perform  the  thing 
begun  through  the  aid  of  God.  And  know  ye  tiiat  your  meed 
in  the  everlastir)g  reward  will  he  so  much  the  greater,  by 
how  much  the  more  ve  toil  for  the  will  of  God.  Obey 
Augustine  humbly  in  all  things,  whom  we  have  appointed  to 
vou  for  chief:  it  will  benefit  your  ^ouls  whatsoever  ye  fulfil 
by  his  admonition.  .May  Ahnighty  God  through  his  grace 
shield  you,  and  grant  to  me  that  I  may  see  the  fruit  of  your 
toil  in  the  eternal  country,  j?o  that  I  may  be  found  together 
with  \()u  in  the  ioy  <>f  sour  reward,  tho\igh  1  may  not  toil 
with  you;  for  I  have  the  will  to  toil."  Augustine  then  \\ith 
his  companions,  v  ho  are  reckoned  at  forty  men,  journeyed 
by  Gregory's  command,  till  they  came  safely  to  this  island. 


In  those  days  king  ^Ethelbyrht  reigned  powerfully  in 
Canterbury,  and  his  realm  was  stretched  from  the  great  river 
Ilumber  to  the  south  sea.  Augustine  had  taken  intcr|)reters 
from  the  realm  of  the  Franks,  as  Gregory  had  commanded 
him,  and  he,  thntugh  the  mouth  of  those  interpreters, 
preached  the  word  of  (lod  to  the  king  and  his  people:  how 
the  merciful  .Jesus  by  his  own  passion  redeemed  this  guilty 
\vorld,  and  opened  to  believing  men  an  entrance  into  the 
kingdom  of  heaven.  Then  king  .Kthelbyrht  answered 
Augustine,  and  said,  that  he  announced  to  him  fair  words 
and  promises,  and  said  that  he  could  not  so  hastily  forsake 
the  old  usage,  \\  hich  he  with  the  Knglish  nation  observed  : 
he  said  that  he  might  freely  preach  the  heavenly  doctrine  to 
his  people,  and  thai  he  would  supply  subsistence  to  him  and 
his  companions  ;  aiul  gave  him  then  a  dwelling  in  Canter- 
bury, which  was  the  head  city  of  all  his  realm. 

Augustine  then  with  his  monks  began  to  imitate  the  life  of 
the  apostles,  serving  God  with  constant  prayers,  and  watch- 
ings,  and  fastings,  and  preaching  the  word  of  life  to  those  to 

IIOM.  yoL.  II.  K 


l:{()  S.  GREGORII   PAPE  URBIS  ROMANE  INCLITI. 

bodigende,  ealle  middaneardlice  ^ing,  swa  s\^a  aelfremede, 
forhogigende ;  ^a  ]nng  ana  |?e  hi  to  bigleofan  beliofedoii 
underfonde,  be  ^am  ^e  hi  taehton  sylfe  lybbende,  and  for 
Saere  soSfiestnysse  ^e  hi  bodedon  gearowe  waeron  ehtiiysse 
to  ^oligenne,  and  dea^e  sweltan,  gif  hi  cSorfton. 

Hvvait  ^a  gelyfdon  forwel  menige,  and  on  Godes  iiaman 
gefuUode  wurdon,  wundrigende  ])a^re  bilewitnysse  heora  un- 
scie^Sigan  ITfes,  and  svvetnysse  heora  licofonlican  lare.  Da 
aet  nextan  gelustfullode  Sam  cyninge  ^E^clbrihte  heora  cltene 
Iff  and  heora  wynsume  behat,  ]>d  soSlice  wurdon  mid  mane- 
gum  tacnum  gesebde;  and  he  ba  gelyfende  wear^  gefullod, 
and  micclum  Sacristenan  gearwurSode,  and  swa  swa  hcofon- 
lice  ceaster-gewaran  lufode  :  nolde  swa-bcah  na^nnc  to  cris- 
tendome  geneadian,  forSan  5e  he  ofaxodc  aet  Sam  lareowum 
his  hade,  )7fet  Cristes  Seovvdom  ne  sceal  beon  geneadad,  ac 
sylfwillcs.  Ongunnon  ^a  d;eghwomlice  forwel  nuMiige  efstan 
to  geliyrenne  ^a  halgan  bodunge,  and  forlcton  heora  hsben- 
scipc,  and  hi  sylfe  gccScoddon  Cristes  gclaiSunge,  on  hine 
gelyfende. 

Betwux  Sisum  gcuendc  Augustinus  ofer  sae  to  «Sam  crcc- 
biscope  Etherium,  and  he  hine  gehadode  Angelcynne  to 
ercebiscope,  swa  swa  him  Gregorius  i*ir  gewissode.  Augus- 
tinus  ^a  gehadod  cyrde  to  his  biscop-stole,  and  asende  ferend- 
racan  to  Rome,  and  cydde  Sam  eadigan  Gregorie  \>'cei 
Angelcynn  cristendom  underfeng,  and  he  eac  mid  gewritum 
fela  Singa  befran,  hu  him  to  drohtnigenne  wtere  betwux  ^ani 
nig-hworfenum  folce.  Hweet  ^a  Gregorius  micclum  Gode 
•Sancode  mid  blissigendum  mode,  jJSRt  Angelcynne  swa  ge- 
lumpen  waos,  swa  swa  he  sylf  geornlicegewilnode,  and  sende 
eft  ongean  aerendracan  to  ^am  geleaffullan  cyninge  yEJ^el- 
brihte,  mid  gewritum  and  menigfealdum  lacum,  and  oSre 
gewritu  to  Augustine,  mid  andswarum  ealra'Saera  ^inga  j^e  he 
hine  befran,  and  liine  eac  "Sisum  wordum  manode  :  "  BroSer 
min  se  leofosta,  ic  wat  ]>aet  se  /Elmihtiga  God  fela  wundra 
Jjurh   Se  ]>ieve  ^code  ^e  he  geceas  geswutela^,  ]?a?s  Su  miht 


ST.  GREGORY  THE  GREAT,  POPK  OF  ROME.  131 

whom  they  could,  despising  all  worldly  things  as  extraneous; 
receiving  those  things  only  which  were  necessary  for  their 
subsistence,  living  themselves  conformably  to  what  they 
taught,  and  for  the  truth  which  they  preached  were  ready  to 
undergo  persecution  and  sutTir  death,  if  they  had  cause. 

Hereupon  very  many  believed,  and  were  baptized  in  God's 
name,  wondering  at  the  meekness  of  their  harmless  life,  and 
the  sweetness  of  their  heavenly  lore.  Then  at  last  king 
yEtheibyrht  was  delighted  with  their  p\ire  life  and  pleading 
promises,  which  truly  were  verified  by  many  miracles  ;  and 
he  then  believing  was  baptized,  and  greatly  honoured  the 
christians,  and  as  heavenly  citizens  loved  them:  yet  would 
he  not  compel  any  one  to  Christianity,  fj)r  he  had  been  in- 
formed by  the  teachers  of  his  salvation,  that  Christ's  service 
should  not  be  forced,  but  voluntary.  Very  many  then  begun 
to  hasten  daily  to  hear  the  holy  preaching,  and  forsook  their 
heathenism,  and  joined  themselves  to  the  church  of  Christ, 
believing  in  him. 

In  the  meanwhile  Augustine  went  beyond  sea  to  the  arch- 
biishop    Etherius,    and    he   ordaiiud    him    archbishop  of   the 
English    nation,    as    Gregory    had    previously    directed   him. 
Augustine   tiicn   being   ordained,   returned   to   his   e|)iscopal 
see,  and  sent   messengers  to   Rome,  and   announced  to  the 
blessed  Gregory  that  the  ]'>nglish  nation   had  received  Chris- 
tianity, and  he  also  by  letters  asked  many  things,  as  to  how 
he  should  live  among  the  newly  converted  people.    Hereupon 
Gregory  ferventJN  thanked  God  with  joyful  mind,  that  it  had 
so    taken    place    in    the    Eiigli>h    nation  as    he  himself  had 
earnestly  desired,  and  sent  messengers  again  to  the  believing 
king  .Ethelbyrht,  \\ith   letters  and  manifohl  gifts,  and  other 
letters  to  T^lhgustine,  with  answers  to  all  the  things  he  had 
asked  him,  and  admojiished  him  also  in  these  words  :  "  My 
dearest  brother,  I   know  that  the  Ahnighty  God  manifesteth 
many  miracles  through  thee  to  the  nation  that  he  hath  chosen, 

K  2 


132  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHHERIITI  EPISCOPI. 

blissigan  and  euc  Se  oiidrjedaii.  pu  miht  blissigan  gewisslice 
]7aet  "Saere  •Seode  sawla  ]/urh  -Sa  yttran  wundra  beob  getogene 
to  "Saere  incundan  gife;  ondrted  be  swa-beah  ]7fet  "bin  mod 
ne  beo  ahafeii  mid  dyrstignysse  on  ^am  tacnum  )>e  God  burh 
•be  gefrema^,  and  ]>u  bonon  on  ulclum  widdre  befealle  wib- 
innan,  ]7onon  ^e  bu  wibutan  on  wurbmynte  ahafen  bist." 

Grcgorius  ascnde  eac  Augustine  halige  lac  on  maesse-rcaf- 
um,  and  on  bocum,  and  ^aera  apostola  and  martyra  roliquias 
samod ;  and  bebead  )';et  his  aeftorgengan  symle  ^one  pallium 
and  bone  crccbad  tet  bam  apostolican  setle  Ronumiscrc  ge- 
la^Junge  feccan  sccoldon.  Augustinus  gesette  aefter  bisum 
biscopas  of  his  gefcrum  geiiwilcum  burgum  on  Engla  beode, 
and  hi  on  Godes  gclcafan  beonde  burhwunodon  ob  bisum 
dfegberlicum  d;pgc. 

Se  eadiga  Grcgorius  gcdihtc  manega  halige  traht-bcc,  and 
mid  n)icelrc  gecnyrdnysse  Godes  folc  to  bam  ecan  life  ge- 
M'issodc,  and  fela  wundra  on  his  life  geworhte,  and  wuldor- 
fuUice  |>;es  papan  setles  geweold  breottyne  gear,  and  six 
monbas,  and  tyn  dagas,  and  sibban  on  bisum  da'ge  gcwat  to 
bam  ecan  setle  heofcnan  rices,  on  bam  he  leofab  mid  Gode 
/Ehnihtiguu)  a  on  ecnysse.     Amen. 


XIII.  KL.  APRILIS. 
DEPOSITIO  SUI  CUTIIBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

CUTHBERliTUS,  se  halga  biscop,  scinende  on  manegum 
geearnungum  and  healicum  gebincbum,  on  heofenan  rice, 
mid  )?am  ^Imihtigum  Scyppende  on  ecere  blisse  rixiende 
M'uldraS. 

Beda,  se  snotera  Engla  beode  lareow,  pises  halgan  lif  ende- 
byrdliee  mid  wunderfuUum  herungum,  aeg^er  ge  aefter  an- 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        133 

for  which  thou  mayest  rejoice  and  also  fear.  Thou  mayest 
certainly  rejoice  that  the  souls  of  that  people  have  through 
those  outward  wonders  been  drawn  to  inward  grace  ;  yet 
fear  that  thy  mind  he  not  lifted  up  witli  arrogance  by  the 
miracles  which  G(k1  through  thee  pcrformeth,  and  thou 
thence  fall  into  vain-glory  within,  because  thou  art  raided 
in  dignity  withont." 

Gregory  also  sent  to  Augustine  holy  gifts  of  mass-robes, 
and  books,  together  \\i\]\  relics  of  the  apostles  aiul  martyrs  ; 
and  commanded  that  his  successors  should  always  fetch  the 
pall  and  the  archiepiscopal  dignity  from  the  apostolic  seat  of 
the  Roman  church.  Augustine  after  this  established  bishops 
from  among  his  companions  over  all  the  cities  of  the  English 
nation,  and  they  have  continued  prospering  in  God's  faith  to 
this  present  day. 

The  blessed  Gregory  composed  many  holy  treatises,  and 
with  great  diligence  directed  (lod's  people  to  everlasting  life, 
and  wrought  many  miracles  in  his  life,  and  gloriously  ruled 
the  papal  seat  thirteen  years,  and  six  months,  and  ten  days, 
and  then  on  this  day  departed  t<>  the  eternal  seat  of  heaven's 
kingdom,  in  which  he  livrth  with  (lod  Almighty  ever  to 
eternity.     Amen. 


MARCH  XX. 
THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT.  BISHOP. 

CUTIIR1\UIIT,  the  holy  bishop,  shining  with  many  merits 
and  high  honours,  reigning  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  with 
the  Almighty  Creator,  in  eternal  joy,  is  glorified. 

Beda,  the  wise  doctor  of  the  English  nation,  has  Mritten 
the  life  of  this  saint   in   the  order  of  events,  with  wonderful 


134  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

fealdre  gereccednysse  ge  aefter  leoblicere  gyddunge  awrat. 
Us  sffide  soblice  Beda,  J?fet  se  eadiga  CuSberhtus,  (SaSa  he 
Wffis  eahta  wintre  cild,  arn,  swa  sua  him  his  nytenlice  yld 
tihte,  plegende  mid  his  efen-ealdum  :  ac  se  -i^hiiihtiga  God 
wolde  sty  ran  J7tere  nytennysse  his  gecorcnan  CuJSberhtes, 
]?urh  mynegunge  gelimpliccs  larcowes,  and  asende  liim  to  an 
t>ry-wintre  cild,  ]};et  hit  his  dyslican  plcgai>  mid  stiebSiguni 
wordum  wiblice  ^reade.  Soblice  j^iet  fores^dc  Sry-wintrc 
cild  )?one  gfemnigeiidan  CuJSberhtum  bcfriin,  "To  hwT  uii- 
derj?eodst  ]m  ^e  sylfiie  }?isum  ydelum  plegan,  j)u  ISe  eart  fram 
Godc  gehalgod  mid  rodcrlicum  uurSmynte  ?  Ne  gedafcnalS 
biscope  |>cet  he  beo  on  d^edum  folces  manninn  gclic.  GcswTc, 
la  leof,  swa  unSteslices  plegan,  and  gcSeod  Se  to  Gode,  be  be 
to  biscope  his  folces  geccas,  j?am  <Su  scealt  hcofonan  rices 
infier  gcopenian."  Hw.'et  ba  Cubbcrhtus  |'a-gyt  mid  his 
plegan  forb-arn,  objuot  his  lareow  mid  biterum  tearum  drco- 
riglice  wcpende,  ealra  tifera  cildra  plegan  fa'rlice  gestilde. 
Witodlice  call  se  cildlica  heap  wolde  1>hps  anes  cildes  dre«)rig- 
nysse  gefrcfrian,  ac  hi  ealle  ne  mihton  mid  heora  frofre  his 
dreorigiiysse  adwjescan,  terban  \>e  Cubberhtus  hit  mid  arf^est- 
um  cossum  gegladode,  and  he  sylf  sibban,  a'fter  ]fxs  cildes 
mynegunge,  on  healiccre  stw^bignysse  symle  burhwunode. 

JEftev  "bisum  wearb  ]'jes  eadigan  Cubbcrhtes  cneow  mid 
heardum  geswelle  alefed,s\va  j^iet  he  mid  criccum  hisfebnnge 
underwrebode.  pa  gesfet  he  sume  daege,  under  sui\n-beame, 
ana  on  sundran,  and  his  scencan  beSode,  him  com  ba  ridcnde 
to  sum  arwurbe  ridda,  sittende  on  snaw-hwitum  horse,  and  he 
sylf  mid  hwitum  gyrlum  befangen  waes ;  and  he  ^one  halgan 
mid  gesibsum  wordum  swaeslice  grette,  biddende  J^aet  he  him 
dceg-wistes  gedafenlice  ti^ode.  Cubberhtus  Sa  to  bam  eiigle 
anmodlice  cwae^,  "  Ic  wolde  bine  bcnunge  sylf  nu  gearcian, 
gif  ic  me  mid  febunge  ferian  mihte.  Min  adlige  cneow  is 
yfele  gehfefd,  }>aet  ne  mihte  nan  laece-wyrht  awiht  geliSian, 
]7eah  be  heo  gelometo  geled  waere."  pa  gelihte  se  cuma,  and 
his  cneow  grapode  mid  his  halwendum  handum,  and  het  hinc 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        135 

praises,  both  in  a  simple  narrative  and  in  a  poetic  composition. 
Beda  has  truly  informed  us,  that  the  blessed  Cuthberht,  when 
he  was  a  child  of  eight  years,  ran,  as  his  thouglitless  age 
urged  him,  playing  with  his  coevals  :  but  Ahiiighty  God 
would  correct  the  thoughtlessness  of  his  chosen  Cuthberlit, 
by  the  admonition  of  an  opportune  teacher,  and  sent  to  him 
a  child  of  three  years,  that  it  might  wisely  reprove  his  witless 
play  with  serious  words.  Verily  the  aforesaid  child  of  three 
years  asked  the  gamesome  Cuthberht,  '*  Why  dost  thou  devote 
thyself  to  this  idle  play,  thou  who  art  hallowed  of  (iod  with 
heavenly  dignity  ?  It  bcGtteth  not  a  bishop  to  be  in  deeds 
like  nan  of  the  people.  Cease,  dear  friend,  from  so  un- 
becoming a  play,  and  attach  thyself  to  God,  who  hath  chosen 
thee  to  be  a  bishop  of  his  people,  to  whom  thou  sbalt  open 
the  entrance  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven."  But  Cuthberht 
still  ran  on  with  his  play,  till  his  monitor  with  bitter  tears 
sadly  weeping,  suddenly  stilled  the  play  of  all  the  children. 
Wiiereupon  all  the  childish  company  would  comfort  the  sad- 
ness of  that  one  child,  but  they  all  with  their  comfort  could 
not  assuage  its  sadness,  before  Cuthberht  gladdened  it  with 
kind  kisses,  and  himself  afterwards,  according  to  the  child's 
admonition,  continued  ever  in  profound  seriousness. 

After  this  the  blessed  Cuthberht's  knee  was  lamed  with  a 
hard  swelling,  so  that  he  supported  his  gait  with  crutches. 
As  he  one  day  sat  under  the  sunbeam,  apart  from  others,  and 
bathed  his  leg,  there  came  riding  to  him  a  venerable  horse- 
man sitting  on  a  snow-white  horse,  and  he  himself  was  clad 
in  white  garnients  ;  and  he  courteously  greeted  the  saint  with 
peaceful  words,  praying  that  he  would,  if  convenient,  give  a 
day-repast.  Cuthberht  thereupon  frankly  said,  "  I  would  now 
prepare  your  refection  myself,  if  I  could  walk.  My  diseased 
knee  is  sorely  afflicted,  so  that  no  medicament  may  aught 
relieve  it,  though  it  be  frequently  laid  on  it."  The  stranger 
then  alighted,  and  grasped  his  knee  with  his  healing  hands, 


136  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

geniaiaii  hwietene  smedenian,  and  on  meolc  awyllan,  and  sua 
mid  ^cfire  hsetan  ]>'<et  toSundene  lim  gewricSan  ;  and  jefter 
^isum  vvordum  his  hors  bestiad,  on  hum  siSfete  ^e  he  Sider 
com  aweg-ferende.  Hwiet  Sa  CuSberhtus,  aefter  j^aes  engles 
lare  his  cneow  beSode,  and  he  sona  gesundfull  his  ffereldcs 
breac,  and  ongeat  j^a^t  God  |?urh  his  engel  hine  geneosode, 
se^e  giu  {ler  ]?one  blindan  Tobian,  purh  his  hcah-cngel 
Raphahel,  niilitelice  onlihte. 

Efl  se  halga  Cuc)berlitus,  Saba  lie  wacode  mid  hyrdeman- 
num  on  felda,  on  his  gcogoiSe,  geseah  heofonas  opcne,  and 
englas  gelaeddon  Aidanes  biscopes  sawle  mid  micclum  wuldre 
into  (Sfere  lieofonlican  myrhSe.  Hwilon  eac  CuiSberhtus 
ferdc  geond  land,  bodigende  Godcs  gcleafan.  Sa  for  unwedre 
gecyrde  he  to  sumcs  hyrdes  cytan,  j^e  stod  weste  on  5am 
westene  iSe  he  ofcrferdc,  and  getigde  his  hors  S;er  binnon. 
Da  mid  5am  |>e  he  his  gcbcdu  sang,  5a  t<er  |>{et  hors  j'^et  5a^c 
of  ^aere  cytan  hrofe,  and  jner  feoll  adune,  swilce  of  ^ani 
hrofe,  wcarmhliif  mid  his  syflinge  ;  he  5a  geSancode  Gode 
]>:ere  sande,  and  mid  |';ere  hine  sylfne  gereordode. 

Se  eadiga  Cu}^berhtus  ;efter  ^isum  ealle  woruld-5ing  call- 
unge  forlet,  and  mid  halgum  iSeawum  hine  sylfne  to  nmnuc- 
life  geScodde;  and  he  hriedlice  si55an  he  munuc  wip.s  wear^ 
geset  cumena  5en,  j^fet  he  cumena-huses  gymde,  and  mynster- 
licum  cumum  geSensum  wjere.  paa^t  sumon  s^le  on  wintres 
da^ge,  him  com  to  Godes  engel  on  cuman  hiwe,  and  Cu^- 
berhtus  hine  mid  ealre  cumliSnysse  underfeng.  pa  gecyrde 
he  ut  ymbe  j^aes  cuman  ^enunge,  ac  he  ne  gemette  ntemie 
cuman,  ^a5a  he  inn  com,  ac  lagon  ^ry  heofonlice  hlafas,  on 
lilian  beorhtnysse  scinende,  and  on  hrosan  brae^e  stymende, 
and  on  svvfjecce  swettran  );onne  beona  hunig.  pa  sceawode 
se  halga  Cu^berhtus  on  ^am  snawe  gehwter  hvvyder  se  cuma 
sibigende  ferde,  ac  5a^a  he  nane  fotsvva^e  on  ^am  snawe  ne 
geseah,  5a  ongeat  he  j^fet  se  cuma  wa?s  engel  and  na  mann. 


TIIK  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        137 

and  bade  liim  take  wheatci)  flour,  and  boil  it  in  milk,  and 
bind  the  swollen  limb  with  the  hot  preparation  ;  and  after 
these  words  bestrode  his  horse,  departing  by  the  way  w  hich 
he  came  thither.  Thereupon  Cuthberht  bathed  his  knee  ac- 
cording to  the  angel's  instruction,  and  forthwith  in  lualth 
possessed  his  power  of  walking,  and  was  sensible  that  God 
had  visited  him  through  his  angel,  who  in  time  of  old  had 
powerfully  relieved  the  blind  Tol)ia>,  tijrough  his  archangel 
Gabriel. 

Afterwards  the  holy  Cuthberht,  while  watching  with  shep- 
herds in  the  field,  saw  the  heavens  open,  and  angels  leading 
the  soul  of  bishop  Aidan  with  great  glory  into  the  heavenly 
joy.  (^n  a  time  also  C'uthi)erht  was  journeying  through  the 
country,  preaching  God's  faith,  when  on  account  of  a  storm 
he  turned  into  a  shej)her(i's  cottage,  which  stood  desolate  in 
the  wilderness  over  \\  hich  he  was  traveling,  and  tied  his  horse 
within  it.  Then  while  he  was  singing  his  prayers,  the  liorse 
tore  the  thatch  from  the  roof  of  the  cottage,  and  there  fell 
down,  as  from  the  roof,  a  w  arn>  loaf  with  its  accompaniment ; 
he  thereupon  thanked  God  for  the  repast,  and  therewith  re- 
fected himself. 

The  blessed  CuthlKiht  after  this  wholly  forsook  all  worldly 
things,  and  with  holy  observances  subjected  himself  to  the 
monastic  life  ;  and  soon  after  he  was  a  monk,  he  was  ap- 
pointed superintendent  of  the  guests,  so  that  he  took  care  of 
the  strangers*  lodgings,  and  ministered  to  the  u)ona»tic  guests. 
Then  on  a  certain  time  on  a  w  inter's  day,  an  angel  of  God 
came  to  him  in  the  guise  of  a  stranger,  and  Cuthberht  received 
him  with  all  hospitality.  He  then  went  out  for  the  service 
<»f  the  guest,  but  found  no  guest  when  he  came  in,  but  there 
lay  three  heavenly  loaves,  shining  w  ith  the  lily's  brightness, 
and  exhaling  the  rose's  fragrance,  and  in  taste  sweeter  than 
bees'  honey.  Then  the  holy  Cuthberht  looked  everywhere  in 
the  snow  whither  the  stranger  had  passed  in  his  way.  hut 
when  he   saw  no  foot-traces  in   the   snow,  hr  knew  that  the 


138  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

se^e  -gone  heofonlicaii  fodau  him  brohte,  and  ^aes  eor^lican 
lie  rohte. 

pes  foresffida  halga  wer  waes  gewunod  ptet  he  wolde  gan  on 
niht  to  sie,   and   standan   on    bam   sealtan   brynime   o5   his 
svvyran,  syngende  his  gebcdu.      pa  on  sumere  nihte  hlosnode 
sum  o^er  munuc  his  fa^reldcs,  and  mid  sleaccre  stalcunge  his 
fotswa^um  filigde,  oSjjjet  hi  begcn  to  sie  beconion.    Da  dydc 
CuSberhtus  swa  his  gewuna  waes,  sang  his  gebedu  on  stelicere 
y^c,  standcnde  oS  ]7one  swyran,  and  syJSiSan  his  cneowa  on 
"Sam  ccosle  gebigde,  astrehtum  handbredmn  to  heofeidicum 
rodoie.     Efnc  i5a  comon  twegen  seolas  of  sjelicum  grunde, 
and  hi  mid  hcora  flyse  his  fet  drygdoi),  and  mid  lieoia  bhede 
his  leoma  bcbedon,  and  sibJSan  mid  gcbcacnc  his  bletsunge 
baedon,  licgcndc  set  his  foton  on  fcalwum  ceosle.     pa  CuS- 
berhtus  Sa  srieiican   nytcnu  on  sund  asende  mid  soSre  blet- 
sunge, and  on  merigenlicere  tide  mynster  gesohte.     WearS 
)?a  se  munuc  micclum  afyrht,  and  adlig  on  {erne-mcrigen  bine 
gecadmette  to  ci;es  halgan  cncowum,  biddende  ]>iei  he  his  adl 
ealhmge  afligdc,  and  his  fyrwitnysse  f;ederlice  miltsodc.     Se 
halga   <Sa  sona  andwyrde,   "  Ic   Sinum  gedwylde  dearnunge 
miitsige,  gif  Sn  Sa  gesihSe  mid  svvigan  bedtglast,  0(S]>iet  min 
savvul  heonon  sicJige,  of  andwcrdum  life  gelabod  to  heofonan." 
CuSberhtus  Sa  mid  gebede  his  sceaweres  seocnysse  gehaelde, 
and  his  fyrwites  ganges  gylt  forgeaf.     Fela  wundra  wurdon 
geworhte   Surh    bone   halgan   Cubberht,  ac   we  wyllab   for 
sceortnysse  sume  forsuwian,  Sy-laes  Se  Seos  racu  eovv  to  lang 
"bince. 

Witodlice  Cubberhtus  ferde,  swa  swa  his  gewuna  waes, 
ymbe  geleaffulre  bodunge,  j;ajt  he  bam  ungelaeredum  folce 
lifes  vveig  tiehte  ;  |?a  fleah  sum  earn  setforan  him  on  siSe,  and 
he  his  geferan  befrinan  ongann,  hwa  hi  to  Sam  daege  afedan 
sceolde  ?  Da  cwaeS  his  gefera,  ]?8et  he  gefyrn  smeade  hwaer 
hi  bigleofau  biddan  sceoldon,  baba  hi  Sa  fare  ferdou  buton 
wiste.  CuSberhtus  Sa  him  togeanes  cwaeS,  "  La  hwaet  se 
uElmihtiga  God  maeg  for-eaSe  unc  jnxrh  Sisne  earn  aet  fore- 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        139 

stranger  was  an  angel  and  not  a  man,  who  liad  brought  him 
the  heavenly  food,  and  recked  not  of  the  earthly. 

The  beforesaid  holy  man  was  wont  to  go  at  night  to  the 
sea,  and  stand  in  the  salt  ocean  up  to  his  neck,  singing  his 
prayers.  Then  one  niglit  another  monk  awaited  his  coming, 
and  at  a  slow  pace  followed  his  footsteps,  till  they  both  came 
to  the  sea.  Tlien  Cuthberht  did  as  was  his  wont,  sang  his 
prayers  in  the  sea-wave,  standing  up  to  the  neck,  and  after- 
wards bowed  his  knees  in  the  sand,  with  palms  outstretched 
to  the  heavenly  firmament.  Lo  then  came  two  seals  from 
the  sea-ground,  and  they  with  tlair  fur  dried  his  feet,  and 
with  their  breath  warmed  his  limb<,  and  afterwards  by  a  sign 
begged  his  blessing,  lying  at  his  feet  on  the  fallow  sand. 
Tlien  Cuthberht  sent  the  marine  animals  to  the  sea  with  a 
sincere  blessing,  and  at  morning  tide  sought  the  mynster. 
Tlien  the  moidi  became  greatly  terrified,  and  ill  at  early  morn 
prostrated  himself  at  the  knees  of  the  saint,  praying  that 
he  would  wholly  drive  away  his  ailment,  and  paternally 
compassionate  his  curiosity.  The  saint  forthwith  answered, 
"I  will  privily  compassionate  thy  error,  if  thou  with  silence 
wilt  conceal  that  sight,  until  my  soul  shall  have  journeyed 
hence,  called  from  the  present  life  to  heaven."  Cuthberht 
then  by  prayer  healed  the  sickness  of  his  observer,  and  for- 
gave him  the  guilt  of  his  walk  of  curiosity.  Many  wonders 
were  wrought  by  the  holy  Cuthberht,  but  we  will  for  short- 
ness pass  some  in  silence,  lest  this  narrative  appear  too  long 
to  you. 

But  Cuthberht,  as  was  his  wont,  went  preaching  the  faith, 
that  he  might  teach  the  ignorant  people  the  way  of  life,  when 
an  eagle  flew  before  him  on  his  journey,  and  he  began  asking 
his  companion,  who  for  that  day  should  give  them  food  ? 
Then  said  his  companion,  tliat  he  had  long  been  considering 
where  they  should  ask  for  sustenance,  as  they  had  gone  the 
journey  without  provisions.  Then  Cuthberht  said  to  him, 
*'  Lo   Almighty   (iod    ran   very    <\Tsily   provide    food    fr)r  us 


140  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

sceawian,se^e  giu  ser  Elian  afedde  jjurh  bone  sweartan  liremm, 
fer  he  to  heofonaii  sibodc."  Hi  ^a  ferdon  forb-sibigende, 
and  efne  se  earn  on  Sam  ofre  gesaet,  mid  fisce  geflogen,  pone 
he  ^{firrihte  gefeng.  pa  cwieS  se  halga  to  his  geferan,  "  Yrn 
to  bam  earne,  and  him  of-anim  ]>ies  fisces  djel  be  he  gcfangen 
h^fb,  unc  to  gereorde.  Sy  lof  bam  .Ehnihtigan,  \>e  unc  burh 
^isne  fugcl  fedan  wolde.  Syle  swa-bcah  sumne  dfel  bam 
earne  to  edleane  his  geswinces." 

Hi  baaeftcr  gereorde  on  heora  weg  ferdon,  and  Cubberhtus 
bam  folce  fjegere  bodade,  jnet  hi  wiere  wjeron  wib  deofles 
syrwum,  }jy-lfps  be  he  mid  leasunge  heora  geleafan  awyrde, 
and  fram  bwre  bodunge  heora  mod  abrade,  pa^t  folc  ba  f<er- 
lice  ongaim  forb-arjesan  hetwux  )>ysserc  minegunge,  micclum 
bep?eht,  |>iet  hi  btere  hue  to  lyt  gymdon.  Hwiet  se  swicohi 
feond  hi  swibe  bedydrode,  swilee  bier  bum  hus  soblice  for- 
burne,  brastligende  mid  brandum,  gedwymorlice  swa-^eah. 
pa  wolde  |>iet  folc  j>iet  fyr  ad\v;pscan,  gif  hit  aMiig  w;eta  wanian 
inihte  :  ac  bfes  halgan  andwerdnyss  eabelice  acwencte  J^tes 
deofles  dyderunge,  )?c  hidwollice  filigdon,  and  bfes  lifes  word 
lytlnvon  gymdon.  pa4  folc  ba  ofscamod  ongean  cyrde  to 
ba?rc  hire  be  hi  jer  forleton,  biddendc  fet  bam  lareovve  libe 
miltbunge,  ))H*t  liT  his  lare  ipv  to  lyt  gymdon,  baba  he  ^a 
fraecednyssc  him  fore  sii'de. 

Cubberhtus  swa-^eah  on  obrum  timan  eall-byrnende  hus 
ana  ahredde  wib  fyres  dare,  mid  halgum  benum,  and  bone 
wiiides  blipd  aweg  fligde,  sebe  ier  for  oft  ba  cCttrigan  flan 
deoflicere  costnunge  on  him  sylfum  adwa^scte,  |?urh  gescyld- 
nysse  sobes  Drihtncs.  He  wolde  gclome  leodum  bodian  on 
fyrlenum  lande  unforhtigende.  Hwffit  ^a  him  geucSe  se 
^■Elmihtiga  God  fa?gre  getingnysse  bam  folce  to  lare,  and  him 
men  ne  mihton  heora  mod  bchydan,  ac  hi  eadmodlice  him 
geandetton  lieora  digelnyssa,  and  elles  ne  dorston,  and  be 
his  dihte  digellice  gebelton. 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        14  1 

through  this  eagle,  who  of  yore  fed  Elijah  through  the  swart 
raven,  before  he  journeyed  to  heaven."  They  then  went  on 
journeying,  and  lo,  the  eagle  sat  on  the  shore,  having  flown 
thilher  with  a  fish  which  he  iiad  just  caught.  Thereupon 
the  saint  said  to  his  companion,  "  Run  to  the  eagle,  and  take 
from  him  a  part  of  the  fish  which  he  has  caught,  for  our  re- 
fection. Praise  be  to  the  Almighty,  who  would  feed  us 
through  this  bird.  But  give  a  part  to  the  eagle  in  reward  of 
his  labour." 

After  the  repast  they  went  on  their  way,  and  Cuthbcrht 
beautifully  preached  to  the  people,  that  they  should  be  guarded 
against  the  wiles  of  the  devil,  lest  with  lea-iing  he  should 
corrupt  their  faith,  and  draw  their  minds  from  the  preaching. 
The  people  then  begun  suddeidy  to  rush  forth  in  the  midst 
of  this  admonition,  being  greatly  deceived,  so  that  they  too 
little  heeded  the  precepts.  For  the  deceptive  fiend  had  greatly 
deluded  them,  as  if  there  really  were  a  house  burning  there, 
crackling  with  brands,  though  illusively.  Then  the  people 
would  extinguish  the  fire,  if  any  water  might  diminish  it : 
but  the  presence  of  the  saint  easily  (jucnchcd  the  delusion  of 
the  devil,  whom  thev  erringly  had  followed,  and  but  little 
heeded  the  word  of  life.  The  people  then  ashamed  returned 
to  the  instruction  that  they  had  before  left,  praying  their 
teacher's  kind  pity  for  having  before  too  little  heeded  his 
precepts,  when  he  related  the  peril  before  them. 

I5ut  Cuthberht  at  another  time  saved  alone  a  burning  house 
from  the  fire's  damage,  with  holy  prayers,  and  drove  away 
the  blast  of  wind,  who  had  ere  very  often  extingui^lK•d  the 
envenomed  darts  of  devilish  temptation  directed  against  him- 
self, throiigh  the  protection  of  the  righteous  Lord.  He  would 
oftentimes  fearlessly  preach  to  the  people  in  a  disUmt  land. 
Verily  the  Almighty  had  given  him  a  sweet  eloquence  for 
people's  instruction,  and  men  could  not  hide  their  minds  from 
him,  but  humbly  confessed  their  secrets  to  him,  and  durst  not 
do  otherwise,  and  by  his  direction  privily  made  atonement. 


142  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

Sum  eawfest  man  eac  swilce  luefde  micele  cySSe  to  Sam 
halgan  CuSbcrhte,  and  gelomlice  his  lare  breac.     pa  geti- 
mode  his  wife  wyrs  bonne  he  beSorfte,  ]>iet  heo  ^urh  wod- 
nysse  micclum  waes  gedreht.     pa  com  se  eawfesta  to  ^am 
eadigan  Cu^berhte,  and   he  waes  on  Sam  timan  to  prafoste 
geset  on  "Sam  munuc-life  ]>e  is  Lindisfarnea  gehaten.      pa  no 
mihte  he  for  sceame  him  opcidice  sccgan,  jnut  his  cawfieste 
wif  on  ^aere  wodnysse  l{5eg  ;  ac  bcpd  ]'a4  he  asende  sumne 
broSer,  ]?e  hire  gorihta  gcdflii   mihte,  ^r^an  ^e  hco  of  life 
gelaed  wurde.     Da  wiste  CuSbcrhtus  cal  be   Sam  wife,   and 
wolde  J>urh  bine  sylfiie  sona  hi  gencosian  ;  forSan    Sc  heo 
aeriSon  eawfa^st  Icofode,  Seah  "Se  se  unsiS  iiire  swa  gclumpe. 
pa  begann  se  wer  drcorig  wepan,  anSracigende   Sips  unge- 
linipcs.     CuSbcrhtus  bine  Sa  mid  wordum  gefrcfrodc,  cwa'.S 
pffit  se  deofol,  ]>c  hire  dorigan  wolde,  on  his  gencosunge  for- 
Ifetan  sceoldc,  and  mid   niicelre  fyrhte  aweg  llcon,  and  jjast 
wif  mid  gewittc  wcl  sprecendc  him   togeanes  gan,  and  his 
bridel  onfun.    Hit  Sa  gelanip,  be  Sfes  larcowcs  wordum,  piet 
l^fet  wTf  gewittig  bine  mid  wordum  gegrotte,  bfed  ])iet  heo 
moste  him  mete  gearcian,  and  cydde  hii  se  deofol  hi  dcar- 
nunge  forlct,  and  swiSc  forhtigcnde  flcames  ceptc,  SaSa   se 
halga  ynlov  siSode. 

CuSberhtus  se  halga  siSSan  gefremode  mihtiglice  wundrn, 
on  Sam  mynstre  wunigcnde.  Begann  Sa  on  mode  micclum 
smeagan  hu  he  ^jes  folces  lof  forfleon  mihte,  )?y-hes  ^e  he 
wurde  to  hlisful  on  worulde,  and  )'ces  heofcnlican  lofes  fremde 
M'aere.  Wolde  "Sa  anstandende  ancer-lif  adreogan,  and  on 
digelnysse  eallunge  drohtnian.  Ferde  Sa  to  Fame,  on  flow- 
endre  ySe.  pa^t  igland  is  eal  bevvorpen  mid  sealtum  brym- 
me,  on  sje  middan  ;  and  wiSinnan  call,  jer  ^am  fyrste,  mid 
sweartum  gastum  swiSe  waes  afylled,  swa  J^tet  men  ne  miht- 
on  pa  moldan  bugian,  for  Seowracan  sweartra  deofla;  ac  hi 
ealle  ^a  endemes  flugon,  and  ]>aet  igland  eallunge  gerym- 
don  Sam  ae^elan  cempan ;  and  he  Saer  ana  wunode,  orsorh 
heora   andan,  ]?urh   ^-Elmibtigne  God.     pa  waes  ]?f'et  igland 


THE  DEPOSITION  OK  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        143 

A  pious  man  also  had  great  intimacy  with  the  holv  Cuth- 
berht,  and  frccjucntly  enjoyed  hi.s  instruction.  It  befell  his 
wife  worse  than  he  needed,  so  that  she  was  greatly  afflicted 
by  madness.  Thereupon  tlie  pious  man  came  to  the  blessed 
Cuthberht,  and  he  was  at  that  time  set  as  provost  in  the  mo- 
nastery which  is  at  Lindisfarne.  But  he  could  not  for  shame 
openly  say  to  him  that  his  pious  wife  lay  in  a  state  of  mad- 
ness ;  but  begged  that  he  would  send  a  brother  to  perform 
her  last  offlces,  before  she  were  taken  from  life.  But  Cuth- 
l)erht  knew  all  about  the  woman,  and  would  himself  imme- 
diately visit  her  ;  because  she  had  previously  lived  piously, 
although  misfortune  had  so  bifalkii  her.  Then  the  man 
began  sadly  to  weep,  deploring  his  misfortune.  But  Cuth- 
berht by  Ills  words  comforted  him,  and  said  that  the  devil, 
who  would  injure  her,  should  on  his  visit  forsake  her,  and 
flee  away  in  great  fright,  and  the  woman  in  her  senses,  well 
speaking,  come  to  meet  him,  and  receive  his  bridle.  It  hap- 
pened, according  to  the  teacher's  words,  that  the  woman  in 
her  senses  greeted  him  by  words,  prayed  thi»t  she  might 
prepare  him  meat,  and  informed  him  how  the  devil  had 
secretly  left  her,  and,  greatly  fearing,  had  taken  flight,  while 
the  saint  was  journeying  thither. 

The  holy  Cuthberht  afterwards  performed  mighty  wonders 
w'hile  dwelling  in  the  mynster.  lie  then  began  to  devise  in 
his  mind  how  he  might  flee  from  the  people's  praise,  lest  he 
should  be  too  famous  in  the  world  and  a  stranger  to  heavenly 
praise.  He  woidd,  therefore,  lead  a  solitary  anchorite  life, 
and  live  wholly  in  obscurity.  Whereupon  he  went  to  Fame 
in  the  flowing  wave.  That  island  is  all  beaten  by  the  salt 
ocean,  in  the  middle  of  the  sea  ;  and  all  within,  before  that 
time,  was  very  full  of  swart  ghosts,  so  that  men  could  not 
cultivate  the  soil  for  the  threats  of  the  swart  devils  ;  but 
they  at  last  all  fled  and  entirely  vacated  the  island  to  the 
noble  champion  ;  and  he  there  dwelt  alone,  regardless  of  their 
envy,  through  Almighty  God.     But  that  island  was  wholly 


144  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTl  EPISCOPI. 

mid  ealle  bedfeled  wseteres  wynsumnysse,  on  ^ani  wcstuiu 
cluduni,  ac  se  halga  wer  ^a  sona  het  J>a  heardnysse  swiJJe 
holian  on  niiddaii  ba^re  flore  his  fogeran  botles,  and  \>a?.t 
wseter  seddre  ^a  wynsuni  asprang,  werod  on  sw^ecce,  )>ani 
were  to  brice,  seSe  hwilon  waiter  to  wiidicum  svvjecce  wnn- 
dorlice  awende,  ^a^a  hit  wolde  God. 

Se  halga  "Sa  het  him  bringaii  srtd  ;  wolde  on  "Sam  westene 
wfestmes  tilian,  gif  hit  swa  geu^e  se  /Elniihtiga  God,  |>{et  he 
mid  his  fotoii  liine  fedau  moste.  He  seow  "Sa  hwa^te  on 
beswuncenum  lande,  ac  hit  to  wfestme  aspringan  ne  moste, 
ne  furSon  mid  g^prse  growende  naes.  pa  het  he  him  l)ringan 
bere  to  siedc,  and  ofer  ;elcne  timan  Sa  corSan  ascow.  Hit 
weox  "Sa  mid  wynnc,  and  wcl  geripode.  pa  woldon  hremmas 
bine  bereafian  a^t  his  gedcorfum,  gif  hi  dorston.  ¥)a  c\va;5 
se  halga  to  5am  heard-ncbbum,"Gif  so /Elmihtigacow  Sises 
geutSc,  brucaJS  ))a^ra  wjestma,  and  me  nc  biddalS.  Gif  he 
^onne  eow  biscs  ne  getiSode,  gewitalS  aweg,  wadhrcowe 
fugelas,  to  eowrum  ebclc,  of  Sisum  iglando."  Hwfet  Sa 
hremmas  ^a  ricene  flugon,  ealle  tosomne,  ofer  bone  sealtan 
brym,  and  se  halga  ba  his  gcswinces  breac. 

Eft  Sa  si  S  ban  o<Sre  twegen  swearle  hremmas  si  Slice  comon, 
and  his  bus  tieron  mid  heardum  bile,  and  to  neste  bferon, 
heora  briddvun  to  hleowbe.  pas  eac  se  eadiga  mid  ealle 
afltgde  of  bam  ebele  mid  anum  worde  :  ac  an  ^tera  fiigela  eft 
fleogende  com  ynd)e  bry  dagas  ]?earle  dreorig,  fleah  to  his 
foton,  swibe  biddende  J?iet  he  on  bam  lande  lybban  moste, 
synde  unscaibbig,  and  his  gefera  samod.  Hwset  ^a  se  halga 
him  ])ies  geu^e,  and  lii  lustbaere  j^ffit  land  gesohton,  and  broht- 
on  ^am  lareovve  lac  to  medes,  swines  rysl  his  scon  to  ge- 
dreoge  ;  and  hi  beer  sib  ban  unscrebbige  unnedon. 

Da  wolde  se  halga  sum  bus  timbrian  to  his  nedbricuni, 
mid  his  gebro^ra  fultume.  Da  bied  he  hi  anre  sylle,  ]>set  he 
mihte  }>aethus  on  ^a  sae  bealfe  mid  ]?fere  underlecgan.  pa  ge- 
brobra  him  beheton,  J^ffit  hi  woldon  \>fet  treow,  |>onne  hi"  eft 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        145 

deprived  of  the  blessing  of  water  in  its  barren  rocks,  but  the 
holy  man  forthwith  bade  the  hardness  be  hollowed,  in  the 
middle  of  the  floor  of  his  fair  dwelling,  and  the  pleasant 
water  then  quickly  sprang  up,  sweet  in  taste,  for  the  man's 
use,  who  on  a  time  wonderfully  turned  water  to  winclikc 
flavour,  when  God  so  willed  it. 

The  saint  then  ordered  seed  to  be  brought  him  ;  he  would 
in  the  waste  cultivate  earth's  fruits,  if  it  so  should  grant  Al- 
ujighty  God,  that  he  with  his  feet  might  feed  himself.  He 
then  sowed  wheat  on  prepared  land,  but  it  could  not  spring  up 
to  fruit,  nor  was  it  even  growing  with  grass.  Then  he  bade 
barley  be  brougiit  him  for  seed,  and  after  the  season  sowed 
the  earth.  It  waxed  abundantly  and  well  ripened.  Then 
would  the  ravens  rob  him  at  his  labours,  if  tiiey  durst.  Then 
said  the  saint  to  the  hard-nibbed  ones,  "  If  the  Almiglity 
have  allowed  yon  this,  partake  of  the  fruits,  atid  ask  not  me. 
But  if  lie  have  not  granted  it  to  you,  depart,  bloodthirsty 
birds,  to  your  own  home  from  this  island."  Whereupon  the 
ravens  instantly  fled  all  together,  over  the  salt  sea,  and  the 
saint  then  enjoyed  his  lai)our. 

After  that  two  other  swart  ravens  came  journeying,  and 
tore  [the  thatch  of]  his  house  with  their  hard  bills,  and  bare 
it  to  their  nest,  as  a  shelter  for  their  young  ones.  These  also 
the  blessed  man  drove  from  the  place  with  a  word  :  but  one 
of  those  birds,  flying  back,  came  after  three  days  exceedingly 
sad,  and  flew  to  his  feet,  earnestly  praying  that  he  might  live 
in  that  laiul  ever  harmless,  aiul  his  mate  with  him.  Where- 
upon the  holy  man  granted  him  this,  and  they  joyfully  sought 
tliat  land,  and  brought  to  the  teacher  a  gift  as  reward,  swine's 
fat  to  oil  his  shoes  ;  and  they  afterwards  abode  there  harm- 
less. 

Then  the  saint  would  build  a  house  for  his  use,  with  the 
aid  of  his  brothers.  He,  therefore,  begged  of  them  a  log, 
that  he  might  sujiport  the  house  with  it  on  the  sea  side. 
The  brothers  promised  him  that  they  would   bring  the  tree 

HOM.  VOL.   11.  L 


146  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

comon  him  gebringan.  Da  comon  hi,  swa  swa  hi  cwfedon, 
and  wurdon  s\va-5eah  ^Hes  treowes  ungemyndige ;  ac  se 
^hiiihtiga  God  his  waes  gemyndig,  and  him  5a  sylle  sylf 
asende  mid  )?am  Sfelicum  flode  ;  and  ]}iet  flud  hi  awcarp  Saer 
"Saer  he  sylf  smeiide  J^aet  hus  to  ara^renne,  on  5am  sealtum 
ofre.  pa  wunode  se  halga  wer  manega  gear  on  5am  ancer- 
life  swiSlice  stiSe,  and  hine  geneosodon  gelome  eawfa^ste 
mcnn,  and  be  his  lare  heora  lif  gerihtlwhton. 

Da  com  him  to  sum  abbudysse,  seo  wfes  zElflfed  gchaten, 
"ScEs  cyninges  sweoster  Ecgfridcs,  wolde  jnirh  his  mynegung- 
um  hire  mod  getrymman.     ]^a  betwux  heora  spra^ce  bcgiinn 
heo  to  halsigenne  6onc  ludgan  wcr  pjet  he  sceolde  hire  sec- 
gan  hu  hinge  hire  br()5()r  Ecgfri(his  moste  his  rices  brucan. 
pa  andwyrdc  hire  se  iialga  mid  twylicere  spnece,  and  csvaj^, 
"  For  nahte  bi5  gcteaUl  ancs  geares  hist,  j>a;r  Ster  se  swearta 
dea^  onsigende  hi 5."     D.i  undcrgeat  heo  ]>H't  se  broScr  nc 
moste  his  lifes  brucan  otVr  5am  anum  geare,  and  |;<errihte 
dreorigHcc  wepende   hine   befniii,   "  La  leof,  sege  me,  hwa 
sceal  to  liis  rice  fon,  j'onne  he  bro5er  ntf'f5,  nc  he  beam  ne 
bphef5."      Da  cw{e5  se  halga  wcr  eft  to  5am  ma-dcne,  "  Se 
yElmihtiga  Scyppend  ha^f5  gchealdcn  sumne  gecorenne  }>ys- 
sere  leode  to  cyningc,  and  sc  hi 5  5e  swa  leof  swa  im  is  se 
o^er."     pa  gedyrsthehtc  )>a't  maiden  jnct  heo  him  5a-gyt  to 
spraec,  and  cwjeS,  "  Mislice  smeaga5  manna  heortan,  sume 
wilnia5  ge5inc5e  })yssere  worulde,  sume  gefylla5  heora  fra- 
cedan  lustas,  and  hi  eallc  sj''55an  sorhlice  wjedliatS.     pu  for- 
sihst  '5one  hcalican  wurSmynt,  and  "5e  is  leofre  on   5isum 
wacnm  scrtefum  5onne  ^u  on  healle  healic  biscop  sitte."   Da 
cwfeS  se  witega,  j^aet  he  wurSe  nfere  swa  miccles  hades,  ne 
•Sffis  heahsetles,  ac  swa-|?eah  nan  man  Godes  niihte  ne  for- 
flihS   on  nanum  heolstrum   hcofenan,  o|)]?e  eor^an,  o]>]>e  sie 
•Sriddan.     "  Ic  gelyfe  swa-^Seah,  gif  se  ^Elmihtiga  me  htett 
]7aes  hades  beon,  piet  ic  eft  mote  ^is  igland  gesecan,  sefter 
twegra  geara  ymbrene,  and  ^yses  e^eles  brucan.     Ic  bidde 
]?e,  ^Elfla^d,  |)cet  5u  uncrc  spra^ce  on  niiimm  life  nanum  ne 
ameldige.' 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT.  BISHOP.        ur 

when  they  again  came  to  him.  They  came,  indeed,  as  they 
had  said,  but  were,  notwithstanding,  unmindful  of  the  tree; 
but  Ahuigiity  God  was  mindful  of  it,  and  sent  him  the  log 
himself  with  the  sea  flood  ;  and  the  flood  cast  it  where  he 
himself  tliought  of  erecting  the  house  on  the  salt  shore. 
There  the  saint  dwelt  many  years,  living  very  rigidly  an 
anchoret's  life,  and  pious  men  frecjucntly  visited  him,  and  by 
his  instruction  rectified  their  lives. 

Then  came  to  him  an  abbess  wiio  was  named  ^Elfl;ed,  a 
sister  of  king  Ecgfrith  ;  she  would  by  his  admonitions  fortify 
her  mind.  Amid  their  discourse  she  began  to  beseech  the 
holy  man  to  inform  hor  how  long  her  brother  Ecgfritii  might 
possess  his  kingdom.  Whereupon  the  saint  answered  her 
with  ambiguous  speech,  and  said,  "As  naught  is  counted 
one  year's  pleasure,  where  swart  death  is  impending."  Then 
she  understood  that  her  brother  might  not  enjoy  his  life  over 
that  one  year,  and  straightways  sadly  weeping,  asked  him, 
"  O  dear  friend,  tell  me  who  shall  succeed  to  his  kingdom, 
since  he  has  no  brother  nor  leaves  he  a  child."  Then  said  the 
holy  man  again  to  the  maiden,  "The  Almighty  Creator  lias 
preserved  a  chosen  one  for  king  of  this  nation,  and  he  will 
be  as  dear  to  thee  as  is  now  the  other."  The  maiden  yet 
ventured  to  speak  to  him  again,  and  said,  "  Diversely  cogi- 
tiite  the  hearts  of  men  ;  some  desire  honour  of  this  world, 
some  satisfy  their  shameful  lusts,  and  they  all  afterwards  are 
poor.  Thou  despisest  high  dignity,  and  to  thee  it  is  more 
desirable  to  sit  in  this  mean  hovel  than  as  a  high  bishop  in 
hall."  Then  the  prophet  said,  that  he  was  not  worthy  of  so 
great  a  state,  nor  of  the  lofty  seat,  but,  nevertheless,  no  man 
could  flee  from  the  power  of  (jod  in  any  recesses  of  heaven, 
or  of  earth,  or,  thirdly,  of  sea.  "I  believe,  however,  if  the 
Almighty  commanded  mo  to  be  of  that  degree,  that  I  should 
again  seek  this  island  after  the  course  of  two  years,  and  enjoy 
this  country.  I  beseech  thee,  /Elfla^d,  that  thou  mention  not 
oiw  discourse  to  any  one  during  m\  life." 

L  2 


148  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

^fter  ■Sisuni  wordum  wear's  gemot  gchfefd,  and  Ecgfridus 
]7?Eroii  gesfpt,  and  peodorus,  Sises  Tglandes  ercebiscop,  mid 
manegum  0(5rum  ge^ungenum  witum  ;  and  hi  ealle  anmodlice 
l^one  eadigan  CiiSberhtum  to  biscope  gecuron.  Da  sendon 
hi  sona  gewritu  mid  )?am  ferende  to  "Sam  eadigan  were,  ac  hi 
ne  mihton  hine  of  his  mynstre  gebringan.  pa  reowse  cyning 
sylf  Ecgfridus  to  "Sam  Tglande,  and  Trumwine  biscop  mid 
oSrum  eawfcsstum  werum,  and  hi  ^one  halgan  swibc  halso- 
don,  heora  cncow  bigdon,  and  mid  tearum  beedon,  o^)?fet  hi 
hine  wependc  of  ^;lm  westenc  atugon  to  Sam  sinoSe  samod 
mid  him,  and  he  Sone  had  be  heora  hspse  underfeng,  swa  swa 
hit  gefyrn  ser  gesaed  waes  Surh  5aes  cildcs  mnS,  and  ]'a^s 
masran  biscopes  BoTsilcs,  ^e  him  mid  soSrc  witegunge  his 
lifes  endcbyrchiyssc  s;ede. 

On  "Sam  ylcan  gcare  wearS  cac  ofslegen  Ecgfrichis  sc  ?e"5ehi 
cyning  on  his  unsiSc,  SaSa  he  on  I'cohtum  begann  to  feoht- 
enne  to  dyrstelicc  ofcr  Drihtnes  wilhm,  and  his  cyfes-borena 
broSor  siSSan  rixode,  seSo  for  wisdome  ucnde  to  Scottnm, 
]>iet  he  feiSccxhg  on  l;ire  geSugc.  pa  Wrcs  gcfylled  seo  fore- 
Sfede  sprfec,  swa  se  halga  wer  saede  )nim  nifedcne  be  hire  ge- 
broSrum,  ;er  he  biscop  wjere.  Ilwret  Sa  siSban  se  halga 
CuSberhtus,  Lindisfarnensiscere  gehiSnnge  leod-biscop,  mid 
ealre  gecneordnysse  liis  folccs  gymde,  to  geefenhecunge  ^iera 
eadigra  apostola,  and  hi  mid  singahmi  gcbcdum  gcscylde  wiS 
deofol,  and  mid  hahvendum  myngungmn  to  heofonan  tihte  ; 
and  he  swa  leofode  swa  swa  he  sylf  Iferde,  and  a  his  bodiinga 
mid  gebysnungum  astealde,  and  eac  mid  wundrum  wel  ge- 
glengde,  and  mid  soSre  lufe  symle  geswette,  and  gemetcgode 
mid  micclum  geSylde,  and  waes  swi^e  estful  on  felcere  sprsece. 
He  nolde  awendan  his  gewunelican  bigleofan,  ne  his  gewaeda 
•Se  he  on  westene  hfefde,  ac  <Sa  sti^nyssa  his  stearcan  bigleofan 
betwux  hewedum  folce  on  his  life  geheold.  He  waes  swi^e 
welig  waedlum  and  Searfum,  and  symle  Iiim  sylfum  swi^e 
hafenleas. 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        149 

After  these  words  a  gemot  was  holclcii,  ami  Ecgfrith  sat 
tlierein,  and  Theodore,  the  archbishop  of  this  ishmd,  with 
many  other  venerable  councillors  ;  and  they  all  unanimously 
chose  the  blessed  Cuthbcrht  for  bishop.  They  then  imme- 
diately sent  letters  with  that  message  to  the  blessed  man, 
but  they  could  not  bring  him  from  his  mynster.  Then  the 
king  himself,  Ecgfrith,  rowed  to  the  Island,  and  bishop  Trum- 
wine  with  other  pious  men,  and  they  earnestly  besought  the 
holy  man,  bent  their  knees,  and  with  tears  prayed  him,  until 
they  drew  him  weeping  from  the  waste  to  the  synod  together 
with  them,  and  he  at  their  command  undertook  tlie  dignity, 
as  it  had  long  ago  been  said  by  the  mouth  of  the  child,  and 
by  that  of  the  great  bishop  Boisil,  who  with  true  prophecy 
had  said  to  him  the  course  of  his  life. 

In  the  same  year  also  P>gfrith,  the  noble  king,  was  slain 
in  his  imfortunate  expedition,  when  he  too  rashly,  against 
the  Lord's  will,  resolved  to  make  war  on  the  Picts,  and  his 
base-born  brother  afterwards  reigned,  who  for  the  sake  of 
wisdom  had  gone  to  the  Scots,  that  he  might  increase  in 
learning  in  a  foreign  land.  Tiien  was  fulfilled  the  before- 
said  speech,  as  the  holy  man  had  said  it  to  the  maiden  of  her 
brother,  before  he  was  a  bishop.  The  holy  Cuthbcrht  tlien, 
suffragan  bishop  of  the  church  of  Lindisfarne,  with  all  dili- 
gence took  care  of  his  people,  in  imitation  of  the  blessed 
apostles,  and  with  continual  prayers  shielded  them  against 
the  devil,  and  with  salutary  admonitions  excited  them  to 
heaven  ;  and  he  so  lived  as  he  himself  taught,  and  always 
confirmed  his  preachings  with  examples,  and  also  well  em- 
bellished them  with  miracles,  and  constantly  sweetened  them 
with  true  love,  and  tempered  them  with  great  patience,  and 
was  very  devout  in  every  speech.  He  would  not  change  his 
usual  diet,  nor  his  garments  that  he  had  in  the  wilderness, 
but  held  to  the  severities  of  his  iiard  diet  among  lay  people 
dining  his  life.  He  was  very  wealthy  for  the  poor  and  nccdv, 
and  always  very  iiuliirnit  for  him>clf. 


150  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  KPISCOPI. 

pa  geworhte  he  fela  wundra  eac  binnon  Sam  fyrste  Sc  he 
biscop  wfes.  Mid  halgum  wjetere  he  gchiekle  sum  wTf,  anes 
ealdormannes  aewe,  fram  earmlicere  co^e,  and  heo  sona  gesmid 
him  sylfum  Senode.  Eft  on  ^sere  ylcan  tide  he  mid  ole  gc- 
smyrode  an  licgende  mjeden  on  langsumum  sare,  ^urh  hefig- 
tymum  hcafod-ece,  and  hire  sona  \va?s  bet.  Sum  eawfa^st 
wer  waes  eac  yfelc  gehfefd,  and  l«g  fet  forJSjsiSe,  his  freondum 
orwene  :  |>a  hsefde  heora  sum  iialigne  hlaf,  j^one  se  cadiga  wer 
aer  gebletsode,  and  he  ^one  )?ierrihte  on  waetcr  bedypte,  and 
his  adligum  m?ege  on  ]7one  mu5  begeat,  and  he  Srerrihte  j'a^t 
adl  gestilde.  Eac  on  oSrum  timan  sum  adlig  cniht  ferlice 
wearS  geferod  ffitforan  ^am  witan,  SaSa  he  mid  lare  geond 
land  ferde.  pa  bfedon  ^a  bairmen  his  bletsunge  georne,  and 
he  Sterrihte  jjone  cniht  ara^rde,  sua  )>tet  he  gesundful  siSode 
on  fotum,  seSe  on  ba^re  |'ider  geboren  wjps.  Sum  earm  modcr 
uneaSelice  bjer  hire  samcuce  cild,  suiSe  dreorig,  on  Sam 
ylcan  wege  ]?e  se  wita  terde.  pa  bcsargode  he  ^aere  sorhfullan 
meder,  and  geswseslice  5a  hire  sunu  cyste ;  cw^eS  \)^t  hire 
cild  gcsund  beon  sceolde,  and  eal  hire  hiwisc  haelSe  brucan  : 
and  Sees  witegan  word  wurdon  gofyllede. 

^Iflted  Sa  eft,  jnet  a^tSele  madden,  ))one  halgan  lareow  to 
hire  gela^ode.  Da  gesfet  he  aet  mysan,  micclum  onbryrd  he 
beseah  to  heofonum,  and  his  sex  awearp.  pa  axode  hine  seo 
eadige  fa^mne,  hwT  he  swa  hra^dlice  his  gereord  forlete  ?  Da 
cwje^  se  biscop  mid  onbryrdum  mode,  "  Efne  nu  ic  geseah 
englas  ferigan  gesaelige  sawle  of  ^inum  boclande  to  healicre 
heofenan  mid  halgum  sange,  and  his  nama  ^e  bi^  ardlice 
gecydd  on  {erne-merigen,  jjonne  ic  offrige  Gode  |?a  liflican 
lac  on  geleaffulre  cyrcan."  Hit  wear5  5a  gewTdnifersod,  swa 
swa  se  witega  cw8e5,  yeidt  hire  hyrdeman  ^urh  holdraedene  ^a 
sume  ac  astah,  and  his  orf  laeswode  mid  treowenum  helme, 
and  he  hearde  feoll,  gewat  of  worulde,  mid  wuldre  to  Gode, 
for  5a?rc  hylde  his  hirdraedene.  Hwa  maeg  a?fre  ealle  ge- 
reccan  ]?a  niihtigan  tacna  Sises  halgan  werci?,  hu  oft  he  ea5e- 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CITHBERHT,  BISHOP.        151 

He  also  wrouirht  many  miracles  during  the  time  that  he 
was  a  bishop.  With  holy  water  he  healed  a  woman,  the  wife 
of  an  ealdorman,  from  a  miserable  disease,  and  she  being  soon 
well  ministered  to  him.  Again,  at  the  same  lime,  he  anointed 
with  oil  a  maiden  lying  in  longsomc  pain  through  a  tedious 
head-ache,  and  she  was  forthwith  better.  A  pious  man  also 
was  sorely  afflicted,  and  lay  at  the  point  of  death,  given  over 
by  his  friends:  one  of  them,  however,  had  iioly  bread,  which 
the  blessed  man  had  previously  blessed,  and  he  straigiitways 
dipt  it  in  uater,  and  poured  it  into  the  mouth  of  his  sick 
kinsman,  and  straigiitways  stilled  the  sickness.  At  another 
time  also  a  sick  bo\-  was  suddenly  borne  before  the  siige, 
when  he  was  on  a  journey  of  instruction  through  the  coun- 
try. Tlie  bearers  then  earnestly  craved  his  blessing,  and  he 
straightways  raised  up  the  boy,  so  that  he  went  sound  on 
foot  who  had  been  borne  thither  on  a  bier.  A  poor  mother 
bore  with  difficulty  her  half-dead  child,  \  cry  sad,  on  the  same 
way  which  the  sage  was  going.  He  then  had  pity  on  the 
sorrowful  mother,  and  kindly  kissed  her  son,  saying  that  her 
child  should  be  well,  and  all  her  family  enjoy  healtii  :  and 
the  words  of  the  prophet  were  fulfdled. 

i4£lflaHl  afterwards,  the  noble  maiden,  invited  to  her  the 
holy  teacher.  While  sitting  at  table,  greatly  moved  he  looked 
towards  heaven,  and  cast  away  his  knife.  The  blessed  female 
then  asked  him  why  he  so  (piickly  left  his  meal  ?  Then  said 
the  bishop,  with  excited  mind,  "  Lo,  just  now  I  saw  angels 
bearing  a  blessed  soul  from  thy  bocland  to  high  heaven  with 
holy  song,  and  his  name  will  be  forthwith  known  to  thee  at 
early  morn,  when  I  offer  to  God  the  vital  gift  in  the  faithful 
church."  It  was  then  pvdjiished  abroad,  as  the  prophet  had 
said,  that  her  herdsman,  in  discharge  of  his  duty,  had  ascended 
an  oak,  and  was  feeding  his  cattle  with  its  woody  crown,  and 
he  fell  hardly,  and  departed  from  the  world,  with  glory  to 
(iod,  through  kindness  to  his  herd.  \Vho  may  ever  relate 
all  the  might}   miracles  of  this  holy  man,  how  oHen  he  easily 


152  DEPOSITIO  S.  CUTHBERHTI  EPISCOPI. 

lice  adlige  geluelde,  and  ^a.  sweartan  gastas  symle  afligde, 
and  fa?gra  manna  forSsiS  foregleaw  stede,  wis  Surh  witegunge 
wisdomes  gastes  ? 

pa  wunode  sum  sacerd  swiSe  gelyfed  on  ancer-setlc,  jefter 
his  lare,    and  on  gehwilcum  geare  hine  geneosode,  Here- 
berhtus  gchaten,  liohful  on  mode.     Cubbcrhtus  5a  sona  hine 
on-sundron  gespra^c,  cwaeS  ptet  he  5a  sccolde  s\vi51ice  befri- 
nan  his  nyd}>parfnysse,  aer  his  nextan  dtege,  cwteS  j^iet  he  ne 
moste  on  menniscuni  life  hine  eft  gescon  of  Sam  andu  cardan 
deefife.     Hereberhtus  ^a  s\vi5e  hohful  wearS,  and  feol  to  his 
fotum  mid  flowenchnn  tearum,  bted  ]>eet  he  moste  liiiu  mid 
sibian  to  iieofcnlicum  Srymme  of  tiysum  gewinne,  swa  swa 
he  on  life  his  larc  gehyrsumode.      IlwfPt   JSa  se   biscop  his 
cneowa  gebtgde  to  bissere  bene  nTwl  bh5um  mode,  and  sy5- 
San  ■bone  sacerd  sona  gefrcfrode,  cwteS  \>iet  him  geuSe  se 
.^hnihtiga  Wcaldcnd  )>jrt  hi  .-etsomne  siSian  moston  of  5isum 
earfobnyssum  to  ccere  myrhSe.      Hereberhtus    5a  ham  ge- 
wcnde,  and  on  leger-bedde  licgende  abad  ]>ies  o5res  geend- 
imge  mid    iidiium  lymuni.     CuM)crhtus  se   halga  |?a  s\vi5e 
onette  to  ^am    ancer-setle  Seer  he  *r  gcsfet ;    iSurh   halige 
myngunge  Mihtiges  Driiitncs,  noldo  on   5am  lande   his  lif 
geendian,  }>fer  5cer  he  aer  lange  lybbenile  drolitnode ;  and  he 
on  'bam  lande  ba  gelegered  wearb,  on  his  for^sibe  swibe  fus 
to  Gode,   on   bam    briddan  geare  his  biscophados ;    and  on 
bisum  djege  to  Drihtne  gewat,  and  Hereberhtus  samod,  se 
halga  sacerd,  swa  swa  hi  on  life  jer  geleornodon,  ])urh  Godes 
Gast,  mid  godum  willan.    His  lie  wearb  bebyrgedon  Lindis- 
farneiscre  cyrcan,  j^jer  wurdon  geworhte  wundra  forwel  fela 
burh  gcearnungmn  liis  cadigan  lifes.     pa  gelicode  hit  bam 
leod-biscope  Eadberiite  sylfum,  his  feftergcngan,  ];aet  he  his 
lichaman  up  ba  gelogode,  on  ^am  endlyftan  geare  his  geend- 
unge.     pa  wear^  ]>ifit  halige  lie  hal  on  eorban  gemet,  gesund- 
ful  licgende,  swilce  he  slapende  wa>rc,  libe  bige  on  limum, 
swa  swa  he  geled  waes. 


THE  DEPOSITION  OF  ST.  CUTHBERHT,  BISHOP.        153 

healed  the  sick,  and  constantly  drove  away  the  swart  spirits, 
and  the  departure  of  men  marked  for  death  sagaciously  fore- 
told, wise  through  prophecy  in  the  spirit  of  wisdom  ? 

There  dwelt  in  a  hcrnjitage  a  priest  very  orthodox,  accord- 
ing to  his  precepts,  and  visited  him  every  year,  called  Ilere- 
berht,  of  pensive  mind.    Cuthhcrht  then  soon  spake  with  him 
apart,  saying  he  should  then  fully  ask  what  he  needed,  ere  his 
last  day,  and  said  that  he  might  not  again  see  him  in  human 
life,  from  that  present  day.    llcreherht  was  then  very  sad,  and 
fell  at  his  feet  with  flowing  tears,  praying  that  he  might  journey 
with  him  to  heavenly  ulory  from  this  toil,  as  he   had   in   life 
obeyed  his  precepts.     The  bishop  hereupon  bowed  his  knees 
at   this  prayer  with  cheerful   mind,  and  immediately  after- 
wards comforted  the  priest,  saying  that  the  Almighty  Kuler 
had  granted  them  that  they  might  journey  together  from  these 
tribulations    to   everlasting   joy.      llcreherht    then    returned 
home,  and  lying   on   his   sick-bed  awaited   the   other's  end 
with  afllicted  limbs.     C'utliberht  the  holy  then  with  all  >peed 
hastened  to  the  hermitage  where  he  had  before  been  seated  ; 
through  the  monition  of  the  Mighty  Lord,  he  would  in  that 
land  end  his  life,  where  hi    had  living  long  before  passed  his 
days;  and  in  that  land  he  was  then  confined  to  his  bed,  very 
ra[)i(lly  hastening  on  his  departure  hence  to  God,  in  the  third 
year  of  his  bishophood  ;   and  on  this  day  went  to  the  Lord, 
and  llcreherht  with  him,  the   holy  priest,  as  they  in  life  had 
before  been   informed,  through  the  Spirit  of  God,  with  good 
will.     His   body  was  buried  in   the  church  of  Lindisfarnc, 
where  very  many  wonders  were  wrought  through   the  merits 
of  his  blessed  life.    It  afterwards  pleased  the  suffragan  bishop 
Eadberht  himself,  his  successor,  that  he  would  have  hi.s  body 
placed  there,   in  the  eleventh  year  after   his    [Cuthberht's] 
death.     Then  the  holy  corpse  was  found  lying  in  the  earth 
whole  and  sound,  as  if  he  were  sleeping,  pliant  in  the  lindjs, 
so  as  he  had  been  laid. 


154  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

Sy  wuklor  and  lof  J^ani  welegau  Drihtiu',  seSe  his  gccorenaii 
swa  cystelice  wiirSaS,  aefter  deadlicum  life  mid  him  lybbciidc 
a  on  ecnysse  ealra  worulda.     Amen. 


XII.  KL.  APRILIS. 
SCI  BKNEDICTI  AUBATIS. 


BENEDICTUS  so  hakni  Abbud  on  Sisuin  andwenhnn  djege 
gewat  of  (Sisnm  deadlicum  life  to  Sam  ecan,  be  he  <erdcoplice 
mid  haligre  drohtiiungc  gcearnode. 

He  Wips  of  cawfa^stum  magum  jPiSellice  geborcn,  and  hi 
hine  on  cildhfide  to  lare  bofa'bton  on  Romobyrig  gela^rcdum 
uSwitum.  paJSu  he  on  wisdome  wel  Seonde  w;es,  ^a  begann 
he  to  onscunigcnne  woruld-manna  unJScawas,  and  sceoc  digel- 
liee  of  ^a?re  byrig,  and  him  folgodc  his  foster-modcr,  oSjja^t 
hi  becomon  to  •bsere  stowe  be  is  Efide  gchatcn,  and  eaw  f;este 
menn  hine  ^jer  sume  hwile  geletton.  Da  aba^d  his  fostor- 
modcr  an  hridder,  and  toba^rst  on  emtwaon  Sa^re  liEne.  Seo 
fostor-modor  Sa  sarlice  weop  f(jr  iSan-e  awyrdan  la^ne,  ac  se 
eawfsesta  Bencdictus  besargode  his  fostor-moder  siirnysse 
swiSe  arfa^stlice,  and  gcnam  5a  sticcu  |>a>s  toclofenan  hrid- 
dores,  and  mid  wope  on  his  gebedum  cneowode.  Ac  SaSa 
he  of  his  gel)edum  aras,  Sa  gcmette  he  ]><et  (mt  wiS  hine  lic- 
gende  swa  gehal  ]>;jet  Sfer  nan  cinvi  on  njes  gesewen.  pa 
wearS  ]?is  wundor  on  ^mve  stowe  sona  gewTdnipersod,  and  hi 
for  wundrunge  j'a^t  hridder  up-ahengon  fet  heora  cyrcan  geate, 
|?aet  men  mihton  tocnawan  ]7aes  m*ran  Benedictes  m^rSa, 
hwylce  gebincSe  he  h«efde  aetforan  Gode  ba  giu  on  his  cild- 
hade. 

Ac  Bencdictus  gewilnode  swi^or  to  boligenne  earfoiSnyssa 
and  geswinc  for  Godc,  ]?onne  he  cepte  woruldlice  he[runga, 
obbe  )>ises  lifcs  hlisan,  and  forflcah  )'a  deornunga  }>a  fostor- 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  155 

Be  glory  and  praise  to  the  bounteous  Lord,  who  so  muni- 
ficently honours  his  chosen,  after  uiorlai  life  living  with  him 
to  all  eternit\ .     Amen. 


M.\RCH  XXI. 
ST.  BENEDICT.  ABBOT. 

Bl'^Xl^DlCT,  the  holy  Abbot,  on  this  present  day  departed 
from  this  mortal  life  to  the  life  everlasting,  which  he  had 
before  truly  merited  by  his  holy  conduct. 

He  was  nobly  born  of  pious  parents,  and  they  in  his  child- 
hood intrusted  him  for  it)struction  to  learned  [)hilosophers  at 
Rome.  When  he  was  well  thriving  in  wisdom  he  began  to 
shun  the  immoralities  of  worldiv  men,  and  fled  secretly  fronj 
the  city,  and  his  foster-motlur  followed  him,  till  they  came 
to  the  place  which  is  called  Ellide,  and  pious  men  there  some 
while  detained  him.  His  foster-mother  there  borrowed  a  win- 
nowing sieve,  and  it  brake  in  two  during  the  loan.  The  foster- 
mother  then  sorely  wept  for  the  itijured  loan,  but  the  pious 
Benedict  grieved  for  his  foster-mother's  affliction  very  affec- 
tionately, and  took  the  pieces  of  the  split  sieve,  and  weeping 
knelt  down  in  prayer.  But  when  he  arose  from  his  prayers, 
he  found  the  vessel  lying  by  him  so  whole  that  no  chink 
was  visible  in  it.  This  miracle  was  soon  made  known  in  the 
place,  and  as  an  object  of  wonder  they  hung  up  the  sieve  at 
their  church  gate,  that  men  might  know  of  the  glories  of  the 
great  Benedict,  what  honour  he  had  before  God  already  in 
his  childhood. 

But  Benedict  desired  rather  to  undergo  hard.-ihips  and  toil 
for  God,  than  he  cared  for  worldly  [praises,  or  renown  of 
this  life,  and  secretly  fled  from  his  foster-mother  lo  a  desolate 


156  S.  BENEDICTl  ABBATIS. 

modor  to  anre  westenre  stowe,  ]>e  is  Sublacus  gecweden, 
feovvertig  mila  fram  Romebyrig,  |7fier  liine  afedde  sum  eaw- 
faest  munuc,  Romanus  hatte,  J^reo  gear,  and  him  to  munuc- 
licuni  gyrlum  fylt^te.  pa  aheng  sc  munuc  ane  lytle  bellan  on 
*Sam  stan-clude,  J^set  Bciiedictus  mihte  gchyran,  ]>urli  Saere 
bellan  sweg,  liwtenne  he  his  bigleofan  J^aer  feccan  sceolde  ; 
forSan  j^e  se  Romanus  ne  mihte  him  to  gegan  for  '5am  stan- 
clude.  pa  sume  da^ge,  se  niiSfulla  deofol,  |>e  andode  on  'Saes 
munuces  soSan  lufe,  and  on  ^aes  oSres  bigleofan,  wcarp  ^a 
aenne  stan  to  ^fere  bellan,  jjiet  heo  eall  tosprang ;  ac  se  leSela 
munuc  ne  geswac  na  ^e  hrabor  j^am  oSrum  to  j^enigenne  on 
gedafcnlicum  tidum.  ^Kfter  Sysum  geswutclode  se  /EI- 
mihtiga  God  sumum  arwurJSan  maesse-preoste  be  5am  halgan 
Benedicte,  and  se  preost  j>a  bine  gcsohte  on  Easter-tide  mid 
lacum,  swa  sua  him  bcboden  w;es.  He  5a  hine  gemette,  on 
■5am  halgan  Easter-da^ge,  on  anum  scrjefe,  and  hine  gespraec, 
and  he  wcar5  )>a  cu5  hyrdcmannum,  and  his  nama  geond  eall 
sprang.  Ilwcet  5a  forwel  m;enige  bine  geneosodon,  and  him 
lichamlice  bigleofan  brobton,  and  he  him  of  his  mu5c  j^a  heo- 
fonlican  lare  forgeaf,  beora  sawle  to  bigleofan. 

On  sumum  d{pge,  |)a5a  he  ana  waes,  j?a  com  him  to  se 
costere.  Witodlicp  an  blac  );rostle  flicorode  ymbe  his  neb 
Hwa  gemahlice,  ])iei  he  hi  mid  his  handa  gefon  mihte,  gif  he 
swa  wolde  ;  ac  he  hine  bletsode  mid  ];?ere  halgan  rode-tucne, 
and  se  fugol  sona  aweg  gewat.  pa  gestod  hine  swa  micel 
lichamlic  costung,  )?aet  he  unease  j^aere  lichamlican  ontend- 
nysse  wi5standan  mihte  ;  ]>a.  bc5ohte  he  hine  sylfne,  and  un- 
scrydde  bine  ealne,  and  uylode  hine  sylfne  oji  5am  j^iccuni 
bremlum  and  ];ornum  and  nctelum,  5e  paer  on  5am  westene 
]?icce  stodon,  swa  lange  |>eet  he  eall  toclifrod  aras,  and  swa 
]7urh  ■5aere  hydc  wunda  adwaescte  his  modes  wunda ;  fortian 
^e  he  awende  pone  unlust  to  sarnysse,  and  J'urb  J)a  yttran 
ontendnysse  acwencte  )7a  inran.  Witodlice  he  oferswi'5de  }>a 
synne,  forban  ^e  he  awende  pa  ontendnysse.  So^lice  of 
Saere  tide,  swa  swa  he  sylf  sy55an  saedc,  aelc  gallic  ontendnys 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  157 

place    which   is    called    Subiaco,    forty   miles    from    Rome, 
where  a  pious   monk  fed  him,   called  Romanus,  for  three 
years,  and  helped  him  to  monastic  garments.     The  monk  then 
hung  a  little  bell  on  the  stony  rock,  that  Benedict  might  hear, 
by  the  sound  of  that  bell,  when  he  should  thence  fetch  his 
nourishment ;    because    Romanus  could  not   go   to    him    by 
reason  of  the  stony  rock.     Then  one  day,  the  envious  devil, 
who  was  jealous  of  the  monk's  true  love,  and  of  the  other's 
nourishment,   cast  a   stone  at  the  bell,  so  that  it  brake  in 
pieces;    but  the  noble    monk    refrained   not  the  more  from 
serving  the  other  at  fitting  times.     After  this  Almighty  Ciod 
made  known  to  a  venerable  mass-priest  concerning  the  holy 
Benedict,  and  the  priest  sought  him  at  Easter-tide  with  gifts, 
as   he   had   been   commanded.     He  found  him,  on  the  holy 
Easter-day,  in  a  cave,  and  addressed   him,  and  he  then  be- 
came known  to  the  herdsmen,  and  his  name  pervaded  every- 
where.    Whereupon  very  many  visited  him,  and  brought  him 
bodily  food,  and  he  from  his  mouth  gave  them  heavenly  lore, 
as  food  for  their  souls. 

One  day,  when  he  was  alone,  the  tempter  came  to  him. 
A  black  throstle  to  wit  flickered  about  his  face  so  boldly,  that 
he  could  have  taken  it  with  his  hatid,  if  he  had  so  desired  ; 
but  he  blessed  himself  with  the  holy  sign  of  the  cross,  and 
the  bird  instantly  went  away.  He  was  then  assailed  with  so 
great  a  corporal  teniptation,  that  he  could  hardly  withstand 
the  bodily  fervour  ;  but  he  bethought  himself,  and  unclothed 
himself  entirely,  and  rolled  himself  in  the  thick  brambles  and 
thorns  and  nettles,  which  stood  thicklv  there  in  tlie  wilder- 
ness,  so  long  that  lie  arose  all  scratched,  and  so  through  the 
wounds  of  the  skin  extinguished  the  wounds  of  his  mind  ;  for 
he  turned  evil  lust  to  pain,  and  through  outward  inflammation 
quenched  the  inward.  Verily  he  overcame  sin,  in  changing 
the  excitement.   But  from  that  time,  as  he  himself  afterwards 


158  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

wearS  eallunga  on  him  advvsesced,  uiid  lie  luefre  sySSan  iiaht 
•(Syllices  on  him  sylfum  ne  gefredde. 

pa  waes  ]78er  gehende  sum  munuc-lif,  and  hcora  abbud  waes 
}>a  niwan  forSfaren  :  ]>sl  comon  hi  ealle  to  Kam  halgan  Bcnc- 
dictCj  and  mid  micelre  anr^ednysse  ba?don  \>iet  he  heora  abbud 
beon  sceolde.  He  5a  wiScwte^  mid  hmgsumere  elcunge,  and 
saede,  j^^et  heora  ]7eawas  ne  mihton  his  dihte  geJSwterlaecan  ; 
ac  ^SaSa  hi  anrfedlicc  on  -Sfere  bene  ]?urh\vunodon,  ]>a  aet 
nextan  getiSode  he  him,  and  on  heora  mynstre  rcgolHcc 
drohtnunge  astealde.  Hi  Sa  gesawon  \>iet  heora  wohnys  on 
ISam  regole  his  rihtwisnysse  fetspearn,  forcSan  pe  hi  ne  moston 
purh  unalyfedlice  weorc  faran,  swa  swa  hi  fer  gcwunodc 
w^ron.  pa  bcgunnon  hi  to  cidenne  arrest  him  betwynan, 
]?ffit  hi  his  ealdordomes  b;edon,  and  );a  ;Et  nextan  neddon  ]>a't 
hi  mid  attre  hine  acwealdon.  Gemengdon  5a  unlybban  to 
liis  drcnce,  and  so  |?en  stod  feorran  mid  anum  ghesenum  fete, 
on  5am  w.es  wTncs  drenc  mid  |>am  cweahnbaunnn  attre 
gemengcd.  Se  pen  5a,  ;efter  mynsterlicum  peawe,  to  his 
blctsunge  mid  5am  fjete  aleat,  and  he  mid  rode-tiicne  \>iBt  f<et 
of  his  sctlc  bletsode,  and  hit  {^wrrihte  jnirh  5a  blctsunge  to- 
bcfirst,  swilee  lie  for  rode-tiicne  sumne  stiin  |><rron  bcwurpe. 
Da  ongeat  se  halga  wer  )'<et  sc  drenc  dcadba^ra  WcCS,  )ni5a  he 
ne  mihtc  ITfes  tlicn  abcran  ;  and  j^aerrihte  aras,  and  mid 
glfedum  mode  |>a  gebro5ru  gcspnec  :  "  Gebro5ru,  miltsige 
eow  se  yElmihtlga  God  :  hwT  wolde  ge  me  J>as  J'ing  gcbeodan  ? 
Ne  sa^de  ic  cow  on  £r  ]>dit  me  and  cow  ne  mihte  gewur5an  ? 
Fara5  nu,  and  seca"5  eow  caldor  a^fter  eowerum  j^cawum,  for- 
"5an  ]?e  ge  ne  magon  me  heonon-:for5  habban."  And  he  }?a 
gecyrde  to  5am  westene,  and  his  sylfcs  gymdc. 


Hwffit  J>a  him  fleowon  to  forwel  menigc,  and  hi  gcgade- 
rodon  to  ]>eowdome  drohtnigende,  swa  ]>ie.t  he  getimbrode  on 
^aere  stowe,  ]?urh  Cristes  fultum,  twelf  mynstru,  on  ^am 
tenlipium  he  gesette  twclf  munecas,  and  ane  fcawa  he  geheold 


ST.  bt^tUlLT,  ABliOT.  159 

said,  all  hiistful  fervour  was  in  him  totally  cxtingui:shcd,  and 
lie  never  afterwards  felt  anything  of  the  same  kind  in  himself. 

There  was  near  at  hand  a  monasterv,  the  ahbot  of  which 
was  lately  deceased  :  they  all  then  came  to  the  holy  Benedict, 
and  with  great  perseverance  prayed  that  he  woidd  he  their 
abbot.      lie  refused   for   a   long  time,   and   said,   that   their 
manners  might  not  accord  with  his  disposition  ;   but  w  hen 
they  perseveringly  persisted  in  their  prayer,  he  at  last  granted 
it  to  them,  and  established  a  course  of  regular  life  in  their 
mynster.     They  then    saw   that  their  depravity  spurned   at 
the  rule  of  his  righteousness,  because  they  might  not  proceed 
in  unallowed  works,  as  they  had  before  been  accustomed  to. 
They  then   begun  to   (juarrel,  6rst  among  themselves,  that 
they  had  {)raycd  for  his  superiority,  and  at  last  counselled 
to  kill  hirn  with   poison.     They  minified  then  venom  in  his 
driid\,  and  the  servant  stood  at  a  di^tarlee  with  a  glass  ves- 
sel,  in  which  was  a  drink   made  of  wine   mingled  with  the 
deadly   poison.     The   servant   then,   according    to   monastic 
usage,  bowed  with  the  vessel  for  his  blessing,  and  he  with  the 
sign  of  the  cross  blessed  the  vessel  from  his  seat,  and  through 
the  blessing  it  straightways  burst  in  i)ieces,  as  if,  instead  of 
signing  it  \\  ith  the  cross,  he  had  ea^t  a  stone  on  it.     Then 
the  holy  man   perceived   that  the  drink  was  deadly,  w  hen  it 
could  not  i)ear  the  token  of  life  ;   and  he  straightways  arose, 
and  with  cheerful  spirit  addressed  the  brothers  :  "  Brothers, 
may  Almighty  God  be  merciful  to  you  :  why  woidd  ye  impose 
these  things  on  me  ?      Said  I  not  to  you  before,  that  I  and 
you  could   not  agree  ?     Go  now  and  seek  for  yourselves  a 
superior  according  to  your  own  habits,  for  yv  may  not  hence- 
forth have  me."     And   he  then   returned   to  the  \\il(lorncss 
and  took  care  of  liimself. 

Very  many  then  flowed  to  him,  and  they  were  gathered 
together,  living  for  [God's]  service,  so  that  he  built  in  that 
place,  through  Christ's  support,  twelve  monasteries,  in  each 
of  which  he  placed  twelve  nioiiKs,  and  a  few  he  retained  with 


ICO  S.  BEXEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

mid  him  sylfum.  Ongunnon  \>a.  Sa  ffi^elborenan  on  llome- 
byrig  him  to  befsRstenne  heora  cild  to  Godes  lareowdome,  of 
"Sam  waes  sum  gehatcn  Placidus,  and  sum  oSer  Maurus.  pa 
sceolde  se  Placidus  feccan  waeter  fet  ]>iere  ea,  and  befeol  ofcr 
■Sam  stcTs^e  into  )>ani  streame.  Da  wiste  se  halga  wer  Bcne- 
dictus  jnirh  Godes  Gast,  ])iet  J?aet  ciUI  on  micelre  frecednysse 
waes,  and  cw^eb  to  Maure,  "  Broi5or  Maure,  yrn  ricenc,  for- 
•San  ]>e  se  stream  berb  aweg  Placidum."  Maurus  j'ffirrihte 
abcP.d  his  bletsungc,  and  arn  uppon  )nim  strcanic  unmynd- 
lunge,  swilce  lie  on  festre  eorSan  urno,  and  gelwhtc  ))ffit  cild 
be  ^am  loccum,  and  mid  swyftum  ryne  to  lande  arn,  and 
undergeat  ))a  a;t  ncxtan  )'«;t  he  uppon  bam  uvetcre  arn,  and 
]>ies  micclum  wundrode.  pa  cydde  lie  his  lareowe  hu  him 
getimodc,  and  Benedictus  Sfiedc  j^fet  him  swa  gctimode,  |>urh 
Godes  mihtc,  for  his  gehyrsumnyssc.  And  Maurus  sa^de,  )?wt 
hit  for  his  hfpse  swa  genurdc  ;  and  ]'a't  cild  Placidus  cwa?^, 
paet  he  gcsawe  bufon  his  heafde  Benedictus  ca^ppan,  and  him 
wffis  gebuht  )>aet  seo  ca^ppe  hinc  atuge  of  bam  streame. 

Sum  munuc  Ma^s  unstjebbig  on  Godes  lofsangum,  and  ne 
mihtc  his  tidsangas  gestandan  mid  his  gebrobrum,]  ac  code 
him  ut  worigende.  pa  gcscah  se  halga  wer  Benedictus  ]>iPl 
sc  dcofol  on  anes  blacan  cildcs  hiwe  teah  ut  bone  munuc  be 
"bam  fna^de  his  gyrclan.  Eft  on  obrum  d;pge  gemette  Bene- 
dictus bone  mumic  fram  his  tidsange,  and  gcsloh  hine  mid 
his  gyrde,  for  ba-rc  blindnyssc  his  heortan,  and  se  feond  ne 
mihte  hine  sybban  of  brerc  cyrcan  If^dan,  swylce  he  sylf  mid 
]7fiere  gyrde  geslcgcn  wa?re. 

Of  bam  twclf  mynstrum  j^e  he  gcstaSolode,  waron  ^reo 
asette  on  hcalicum  muntum,  and  wjes  ^am  gebrobrum  micel 
frecednys  to  astigennc  daighwomlice  of  J'am  cludum  to  wfeter- 
scipe ;  and  comon  iSa  to  bam  halgan  were,  biddende  ]?ffit  he 
^a  mynstra  gchendor  ^am  wjeterscipe  timbrian  sceolde.  He 
"ba  geswffislice  hi  gefrcfrode,  and  on  "bfere  ylcan  nihte  astah 
mid  bam  cilde  Placide,  \>c  we  (pv  ymbe  spreecon,  up  to  i5am 
mmite,  and  Sfpr  langlicc  on  hh  gchedum  Iffig,  and  mearcode 


ST.  BENKDICT,  AIJBOT.  iGl 

liimsclf.  The  iioblc-born  of  Rome  begun  then  to  intrust 
tlieir  children  to  him  for  divine  instruction,  of  whom  there 
was  one  named  Placidus,  and  anotlicr  Maurus.  Placidus  had 
once  to  fetch  water  at  the  river,  and  fell  over  the  bank  into 
the  stream.  But  the  holy  man  Benedict  knew,  through  the 
Spirit  of  God,  that  the  child  was  in  great  peril,  and  said 
to  Maurus,  "  Brother  Maurus,  run  instantly,  for  the  stream 
is  bearing  away  Placidus."  Maurus  straightways  besought 
his  blessing,  and  ran  on  the  stream  unmindfully,  as  if  he  were 
running  on  the  firm  earth,  and  seized  the  chikl  by  the  locks, 
and  with  swift  course  ran  to  land,  and  perceived  then  at  last 
that  he  had  been  running  on  the  water,  and  thereat  greatly 
wondered.  lie  then  informed  his  teacher  how  it  had  befallen 
him,  and  Benedict  said  that  it  had  so  befallen  him,  through 
God's  might,  for  his  obedience.  And  Maurus  baid  that  it  so 
hai)pened  for  his  command  ;  and  the  child  Placidus  said,  that 
he  saw  above  his  head  Benedict's  cowl,  and  it  seemed  to  him 
that  the  cowl  drew  him  from  the  stream. 

A  monk  \\as  irregular  in  God's  hymns,  and  could  not 
attend  to  his  canonical  hours  with  his  brothers,]  but  went 
out  rambling.  Then  the  holy  man  Benedict  saw  that  the  devil 
in  the  form  of  a  black  child  drew  the  monk  out  by  the  hem 
of  his  garment.  Again,  on  another  day,  Benedict  fomid  the 
monk  away  from  his  canonical  hour,  and  struck  him  \\\\\\  his 
rod,  for  the  blindness  of  his  heart,  and  the  fiend  could  not 
afterwards  lead  him  from  the  church,  as  though  he  had  him- 
self been  stricken  with  the  rod. 

Of  the  twelve  mynst<?rs  which  he  founded,  three  were 
[)laced  in  lofty  mountains,  and  it  was  a  great  peril  to  the 
monks  to  descend  daily  from  the  rocks  to  the  aqueduct,  and 
they  came  to  the  holy  man,  praying  that  he  would  build  the 
niynsters  nearer  to  the  water.  But  he  kindly  comforted 
them,  and  in  the  same  night,  with  the  child  Placidus,  of 
Mhom  we  before  spake,  ascended  the  mountain,  and  there 
lay  h)ng  in  prayer,  and  marked  the  place,  and  went  privily  to 

IIOM.  VOL.   II.  M 


162  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

■Sa  stowe,  and  eode  dicfellice  to  niynstre,  and  hct  ^a  gebroSru 
si^^an  ]?aei'  adelfan  fenne  gehwaedne  pytt,  ^aer  S.'er  he  ser 
gemearcode  :  cwae^  ]),net  se  ^Elniihtiga  God  mihtc  on  "Saes 
muntes  cnolle  him  wseter  forS-ateon,  and  heora  geswinc  him 
aetbredan.  J^a  gebro^ra  ^a  eodon  be  his  haese  to  ^am  mere- 
else,  and  gemetton  ^one  clud  ^a  iu  swwtende ;  and  ht  <Sa 
hwffithwega  holodon,  and  'Saerrihte  J^aet  wfpter  swa  gcniht- 
sumlicc  ut  fleow,  j^set  hit  arn  streamrynes  of  5am  muntc,  and 
naefre  siSSan  ne  geswac  his  genilitsiminysse. 

Huilon  eac  befeoll  an  siSe  of  5am  smede  into  anum  dcttpan 
sea^e.  pa.  eode  Bencdictus  to,  and  wolde  gefrefrian  bone 
wyrhtan  ^e  J^c'et  tol  amyrde,  and  heohl  ^a  jmne  snied  biifon 
■5am  \va2terc  i5ffir  j^aet  iscn  asanc,  and  ^aerrihte  liit  becom 
swymmendc  to  "Sam  sna^de,  and  to  5am  5yrle  |je  hit  ier  of- 
asceat. 

pa  waes  sum  mffssc-preost  j'rpr  on  ncawiste  mid  ni5e 
af\  lied  ongcan  5onc  halgan  wcr,  his  nama  u'fps  Fh)rcntius,  se 
wolde  habban  swilcne  hlisan  s^va  Bencdictus,  ac  he  nolde 
herigcndlice  lybban.  Wolde  5a  bine  mid  attrc  acwellan,  and 
asende  him  fonnc  focan  to  lace  mid  attre  gemencged.  Da 
waes  sum  wilde  hrem  gewunod  jnet  he  d^eghwomlice  fleah 
fram  wuda  to  mynstre,  and  gcfctte  his  bigleofan  let  Bene- 
dictes  handum.  He  5a  wearp  5am  hremme  )>one  gefettrodan 
hlaf,  and  behead  him,  on  Godes  naman.  j^a^t  he  ^one  cwelm- 
bseran  hlaf  aweg  b^ere,  and  on  swilcere  stowe  awurpe,  "Saer 
bine  nan  man  findan  ne  mihte.  Se  fugol  wearS  gehyrsum  liis 
hsesum,  and  mid  ]n\u\  hlafe  to  wuda  tengde,  and  sy"55an  ymbe 
"Sreora  tida  faece  fette  his  bigleofan,  swa  his  gewuna  waes. 
pa  undergeat  se  preost  )?aet  he  ne  mihte  -Sone  halgan  wer 
lichamlice  acwellan,  and  wolde  '5a  his  leorning-cnihta  sawla 
fordon,  and  gemacode  ]>eet  seofon  uacode  wimmen  urnon 
plegende  on  heora  gesih^um,  \>eet  heora  mod  wurde  ontend  to 
galnysse,  |?urh  ■5aera  scylcena  plegan.  pa  geseah  se  halga 
wer  ]>xs  arlcasan  preostes  ni5fullan  ehtnysse,  and  wende  ^a 
aweg  mid  his  gebro'Srum  fram  ^sere  stowe,  J^y-lfes  ^e  aenig 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  163 

the  mynster,  and  then  bade  the  brothers  dig  a  moderate- sized 
pit  there  where  he  had  previously  marked,  saying  that  Al- 
mighty God  could  on  the  mountain's  summit  draw  forth  water 
for  them,  and  withdraw  from  them  their  toil.  The  brothers 
then  at  his  command  went  to  the  place  marked,  and  found  the 
rock  for  some  time  sweating,  and  they  hollowed  it  a  little,  and 
straightways  the  water  flowed  out  so  abundantly,  that  it  ran 
streaming  from  the  mountain,  and  never  afterwards  ceased 
its  abundance. 

At  one  time  a  sithe  fell  from  the  handle  into  a  deep  pit. 
Benedict  then  went,  and  would  comfort  the  labourer  who  had 
lost  the  tool,  and  held  the  handle  above  the  water  where  the 
iron  had  sunk,  and  straightways  it  came  swimming  to  the 
handle,  and  to  the  hole  out  of  which  it  had  fallen. 

Then  there  was  a  mass-prieat  in  the  neighbourhood  filled 
with  envy  against  the  holy  man,  his  name  was  Florentius, 
who  would  have  as  great  renown  as  Benedict,  but  he  would 
not  live  praiscworthily.  He  would  then  kill  him  with  poison, 
and  sent  him  a  loaf  as  a  gift  mixed  with  poison.  There  was 
then  a  wild  raven  accustomed  to  fly  daily  from  the  wood  to 
the  mynster,  and  fetch  his  food  from  the  hands  of  Benedict. 
He  threw  to  the  raven  the  poisoned  bread,  and  commanded 
him  in  God's  name  to  bare  away  the  deadly  loaf,  and  cast  it 
in  such  a  place  as  where  no  one  could  find  it.  The  bird  was 
obedient  to  his  connnands,  and  with  the  bread  hastened  to 
the  wood,  and  after  about  three  hours'  space  fetched  his  food, 
as  was  his  wont.  When  the  priest  perceived  that  he  could 
not  bodily  kill  the  holy  man,  then  would  he  fordo  the  souls 
of  his  disciples,  and  caused  seven  naked  women  to  run  play- 
ing in  their  sight,  that  their  minds  might  be  inflamed  to  lust 
through  the  play  of  those  harlots.  When  the  holy  man  saw 
the  envious  persecution  of  the  impious  priest,  he  went  with 
his  brothers  from  the  place,  lest  any  of  his  disciples  might 

M  2 


164  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

his  leorning-ciiihta  ])urh  his  andan  losian  sccolde.  Ilweet^a, 
se  preost  stod  on  his  up-flora  micclum  faegnigeiide  Sees  oSres 
fram-feeres ;  ac  seo  up-flering  tobferst  J7flerrihte  under  his 
fotum,  and  hine  egesHce  acwealde,  and  jjset  hus  eal  ansund 
aSolode,  buton  Sccre  anre  fleringe,  Se  'Sone  Godes  feond  of- 
■Srihte.  Da  geaxode  Maurus  hu  5am  preoste  getimode,  and 
he  mid  blissigendum  mode  cvvaeb  lo  his  lareowe,  "  Gccyrr 
ongean,  forSan  ^e  se  preost  ^e  ^in  ehte  is  adwtesced."  Be- 
nedictus  ^a  mid  swierlicum  heofungum  bcmtende  ]?iet  his 
leorning-cild  Maurus  5ies  oSres  dea^es  fsgnian  sceokle,  and 
ta^hte  him  \>is&  diedbotc,  bcbeodende  J)ait  he  on  his  feondes 
forwyrde  ftegnian  ne  sceokle. 

Bencchctus  }'a  ferde  to  5am  munte  )?e  is  gccwcden  Casinum, 
se  astihS  up  5rco  mila  on  heannysse.  Dier  waes  ge\vur5od 
fram  eakUnn  dagum  sum  hije5engild  ]nei  Wit's  gelialen  Apollo. 
Da  towende  se  halga  wcr  pa^t  deofolgild  grundlunge,  and 
arierde  5;er  cyrcan  See  Martine  to  uur5mynte,  and  o5er 
gebed-hus  "5am  halgan  Fulluhtero  loiianne  to  lofe,  and  )>ajt 
haj^ene  hmdfulc  to  Cristcs  geleafan  mid  singalre  bodunge 
gcbigde.  pa  ne  mihte  se  ealda  deofol  );as  danla  mid  swigan 
forberan,  ac  mid  opeidicere  gesih5e  hine  a?tco\vodc  5am 
halgan  were,  on  alelicum  hiwe,  mid  byrncndum  nm5e  and 
iTgenum  eagum,  wedende  him  togeanes,  and  mid  micclum 
hreame  his  si5  beniiende,  swa  j^tet  5a  gebro5ru  5a  deofellican 
stemne  swutelUce  gehyrdon.  .'Et  fruman  he  hine  clypode  be 
his  naman,  "  Benedicte,"  ]}iet  is,  '  Gcbletsod.'  Da  suwade 
se  halga  wer,  and  se  deofol  ]>an-rihte  eft  clypode,  "  Malcdicte, 
non  Benedicte,  ]?u  awyrigeda,  and  na  gebletsod,  hvvaet  witst 
"Su  me,  hwi  ehtst  "Su  mm  ?"  peer  Iseg  ^a  sum  ormfeta  stan, 
on  middan  }?am  getimbrungum,  5one  woldon  ^a  wyrhtan  to 
•5am  weorce  ahebban,  ac  hi  ealle  ne  mihton  hine  awecgan, 
for^an  ^e  se  ungesewenlica  deofol  }ner  on-uppan  saet.  Da 
wyrhtan  'Sa  clypedon  ^one  halgan  wer,  and  he  com  sona,  and 
mid  gebede  J?one  deofol  afligde,  and  his  bletsunge  sealde,  and 
hi  ^one  Stan  swa  leohtlice  ahofon,  swilce  he  buton  hefe  waere. 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  165 

perish  through  his  jealousy.  Whereupon  the  priest  stood  in 
his  upper  floor  greatly  rejoicing  at  the  other's  departure;  but 
the  upper  flooring  straightways  burst  asunder  under  his  feet, 
and  awfully  killed  him,  and  the  house  continued  sound, 
except  that  one  flooring,  which  had  crushed  the  foe  of  God. 
When  Maurus  l)eard  how  it  had  befallen  tlie  priest,  he  with 
joyful  mind  said  to  his  instructor,  "  Return,  for  the  priest 
who  persecuted  thee  is  extinguished."  Benedict  then  with 
grievous  lamentations  bewailed  that  his  disciple  Maurus 
should  rejoice  at  the  other's  death,  and  therefore  enjoined 
him  a  penance,  commanding  that  he  should  not  rejoice  in  the 
destruction  of  his  foe. 

Benedict  then  went  to  the  mountain  which  is  called  Cas- 
sino,  which  rises  up  three  miles  in  height.  There  \vas  wor- 
shiped from  days  of  old  an  idol  that  was  called  Apollo.  The 
lioly  man  then  overthrew  the  idol  from  its  foundation,  and 
raised  there  a  church  to  the  honour  of  St.  Martin,  and 
another  oratory  to  the  praise  of  the  holy  Baptist  John,  and 
turned  the  heathen  country  folk  to  the  faith  of  Christ  by 
constant  preaching.  Now  the  old  devil  could  not  endure  these 
deeds  in  silence,  but  openly  to  view  appeared  to  the  holy 
man,  in  a  horrid  form,  with  burning  mouth  and  flauMng  eyes 
raging  towards  him,  and  with  a  great  cry  bewailed  his  lot,  so 
that  the  brothers  plainly  heard  the  devilish  voice.  At  first 
he  called  liim  by  his  name,  "  Benedictus,"  that  is,  Blessed, 
Then  the  holy  man  was  silent,  and  the  devil  forthwith  again 
cried,  "  Maledictus,  non  Benedictus,  thou  accursed,  and  not 
blessed,  wherefore  dost  thou  torment  me,  why  dost  thou  per- 
secute me  ?"  There  lay  there  an  immense  stone,  in  the  midst 
of  the  buildings,  which  the  workmen  wished  to  raise  to  the 
work,  but  they  all  could  not  move  it,  because  the  invisible 
devil  sat  upon  it.  The  workmen  thereupon  called  the  holy 
man,  and  he  came  instantly,  and  by  prayer  drove  away  the 
devil,  and  gave  his  blessing,  and  they  raised  the  stone  as 
lightly  as  if   it  Mere  without  weight.     The   holy   man   then 


166  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

Se  halga  wer  ^a  het  delfan  "Sa  eorSan  ))aer  se  stan  Iseg,  and 
111  gemetton  ]?8er  ane  aerene  anlicnysse,  \>e  se  deofol  ]>iev  gcfri- 
•(Sode.  pa  wiirpon  hi  ^a  anlicnysse  inn  to  heora  kycenan, 
and  feerlice  ^a  weai-^  him  ealhini  getiuht  swilce  fyr  eode  of 
■Saere  anlicnysse,  swa  j^atseo  kycene  eal  forburne  ;  ac  hit  ntES 
svva  him  geSuht  \v;es,  ac  wtes  j^aes  deofles  dydrung.  Hi 
urnonto  ablicgede,  and  woldon  )>a?t  fyr  mid  weetere  ofgeotan. 
Se  halga  wer  com  5a,  and  geseah  hu  se  awyrigeda  gast  hi 
bedydrode,  and  cncowode  ]>cerrihte  on  his  gebedum,  and 
gedyde  }?cEt  Sa  gebroSra,  ])c  wa^ron  mid  bam  gedwymorlicum 
fyre  gebysgode,  gesawon  "Sa  soSlice  \>eet  seo  kycene  gehal 
stod,  aetforan  heora  gesihSum. 

Eft  sume  da^ge  stod  se  eadiga  Renedictus  on  Ins  gebedum, 
and  })a  gebrobra  eodon  to  bum  weall-weorce.  pa  jeteowode 
se  deofol  bine  |'am  halgan  were,  and  cw^e^  mid  olle  )?aet  he 
wolde  ait  5am  weorce  gecuman.  Da  sende  Benedictus  swi^e 
hrjodlice  and  warnode  5a  gebro5ra  \vi5  j^aps  deofles  to-cyme  ; 
ac  aer  se  aerendraca  mihte  to  5am  gebro5rum  becun\an,  jer 
haefde  se  deofol  towcnd  )>one  wcall,  and  wear^  mid  pam  hryrc 
sum  mumic-cild  call  tocwysed.  pa  het  Benedictus  beran  j?a 
tocwysedan  lima  on  aiium  hwitle  into  his  gebed-huse,  and 
beclyscdro  chira  anr;edlice  on  his  gebedum  Iceg,  o^  }>aKt  to- 
cwysede  cild,  ])urli  Godes  mihte,  ge-edcucode :  vvunderlic 
•Sing.  On  Saere  ylcan  tide  se  halga  w  er  asende  5one  cnapan 
ansundne  eallum  limum  to  iSam  weall-weorce,  mid  5aes  dea^e 
se  deofol  wolde  ]?one  halgan  wer  gebysmrian  ! 

Hwaet  "Sa,  se  halga  wer  Benedictus  waes  tieonde  on  wite- 
gunge,  swa  }>8et  he,  5urh  Godes  Gast,  mihte  towearde  Sing 
cySan,  and  Sa  5ing  geseah  5urh  witegunge,  5e  him  bsftan 
gefremede  wurdon.  Hit  waes  svva  gewunelic  on  his  munuc- 
life,  ]?aet  "Sa  gebro"5ra  ^e  on  sunmm  aerende  ut  gewendon, 
)7aethi  ne  moston,  buton  his  leafe,  metes  5icgan,  gif  hi  igdaeges 
to  mynstre  gecyrran  mihton.  pa  on  sumon  djege  ferdon 
twegen  gebroSra  ymbe  j^ffis  mynstres  neode,  and  tobraecon 
^one  regol,  swa  j^aet  hi  butan  leafe  mid  sunium  eawfaestum 


ST.  BENEDICT.  ABBOT.  167 

ordered  the  earth  to  be  dug  where  the  stone  had  lain,  and 
they  found  there  a  brazen  image,  which  the  devil  had  there 
protected.  They  tlien  cast  the  image  into  their  kitchen,  and 
suddenly  it  seemed  to  them  all  as  if  fire  issued  from  the 
image,  so  that  the  kitchen  was  all  burning;  but  it  was  not  as 
it  seemed  to  them,  but  was  an  illusion  of  the  devil.  They  ran 
to  appalled,  and  would  extinguish  the  fire  with  water.  Then 
came  the  holy  man,  and  saw  how  the  accursed  spirit  had 
deluded  them,  and  straightways  kneeled  in  prayer,  and  did  so 
that  the  brothers,  who  were  busied  with  the  illusory  fire,  saw 
truly  that  the  kitchen  stood  whole  before  their  sights. 

Again,  one  day  the  blessed  Benedict  was  standing  at  his 
prayers,  and  the  brothers  had  gone  to  the  wall  work.  The 
devil  then  appeared  to  the  holy  man,  and  said  ooutumeliously 
tiiat  he  would  go  to  the  work.  Thereupon  Benedict  sent  very 
(piickly  and  warned  the  brothers  against  the  devil's  coming  ; 
but  before  the  messenger  could  come  to  the  brothers,  the 
devil  had  overthrown  the  wall,  and  with  the  fall  a  monastic 
child  was  all  crushed.  Benedict  then  i)ade  them  bear  the 
crushed  limbs  on  a  blanket  into  his  oratory,  and,  having 
closed  the  door,  he  lay  steadfastly  in  prayer,  until  the  crushed 
child,  through  God's  might,  was  recpiickened  :  a  wonderful 
thing.  At  the  same  time  the  holy  man  sent  the  boy,  sound  in 
all  his  limbs,  to  tiic  wall  work,  with  whose  death  the  devil 
would  insult  the  holy  man  I 

The  iioly  man  Benedict  was,  moreover,  increasing  in  the 
gift  of  prophecy,  so  that  through  (iod's  grace  he  could  know 
future  things,  and  through  prophecy  saw  the  things  which 
were  accomplished  after  him.  It  was  usual  in  his  monastery, 
that  those  brothers  who  went  out  on  an  errand  might  not, 
without  his  leave,  partake  of  meat,  if  they  could  on  the  same 
day  return  to  the  mynster.  Then  one  day  two  brothers  went 
about  requisites  of  the  mynster,  and  brake  the  rule,  so  that 
without  leave  they  ate  with  a  pious  woman,  and  so  returned 


168  S.  BENKDICTI  ABBATIS. 

•wife  hi  gereordodou,  and  swa  to  mynstre  gecyrdon.  pa 
befran  se  halga  wer,  on  hwaes  gesthusc  lit  metes  onbirigdon  ? 
Hi  cwaedon  J?8et  hi  nanes  jetes  on  ^sere  fare  ne  onbirigdon. 
Da  genemnode  se  halga  wer  ]>ast  eawfeste  wTf  Se  hi  gekiSode, 
and  "Sa  sanda  tealde  Se  heo  him  gebfer,  and  eac  hu  oft  hi 
druncon  him  so^lice  siede.  Hi  ^a  feollon  to  his  fotum  afyrhte, 
gecnsewe  heora  gyltes,  and  him  miltsunge  baedon. 

On  Sam  timan  rixode  sum  reSe  cyning,  se  waes  Totilla 
gehaten ;  se  ferde  sume  daege  wiS  ]>fes  halgan  \vcrcs  mynster, 
and  sende  his  forridel,  het  cySan  his  to-cyme  5am  halgan 
were,  pa  wolde  se  waelhreowa  fandian  hwa'Ser  Boncdictus 
witegvingc  gast  htefde,  and  asende  his  swurdboran,  Riggo 
gehaten,  gescrydnc  mid  his  cynelicuni  gyrelum,  mid  his 
Segnum  to  Sam  mynstre,  swilce  he  hit  sylf  wiere.  pa  gesjet 
Bencdictus  forn  ongcan  Sam  Riggon,  ])c  mid  Sam  Icaslicum 
getote  inn-eode,  Scarlc  Srutigendc.  Da  clypode  se  cadiga 
Godcs  ^eow  him  togeanes,  and  cwjeS,  "  MTn  beam,  do  Sa 
gyrlan  "Se  fram  pe  5u  berst,  ne  sind  hi  na  Sine."  pa  astrehte 
se  Riggo  hine  to  corSan  mid  ealluni  his  gefcrum  swiSe  forht- 
igende,  J'.ot  In  his  fandian  dorston,  and  gecyrdon  to  heora 
hlaforde  forhtmode,  cySende  hu  hrffidlice  hi  arasode  wurdon. 
Totilla  Sa  sylf  to  mynstre  eode,  and  swa  hraSe  swa  he  Sone 
halgan  feorran  sittende  geseah,  swa  astrehte  he  hine  sylfne  to 
eorSan  wi5  his  weard.  Bcnedictus  hine  het  arisan,  ac  he  ne 
dorste  aetforan  "Sam  halgan  were  on  his  fotum  gestandan.  pa 
eode  se  halga  to  "Sam  astrehtan  cyninge,  and  hine  up-araerde, 
and  hine  for  his  weorcum  mid  wordum  ^Sreade,  and  mid  wite- 
gunge  gewislice  saede,  hu  him  on  his  life  gelimpan  sceolde. 
He  cwaeS,  "  Fela  yfela  Su  wyrcst,  and  fela  5u  worhtest : 
geswic  nu  callunga  Sinre  unrihtwisnysse.  Witodlice  "Su 
becymst  to  Romebyrig,  ofer  sae  Su  seglast,  nigon  gear  Su 
rixast,  on  Sam  teoSan  ]>\i  swyltst."  pa  wearS  se  cyning 
Searle  afyrht  )7urh  "Sas  \vitegunge,  and  baed  ^a  his  bletsunge, 
and  of  Saere  tide  be  diele  his  reSnysse  geswac.  Him  aeode 
swa  se  halga  him  gewitegode,  j^aet  he  on  Sam  teoSan  geare 
his  cyncrices  and  his  lifes  Solodc. 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  169 

to  the  mynster.  The  holy  man  then  asked  in  whose  hostel 
they  had  tasted  meat  ?  They  said  that  they  had  tasted  no 
food  on  the  way.  The  holy  man  then  named  the  pious  woman 
who  had  invited  them,  and  told  the  dishes  which  she  had  set 
before  them,  and  also  truly  said  to  them  how  often  they  ha:l 
drinik.  They  thereupon  fell  at  his  feet  afTrii:^hted,  acknow- 
ledged their  guilt,  and  prayed  to  him  for  mercy. 

At  that  time  reigned  a  cruel  king  who  was  called  Totila; 
he  went  one  day  towards  the  holy  man's  mynster,  and  sent 
liis  harbinger  to  announce  his  comintr  to  the  holv  man.  Then 
would  the  bloodthirsty  tyrant  prove  whether  Benedict  had  the 
spirit  of  prophecy,  and  sent  his  swordbearer,  named  Riggo, 
clad  in  his  royal  garments,  with  his  thanes  to  the  mynster,  as 
if  it  were  he  himself.  Then  sat  Benedict  opposite  to  Uiggo, 
Mho  entered  with  the  false  pomp,  strutting  exceedingly. 
Then  cried  the  blessed  servant  of  God  to  him,  and  said, 
"  My  son,  put  from  thee  those  garments  which  thou  bearest, 
they  are  not  thine."  Higgo  (herenpon  prostrated  himself  on 
the  earth,  with  all  his  companions,  greatly  affrighted  that  they 
had  dared  to  prove  him,  and  returned  fearful  to  their  lord, 
announcing  how  (piickly  they  had  been  discovered.  Totila 
himself  then  Mcnt  to  the  mynster,  and  as  soon  as  he  saw  the 
saint  sitting  afar  off,  he  prostrated  himself  on  the  earth 
towards  him.  Benedict  bade  him  arise,  but  he  durst  not 
staiul  on  his  feet  before  the  holy  man.  The  saint  then  went 
to  the  prostrate  king,  and  raised  him,  and  reproved  him  with 
M'ords  for  his  works,  and  with  prophecy  truly  said,  how  it 
should  befall  him  in  his  lifi'.  lie  said,  "  Many  evils  thou 
workest,  and  many  thou  hast  wrought  :  cease  now  wholly 
from  thine  unrighteousness.  Verily  thou  wilt  go  to  Rome, 
over  the  sea  thou  wilt  sail,  nine  years  thou  wilt  reign,  in 
the  tenth  thou  wilt  die."  Then  was  the  king  exceedingly 
alTrighted  through  this  prophecy,  and  besought  his  blessing, 
and  from  that  time  partly  ceased  from  his  cruelty.  It  befell 
him  so  as  the  saint  had  foretold  him,  that  in  the  tenth  year 
he  lost  his  kini^dom  and  his  life. 


170  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

On  ^aere  ylcan  tide  avvedde  sum  preost  Aquineiiscisre  gela- 
tSuiige,  and  he  wearS  on  bfere  wodnysse  geh'Ed  to  )>ani  eadigan 
Benedicte.  He  Sa  |>urli  lialgum  beniini  ]>onc  deofol  adrajfde 
of  ^am  ofsettan  preoste,  and  hine  bisum  worduni  gespraec, 
"  Far  nu,  and  of  Sisum  dnegene  gcneala?c  Su  Godes  Senung- 
uni,  ne  "Su  fltesc-niettas  ne  bicge  ;  and  gif  Su  aefrc  gcdyrst- 
Ifehst  |7aet  "Su  Godes  Scnungum  gencalffice,  Sonne  bist  Su  eft 
]>ses  deofles  anwealdum  betffiht/'  Se  preost  Sa  })is  bcbod  lo 
languni  fyrste  heold,  and  swa-Scah  set  nextan  'S;es  halgan 
weres  ha^se  forseab,  and  mid  dyrstignyssc  haligne  had  under- 
feng.  Ilwait  'Sa,  se  deofol,  Sc  liine  a?r  unSances  forlet,  hine 
sona  geltfihtc,  and  oS  deaS  gedrehtc. 

Sum  eawftest  man  sende  Sam  halu:an  were  t\ve<ren  butrucas 
mid  Mine  to  lace,  be  anum  cnr.pan.  Da  behydd  se  cna[)a 
]>one  oSernc  be  wege,  and  ;enne  Sam  halgan  were  gebrohte. 
He  undcrfcng  Sa  lac  mid  Sancunge,  and  cwieS  to  Sam  cnapan, 
"  Min  bcarn,  beo  Se  waur  j'a't  Su  ne  drince  of  Sam  wine  )>e 
Su  be  wege  hjddcst,  ac  ahyld  hit  wrerlice;  )?onne  gesihst  Su 
hvviet  Seer  on-iiman  sticaS."  He  gccyrde  Sa  mid  sceame, 
and  ahylde  ]>io.t  Min  wjerlice,  and  S;er  gewende  ut  of  tJam  fiete 
an  fiih  naddre.  Fela  Sing  siedc  se  halga  wer  Surh  haligre 
witegunge,  Se  us  sind  langsume  to  goreccenne,  and  cow  to 
gchyrenne  on  "Syssere  scortnysse. 

Sum  ffiSelboren  cild  heold  leoht  ietforan  his  mysan,  and 
ongann  modigian  paet  hit  on  swa  waclicum  Singum  him  ^^  ic- 
nian  sceolde.  Se  halga  Sa  sona  undergeat  his  modignysse, 
Surh  Godes  Gast,  and  hine  Searle  'Sreagende  cwaeS,  "  BroSor, 
hletsa  Sine  heortan,"  and  het  animan  J^iet  leoht  him  of,  and 
hine  sittan  ;  and  he  stede  his  gebro'Srum  ^jes  cildes  modig- 
nysse  geendebyrdlice. 

On  sumere  tide  com  micel  hunger  on  Sam  lande,  and 
gehwser  j^aet  landfolc  micchim  geangsumode.  pa  getimode 
swa  micel  hafenleast  on  Benedictes  mynstre,  ]>set  "Sa  gebroSra 
nsefdon  buton  fif  hlafas  to  heora  ealra  gereorde.  Se  halga 
wer  ■Sa  Benediclus   mid   geswfesum   wordum   his  gebro^ra 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  171 

At  that  same  time  a  priest  of  the  church  of  Aquinum  lost 
his  reason,  and  in  his  madness  was  led  to  the  blessed  Bene- 
dict. He  by  holy  prayers  drove  the  devil  from  the  possessed 
priest,  and  spake  to  him  in  these  words,  "  Go  now,  and  from 
this  day  approach  not  God's  services,  nor  eat  flesh-meats; 
and  if  thou  ever  darest  to  approach  God's  services,  then  wilt 
thou  again  be  delivered  into  the  power  of  the  devil."  The 
priest  held  his  command  for  a  long  time,  but,  nevertheless,  at 
last  disreirardcd  the  command  of  the  holv  man,  and  with 
temerity  undertook  a  holy  oftice.  The  devil  thereupon,  who 
had  before  un\\  illingly  forsaken  him,  soon  seized  him,  and 
afflicted  him  till  his  death. 

A  pious  person  sent  to  the  holy  man  two  flasks  of  wine  as  a 
gift,  by  a  boy.  The  boy  then  hid  one  by  the  way  and  brought 
the  other  to  the  holy  man.  He  received  the  gift  with  tiuiidis, 
and  said  to  the  boy,  "  My  child,  be  cautious  not  to  drink  of 
the  wine  which  thou  hast  hidden  bv  the  way,  but  incline  it 
carefully  ;  thou  wilt  then  see  what  is  sticking  within  it." 
He  returned  then  with  shame,  and  inclined  the  wine  carefully, 
and  there  turned  out  of  the  vessel  a  variegated  serpent.  The 
holy  man  said  many  things  through  holy  prophecy,  which  it 
were  tedious  for  us  to  recount,  and  for  you  to  hear  in  this 
shortness. 

A  noble-born  child  held  light  before  his  table,  and  began  to 
take  offence  that  he  had  to  serve  him  in  such  mean  things. 
The  saint,  through  God's  Spirit,  soon  perceived  his  pride, 
and,  severely  reproving  him,  said,  "  lirother,  bless  thy  heart," 
and  ordered  the  light  to  be  taken  from  him,  and  hiui  to  sit; 
and  he  related  to  his  l)rothers  the  pride  of  the  child  in 
detail. 

At  one  time  a  great  famine  came  into  the  land,  and  every- 
where greatly  afflicted  the  country  people.  Then  there  befell 
so  ffreat  a  want  in  Benedict's  mynster,  that  the  brothers  had 
five  loaves  only  for  the  refection  of  them  all.  The  holy  man 
Benedict  then  with  kind  words  comforted  the  sadness  of  his 


172  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

iinrotnysse  gofrefrode,  and  cwae^,  *'Nii  to-daeg  we  hivbba^ 
hwoiilice  behlaf,  ac  to-merigen  we  sceolon  habban  geiiibt- 
snmlice."  Hwset  ^a,  paes  on  merigen  Avurdon  gemette  eet- 
foran  heora  gedyruni  twa  hund  mittan  nicluwes  on  feetclsum, 
•Sa  se  vEhiiihtiga  God  liis  beowum  asende  ;  ac  swa-'Seab  njes 
naniim  men  cu^  bu  hi  Sider  comon. 

Sum  cawfffist  ^egen  baed  Sone  halgan  wer,  ])iet  lie  mid  his 
munecumon  his  hmde  him  munuc-lif  aiJjeran  sceolde,  and  he 
lustb.'ere  Stes  getiSodc,  and  cwaeb  to  'Sam  gcbro«Srimi  \>dit  he 
wolde  sylf  on  -bam  duege  -Se  he  gecwteS  hiev  gecumari,  and 
J78es  mynstres  gctimbrungc  gcdiiitan.  Da  munecas  ba  ferdou 
be  his  ha^se  and  bletsungc  to  Sies  -begencs  hmde,  and  georne 
tiaes  andagan  ccpton.  pa  jeteowode  se  halga  wer  Benedictus 
on  swefne  liine  sylfnc  bam  numece  J>e  he  to  caldre  geset 
haefde  ofcr  iSam  mynstre,  and  iiis  profoste  tamod,  and  hi 
gcwissode  swiSe  smeabancellice  ymbe  ba?s  mynstres  gebyt- 
lungnni,  on  )ncrc  nihtc  |'e  se  andaga  on  merigen  wa^s.  pa- 
"Sa,  hi  awocon,  se  eakhjr  and  his  profost,  ba  rehte  lieora  tegber 
obrum  hwjet  ht  on  swefene  ges^awon,  and  J;ies  micclum  wun- 
drodon.  Eft  sibban  J>a  se  andaga  agan  waes,  and  se  halga 
wer  ne  com,  swa  swa  he  gecweden  haefde,  ba  comon  hi  eft 
wib  his,  |7us  cwebende,  "  We  andbidodon  bin,  halga  fanlcr, 
]jcPt  "bu  us  Jjaes  mynstres  gebytlu  dihtan  sceoldest,  and  ]>u  ne 
come,  swa  swa  ^u  us  behete."  Da  andwyrde  se  halga,  and 
cwfe^,  "  Mine  gcbrobra,  hwi  secge  ge  j^at  ic  tic  come  ? 
Ilwset  la,  ne  ffiteowode  ic  inc  bam  slapendum,  and  ealle  ba 
gebytlunge  gewisslice  tajhte  ?  Fara^  mi,  and  araerab  ]>eet 
mynster  swa  swa  ic  cow  on  swefne  dihte."  Hi  ^ba  mid 
micelre  wundrunge  to  bam  lande  gewendon,  and  swa  ba 
gebytlunge  gcfadcdon,  swa    swa  him   on   swefene   a?teowod 

M'SPS. 

Nu  seg^  se  halga  Gregorius,  sebe  ]7isne  cwyde  on  Leden 
awrat,  ]>?et  God  ^Elmihtig  gctibode  his  leofan  Benedicte,  J^aet 
he  ^urh  gast  ferde  to  bam  slapendum  gebrobrum,  and  him  to 
^am  gastlican   life  gcwissode,  sebe  giu  aer,  burh  his  engel, 


ST.  BENEDICT.  ABBOT.  173 

brothers,  and  said,  "  Now  to-day  we  shall  have  but  little 
remaining,  but  to-morrow  we  shiiU  have  abundantly."  Lo 
then  on  the  morning  after  were  found  before  their  doors  two 
hundred  i)ushels  of  meal  in  sacks,  which  the  Almighty  God 
had  sent  to  his  servants  ;  it  was,  however,  known  to  no  man 
how  thev  came  thither. 

A  pious  thane  prayed  the  holy  man,  that  he  witii  his  monks 
would  erect  for  Jiim  a  monastery  on  his  land,  and  ho  witli 
pleasure  consented,  and  said  to  the  brothers  that  lie  would 
himself  come  on  a  day  which  lie  named,  and  direct  the  build- 
ing of  the  mynster.     Tiie  monks  then  went  by  his  command 
and  with    his   blessing   to   the  thane's   land,   and    anxiously 
awaited   the  day  appointed.     Then  the  iioly  man   Benedict 
appeared  in  a  dream  to  the  monk  whom  he  had  set  as  principal 
over  the  mynster,  and  to  his  provost  also,  and  directed  them 
very  circumstantially  concerning  the  building  of  the  mynster, 
on  the  night  the  morrow  of  which   was  the  day  apptjinted. 
AVhcn  the  principal  and  his  provost  awoke,  they  related  each 
to  other  what  they  had  seen  in  a  dream,  and  thereat  greatly 
woiidi'ied.     Again  afterwards,  when  the  appointed  day  was 
passed,  and  the  holy  man  can)e  not,  as  he  had  said,  they  went 
back  to  him,  thus  saying,  "  We  awaited  thee,  holy  father, 
that  thou  mighlest  direct  us  in  the  building  of  the  mynster, 
aiul  thou  hast  not  come  as  thou  didst  promise  us."     Then 
answered  the  saint,  and  said,  "  My  brothers,  why  say  ye  that 
I   came  not?      Wiiat,  did   I    not   appear  to  you   both   while 
sleeping,   and   distinctly  planned   the  whole  building  ?      Go 
now,  and  erect  the  mynster  as  I  directed  you  in  the  dream." 
They  then  with  great  wondering  went  to  the  land,  and  so 
conducted  the  building  as  had  been  shown  to  them  in  the 
dream. 

Now  the  holy  Gregory,  who  wrote  this  relation  in  Latin, 
says  that  God  Almighty  permitted  iiis  beloved  Benedict  to 
go  in  spirit  to  the  sleeping  brothers,  and  direct  them  in  the 
spiritual  life,  who  of  old,  thro\igh  his  angel,  swiftly  conveyed 


174  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

^one  witegan  Abbacuc  lichamlice  fram  ludea  lande  to  Chal- 
dea  rice  swiftilice  ferode,  j^set  he  lichamlicne  bigleofan  j'am 
hungrian  Danihelc  brohte,  seSe  bet^vux  ))am  leonum  uiiscyl- 
dig  ascofen  waes. 

Tvva  myiiecena  waeron  drohtiiigeiide  on  gehendnysse  his 
mynstres  of  seSelborenre  msegSe  aspruiigene,  ]'am  gewTcnode 
sum  eawfaest  wer  on  woruld-caruni.  pa  wa^ron  hi  .nefter 
eej^elborennysse  ofcrhydige  and  hearni-cwydolc,  and  )K)ne 
ee^elan  wer  oft  gedrehton.  Da  cydde  se  ea\vf;esta  ucr  J?ani 
eadigan  Benedicte  hu  micelne  teonan  he  forSyklcgode  mid 
•Sam  foresfpdmu  mynecenum.  Se  halga  wer  ascnde  "Sa  to, 
and  him  "(Sisum  wordum  behead,  "  Gerihtl;eca5  eowere 
tungan  :  glf  ge  ne  doS,  ic  cow  amansumigc."  Hi  swa-beah 
iSurinvunedon  on  heora  tconfulhmi  wonhun,  and  wurdon  '5a 
fairlice  forcJferedcj  and  binnim  hivrc  cyrcan  bebyrigede.  pa 
Wrcs  hit  gewunelic  on  5am  dagum  ]>xt  sc  diacon  clypode  ffit 
ailcere  nuessan,  a'r  5am  husel-gange,  "  Se  5e  husel-ganges 
imwur^e  sy,  gange  ut  of  (Sjere  cyrcan."  J)a  wjeron  j^a  aman- 
sumedan  mynecena  binnon  hierc  cyrcan  bebyrigede,  swa  swa 
we  eer  Sccdon  ;  and  hi  arison  of  heora  byrgcnum  on  manna 
gesihSum,  and  ut-codon  be  5cjes  diacones  hiiese,  forSan  'Se  hi 
waeron  fram  5am  halgum  husle  ascyredc.  pa  gclamp  him 
swa  aet  aelcere  niaissan,  j^ijet  ht  ne  mihton  wimian  binnon  ciaere 
cyrcan  aet  '5am  husel-gange,  after  pses  diacones  clypunge. 
Da  wear^  J?is  gecyd  pinn  halgan  Benedicte  mid  miceh-e  dreo- 
rignysse.  Benedictus  ]m  sona  asende  ane  ofeletan,  and  het 
mid  ]?<'Ere  masssian  for  ^am  mynecenum  ;  cwae^  J^aet  hi  sitiiSan 
unamansumode  waeron.  His  ha^s  wear5  gefylled,  and  ]>a 
mynecena  naefre  si^5an  ne  wurdon  gesewene  ut-gangende  aet 
■Saes  diacones  clypunge,  for^an  ^e  hi  underfengon  j^a  halgan 
maensumunge  cet  Gode,  |7urh  his  ^eowan  Benedicte,  j^e  hi  aer 
for  heora  stuntum  wordum  ^iwde  to  amansumigenne. 

Sum  munuc-cild  drohtnode  on  his  mynstre,  and  hasfde 
micele  lufe  to  his  ffeder  and  to  his  meder.     Swi'Sor  for  ^aere 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  175 

the  prophet  Hab.ikkuk  bodily  from  the  h\nd  of  Judea  to  the 
kingdom  of  Chaklca,  that  he  might  bring  bodih'  sustenance 
to  the  hungry  Daniel,  who  had  been  thrust  guiltless  among 
the  lions. 

Two  mynchens  were  living  in  the  neighbourhood  of  his 
mynstcr,  sprung  of  a  noble  family,  who  in  worldly  cares  were 
served  by  a  pious  man.     These  bj'  reason  of  their  noble  birth 
Mere  haughty  and  calumnious,  and  often  afflicted  the  noble 
man.     Tben  said  the  pious  man  to  the  blessed  Benedict  how 
great  contumely  he  endured  from   the  aforesaid  mynchens. 
Thereupon  the  holy  man  sent  to  them,  and  in  these  words 
enjoined  them,  "  Correct  your  tongues  :  if  ye  do  not,  I  will 
excommunicate  you."     They,  nevertheless,  persisted  in  their 
contumelious  words,  and  then  died  suddenly,  and  were  buried 
within  the  church.     In  those  days  it  was  usual  for  the  deacon 
to  cry  at  every  mass,  before  the  administering  of  the  housel, 
'•  Whosoever  is  unworthy  to  partake  of  the  housel,  go  out  of 
the  church."     Now  the  e.vcommnnicatcd  mynchens  were,  as 
we  before  said,  buried  within  the  church  ;  and  they  arose  from 
their  graves   in   sight   of  the   people,  and   went   out  at   the 
deacon's  command,  because  they  had  been  cut  ofT  from  the 
holy  housel.      It  befell  them  so  at  every  mass,  that  they  could 
not  remain  within  the  church  at  the  administration  of  the 
housel,   after    the    deacon's    calling.     This    was   then    made 
known  to  the  holy  Benedict  with  great  sadness.      Benedict 
then   instantly  sent  an   oflete,   and  commanded  mass  to  be 
celebrated  with  it  for  the  mynchens,  saying  that  they  would 
afterwards  be  unexcommunicated.      His  command  was  ful- 
filled, and  the  mynchens  were  never  afterwards  seen  going 
out  on  the  deacon's  calling,  because  they  had  received  the 
holy  communion  from   God,  through  his  servant  Benedict, 
who,  for  their  foolLsh  words,  had  before  been  instigated  to 
excommunicate  them. 

A  monastic  child  lived  in  his  mynstcr,  and  had  great  love 
for  his  father  and  mother.     He  longed  immoderately  more 


irO  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

sibbe  I'onne  for  Godes  deele  wearS  ]?a  oflaiigod  ungemctlice, 
and  arn  buton  bletsunge  of  mynstre  to  his  niagum,  and  swa 
hra^e  swa  he  him  to  com  ydpeges  swa  gewat  he  of  ^isum 
andwerdum  life,  pa  he  bebyriged  wtes,  ba  ne  mihte  seo 
byrgen  hine  gehealdan,  ac  wearS  his  lie  on  merigcn  afundcn 
bufon  psere  byrgene.  His  magas  hine  eft  bebyrigdon,  and  lie 
wear^  eft  up-aworpcn,  and  swa  gelomlice.  pa  magas  ^a 
comon,  and  mid  micclum  Mope  J'aes  halgan  weres  fet  ge- 
sohton,  his  gife  biddendc.  Se  halga  Benedictus  him  scalde 
Godes  husel  mid  his  agenre  handa,  and  ewoeiS,  "  LecgaiS  |>is 
halige  husel  uppon  his  breoste,  and  bebyriaci  hine  swa."  Da 
l^is  gedun  WcPS,  ^a  heold  seo  eorbe  \>oue  lichaman,  and  sySban 
ne  awearp. 

Sum  ober  munuc  wearS  unstabolfa^st  on  his  mynstre,  and 
mid  gemaglicum  bemmi  gewihiode  ]>iot  he  moste  of  ^am 
munuc-lifc,  ac  se  halga  u  er  him  forwyrnde,  and  swiSe  mid 
wordum  Arcade  his  unstabolfa^stnysse.  /Et  nextan,  Saba  he 
swa  fus  wjes,  Sa  wcarS  se  halga  wer  gehathyrt  burh  his  un- 
stcfi^Signysse,  and  het  hine  aweg  faran.  Hwaet  "Sa  se  munuc 
ut-gewat,  and  gemette  sonaa^ine  dracan  him  togcancs  stand- 
ende,  mid  gynigendiun  mube,  }>cet  he  hine  forswulgc.  Se 
munuc  "Sa  swiSe  bifigcnde  and  forhtigende  hrymdc,  "  Yrnab, 
yrnaS,  forSan  be  |?es  di-aca  me  forswelgan  wile."  pa  mynster- 
munecas  urnon  to,  and  swa-beah  nateshwon  j^one  dracan  ne 
gesawon,  forban  j^a^t  wies  se  ungesewenlica  deofol :  ac  hi 
laeddon  "bone  munuc  swa  bifiijrendne  binnoii  bam  mynstre. 
He  iSa  sona  behet  j^iet  he  na?fre  si^ban  of  bam  mynstre 
sceacan  nolde;  and  he  eac  on  bam  behate  symle  ^urhvvunode. 
purh  Benedictes  gcbedum  him  waes  se  ungesewenlica  draca 
aeteowod,  bam  ^e  he  aer  filigde  na  geseonde. 

Benedictus  eac  gehalde  aenne  cnapan  mid  his  gebedum,  on 
micelre  hraednysse  fram  "bam  nicEstan  broce  ^e  is  gecweden 
elephantinus  morbus. 

Sum  hafenleas  man  sceolde  agyldan  healf  pund  anum  menn, 
and  \\  8ps  oft  gemanod  and  bearle  geswenct  for  ^aere  Iccne. 


ST.  BENEDICT.  ABBOT.  177 

after  his  kindred  than  after  God's  part,  and  ran  without 
blessing  from  the  niynster  to  his  parents,  and  as  sooji  as  he 
came  to  them,  on  the  same  day,  he  departed  from  this  present 
life.  When  he  was  buried  the  grave  might  not  hold  him,  byt 
his  body  was  found  on  the  morrow  ;ib()\e  the  grave.  His 
parents  buried  iiim  again,  and  lie  was  again  thrown  up,  and 
so  frequently.  The  parents  then  came,  and  with  groat  wail- 
ing sought  the  feet  of  the  h(dy  man,  imploring  his  grace. 
The  holy  Benedict  gave  them  God's  housel  with  his  own 
hand,  and  said,  "  Lay  this  holy  housel  upon  his  brciust,  and  so 
bury  him."  When  this  was  done  the  earth  held  the  body,  and 
did  not  cast  it  up  afterwards. 

Another  monk  was  unsteadfast  in  his  mynster,  and  with 
importunate  prayers  desired  that  he  might  go  from  the  mona- 
stery, but  the  holy  man  forbade  him,  and  strongly  with  words 
reproved  his  unsteadfastness.  At  last,  as  he  was  so  bent,  the 
holy  man  was  irritated  by  his  unsteadiness  and  bade  him  go 
away.  Thereupon  the  monk  went  out,  and  immediately 
found  a  dragon  standing  opposite  to  him,  \\\\h  gaping  njouth, 
that  he  might  swallow  him.  The  monk  then  sorely  trembling 
and  fearing,  cried,  "Run,  run,  for  this  dragon  u  ill  swallow 
me."  The  mynster-monks  ran  to  him,  and  yet  saw  not  any 
dragon,  for  it  was  the  invisible  devil  :  but  they  led  the  monk 
so  trembling  within  the  mynster.  He  then  immediately  pro- 
mised that  he  would  never  after  depart  from  the  mynster; 
and  he  also  ever  continued  in  that  promise.  Through  the 
prayers  of  Benedict  the  invisible  devil  appeared  to  him,  whom 
he  had  before  followed  without  seeing. 

Benedict  also  healed  a  boy  by  his  prayers  with  groat 
|)romi)titudc  from  the  greatest  of  diseases,  which  is  called 
elophantinus  morhus. 

Ati  indigent  man  had  to  pay  half  a  pound  to  a  nuui,  and 
was  often  applied  to  and  exceedingly  harassed  for  the  loan. 

IIOM.  VOL.  II,  N 


178  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

Da  bfed  he  ^onc  halgan  wer  J^ses  feos,  and  Bcncdictus  his 
hafeuleaste  mid  geswaesum  wordum  gefrcfrode,  cvvaeS  ]net 
he  naefde  ]>i&t  feoli  him  to  alaenenne,  ac  het  htne  cuman  bin- 
non  ^rim  dagum  eft  to  him.  He  ^a  soSlice,  swa  his  gewuna 
waes,  gebysgode  hine  sylfne  on  his  gebedum  on  callum  JSam 
fyrste.  Se  hafenleasa  com  on  Sam  Sriddan  dwge,  and  efne 
"Sa  Avear^  gemet  j^aet  feoh  and  twcntig  pcnega  to-cacan  uppon 
anre  corn-hryccan.  Se  eadiga  Benedictus  Sa  het  him  syllan 
J^aet  healfe  pund,  paet  he  his  l<ene  forgulde,  and  forgeaf  him 
"Sa  twentig  penega  to  his  agenum  bricum. 

Sumum  men  wks  unlybba  geseald,  ac  hit  ne  mihte  hinc 
adydan,  ac  awcndc  his  hiw  to  wunderliccre  fagnysse,  swa  ]>a?t 
he  wearS  on  Ids  Hce  reoflium  menu  gclTc.  pa  bccom  lie  to 
■Sam  halgan  Benedicte,  and  swa  hraSe  swa  he  hine  gehrepode, 
swa  underfcng  he  his  hfclSe,  and  eal  seo  fagnys  aweg  gewat. 

An  subdiacon  b.-ed  |>one  halgan  wer  sumne  dael  eles  to  his 
bricnm,  forSan  <Se  hi  SicgaJ)  on  Sam  earde  ele  on  hcora  big- 
leofum,  swa  swa  we  doS  buteran.  pa  hiefde  se  halga  wer 
gedfcled  )?aes  mynstros  Sing  hafonleasum  mannum  for  Sam 
hungcr-gcarc  to  San  swiSe,  yxt  him  na^s  nan  ele  belffifcd  to 
his  gebroSra  bricum,  buton  on  anum  lytlan  gljesenan  faite. 
Da  het  he  his  horderc  l^iet  gh-psene  f^et  syllan  Sam  biddcndau 
subdiacone.  Se  hordere  cwaeS  him  to  andsware,  gif  he  Sone 
gehwaedan  dail  j^a^s  eles  Saui  biddendum  sealde,  j^aet  he  nan 
■Sing  nfefde  his  gebroSrum  to  syllenne.  Se  halga  wer  Sa 
M'earS  astyred  on  mode,  and  het  o-Serne  munuc  awurpan  ut 
]7aet  glaesene  fa;t  mid  ele  mid  ealle,  Sy-ltes  Se  hit  j^urh  unge- 
hyrsmnnysse  ]??er-inne  belife.  pawearp  se  broSor  ]>iet  glajs- 
ene  faet  ut  aet  Sam  eh-Syrle,  uppon  Sam  heardan  stane,  ac 
hit  ne  mihte  toberstan,  ne  Sone  ele  ageotan.  Da  het  Bene- 
dictus eft  ahebban  ]>8et  ele-faet,  and  syllan  Sam  subdiacone  ]>e 
his  aer  baed,  and  Searle  ^one  ungehyrsuman  hordere  Sreade, 
and  cneowode  siSSan  on  his  gebedum  mid  his  mynster-mu- 
necum.  pa  stod  Saer  an  aemtig  cyf  oferwrogen,  and  ongann 
to  flowenne  mid  ele,  swa  ]>aet  hi  brudon  of  Sone  claS,  and  se 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  179 

He  then  besought  the  holy  man  for  the  monej',  and  Benedict 
comforted  his  indigence  with  kind  words,  saying  that  he  had 
not  the  money  to  lend  him,  but  bade  him  come  to  him  again 
within  three  days.  But  he,  as  was  his  wont,  busied  himself 
in  prayers  during  all  that  time.  The  poor  man  came  on  the 
third  day,  and  behold,  there  was  found  the  money  with  twenty 
pennies  besides  upon  a  corn-rick.  The  blessed  Benedict  then 
commanded  the  half  pound  that  he  owed  for  his  loan  to  be 
given  to  him,  and  gave  him  the  twenty  pcmiies  for  his  own 
use. 

Poison  had  been  given  to  a  man,  but  it  was  unable  to 
destroy  him,  yet  turned  his  exterior  to  a  wonderful  eruption, 
so  that  in  his  body  he  became  like  a  leprous  man.  He  came 
to  the  holy  Benedict,  and  as  soon  as  he  touched  him  he  re- 
ceived his  health,  and  all  the  eruption  went  away. 

A  subdeacon  requested  of  the  holy  man  a  portion  of  oil  for 
his  use,  because  they  eat  oil  in  that  coujitry  with  their  food 
as  we  do  butter.  But  the  holy  man  had  di^tl•ibuted  the  pro- 
visions of  the  mynster  to  indigent  persons  in  the  year  of 
famine  so  bountifully,  that  there  was  no  oil  left  for  the  use 
of  the  brothers,  except  in  one  little  glass  vessel.  lie  then 
bade  his  steward  give  that  glass  vessel  to  the  recjuesting  sub- 
tleacon.  The  steward  said  in  answer,  that  if  he  gave  that  little 
portion  of  oil  to  the  api)licant,  he  would  have  nothing  to  give 
to  his  brothers.  The  holy  man  was  then  troubled  in  mind, 
and  bade  another  monk  throw  away  the  glass  vessel  with  the 
oil  both  together,  lest  it  should  through  disobedience  remain 
therein.  The  brother  then  threw  out  the  glass  vessel  at  the 
window,  upon  the  hard  stone,  but  it  would  not  break,  nor 
spill  the  oil.  Benedict  then  bade  the  oil-vessel  be  again  taken 
up,  and  given  to  the  subdeacon  who  had  before  asked  for  it, 
and  strongly  reproved  the  disobedient  steward,  and  knelt  after- 
wards in  prayer  with  his  mynster-monks.  There  stood  there 
then  an  empty  cask  covered  over,  and  it  began  to  flow  with 
oil,  so  that  they  drew  off  the  cloth,  and  the  oil  flowed  o^•er 

N  2 


180  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

ele  fleow  ofer  inn  to  ^aere  flore.  Benedictus  "t5a  aras  of  his 
gebedum,  and  se  ele  gcswac  Saere  fledingc. 

Sume  daege  eode  se  halga  wer  to  cyrcan  and  gemette  ])one 
deofol,  and  bcfran  hvvider  he  wolde.  Se  deofol  cwaeS,  j^aet  he 
wolde  beran  drincan  his  gebroSrum.  Se  halga  wer  Sa  hine 
ardlice  gebaed,  and  gecyrde  ongean,  and  efne  "Sa  se  awyrigeda 
gast  gemette  aenne  ealdne  munuc  waetcr  hladende,  and  ge- 
M'earp  ^one  niunuc  to  eorSan,  and  hine  mid  wodnysse  j^earlc 
drehte.  Se  eadiga  Benedictus  J)a  sloh  Sone  muimc  under  ])iet 
vvencge  mid  anre  handa,  and  se  fula  deofol  jj.-errihte  him  fram 
gcwiit,  and  naefre  siSSan  him  gcncahecan  ne  dorste. 

Sum  gedwolman,  Thcsalla  hatto,  ehte  cristenra  manna  on 
^am  timan  mid  ornuetre  reSnysse,  swa  ]het  gif  ;enig  proost- 
hades  mann,  oiSbe  nnnmchades  him  gencahehte,  no  mihtc  his 
handum  cucu  jetwindan.  lie  Sa  fet  sumon  sa>le  gehehte 
ffinne  cristeiinc  mamian,  and  hine  mid  mislicum  tiiitrogum 
cwylmde,  and  Surh  gytsimge  ontendnysse  mid  JSam  tintregum 
wolde  his  .'el\ta  aet  him  ofgan.  Se  cristena  man  Sa  cwa^JS,  ]m^t 
he  htpfde  his  ?iing  and  hine  sylfne  bet;eiit  ))am  halgan  were 
Bencdictc.  Se  wjelhreovva  chtere  Tlicsalla  )'a  geswiic  ^jera 
tintrcgena,  and  geband  hine  mid  strangum  bcndum,  and  draf 
liine  {etforan  him  ridcndum,  j^aet  he  him  geswutelode  hw<et  se 
Benedictus  wa-re,  "JSe  iiis  tiing  underfangen  haefde.  Hi  hi\ 
becomon  to  cSaes  mj'nstres  geate  |?;es  halgan  wores,  and  hine 
gemetton  jet  his  nedinge  sittan.  pa  cw^eS  se  waclhreowa 
Thesalla  mid  micelre  reSnysse  to  ^am  halgan  were,  "  ArTs, 
aris,  and  agif  ^ises  ceorles  yddysce."  Da  heseah  se  halga 
wer  wi^  his  clypunge,  and  beheold  "Sone  gebundenan  mann, 
and  his  bendas  sona  wurdon  alysede  mid  unasecgendlicere 
hraednysse.  Ilwaet  'Sa  Thesalla  "Surh  "Sas  micclan  mihtc 
AvearS  afyrht,  and  his  waelhreowan  hneccan  to  ScPs  halgan 
weres  fotswaSum  gebigde,  biddende  his  miitsnnge  and  iSing- 
raedene.  Benedictus  swa-^eah  nateshwon  fram  his  raedinge 
ne  aras,  ac  het  his  gebroSru  hine  to  cyrcan  laedan,  and  blet- 
sunge  syllan.     Se  eadiga  Benedictus  Sa  aefter  "Saere  bletsunge 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  181 

on  to  the  floor.  Benedict  then  arose  from  his  prayers,  and 
the  oil  ceased  from  flowint^. 

One  day  the  holy  man  was  going  to  church  and  met  the 
devil,  and  inquired  whither  he  was  going.  The  devil  said 
that  he  would  bear  drink  to  his  brothers.  The  holy  man  then 
(juickly  prayed  and  turned  back,  and  just  then  the  accursed 
spirit  met  an  old  monk  drawing  water,  and  threw  the  monk 
on  the  earth,  and  grievously  afflicted  him  with  madness.  But 
the  blessed  Benedict  struck  the  monk  under  the  cheek-bone 
M  ith  one  hand,  and  the  foul  devil  straightways  departed  from 
him,  and  never  afterwards  durst  approach  him. 

A  heretic  named  Zalla  persecuted  christian  men  at  that 
time  with  excessive  fierceness,  so  that  if  any  man  of  priest's 
degree  or  of  monk's  degree  approached  him,  he  might  not 
escape  alive  from  his  hands.  He  at  one  time  seized  a  christian 
man,  and  tortured  him  with  divers  torments,  and  through  the 
burning  of  covetousness  \\  ould  by  those  torments  extort  from 
him  his  possessions.  The  christian  man  then  said,  that  he 
had  conuuitted  his  property  and  himself  to  the  holy  maji 
Benedict.  The  bloodthirsty  persecutor  Zalla  then  aban- 
doned the  torments,  and  bound  him  with  strong  bonds,  and 
riding  drove  him  before  him,  that  he  might  show  him  who 
Benedict  was,  who  had  received  his  property.  They  came  to 
the  gate  of  the  holy  man's  mynster,  and  found  him  sitting  at 
his  reading.  Then  said  the  bloodthirsty  Zalla  with  great 
fierceness  to  the  holy  man,  "  Arise,  arise,  and  give  up  this 
churl's  property."  The  holy  man  looked  up  on  his  calling, 
and  beheld  the  bound  man,  and  his  bonds  were  instantly 
loosed  with  unspeakable  quickness.  Zalla  was  then  af- 
frighted through  the  great  miracle,  and  bowed  his  blood- 
tiiirsty  neck  to  the  footsteps  of  the  holy  man,  imploring  his 
mercy  and  intercession.  Benedict,  however,  arose  not  from 
his  reading,  but  desired  his  brothers  to  lead  him  to  the 
church,  and  give  him  blessing.     The  blessed  Benedict  then. 


182  S.  BENEDICTl  ABBATIS. 

niiinode  j^one  reSan  chtere  pxt  he  "Seere  wodlican  reJSnysse 
geswice,  and  he  ^a  j^earle  ablicged  avveg  tengdc,  and  tpt  "Sam 
cristenan  menn  nan  Sing  habban  ne  dorste,  ^one  Se  se  eadiga 
Bencdictus  na  handhnige  ac  on-beseonde  fram  his  bendum 
alysde. 

An  geleafful  yr'Sling  baer  his  deadan  suna  lie  to  Bcnodictcs 
mynstre,  and  mid  drcorigum  wope  lirynule  to  bam  halgan 
were,  "  Agif  me  minne  sumi,  agif  me  mii)nc  sunu."  Se  halga 
wer  andwyrde,  "  Hwaet  la,  setbraed  ic  ^e  j^inne  sunu?"  Se 
yrJSling  andwyrde,  "  La  leof,  he  is  dead  :  gang  to  and  aner 
hine."  Se  eadiga  wer  cw?e5  to  his  gebroSrum,  "  GaS  aweg ; 
nis  Sis  na  ure  d;ed,  ac  is  ^aera  halgena  apostola."  pa  Surh- 
wunode  se  ceorl  on  his  bene,  swerigende  Jjfet  he  aweg  ne 
cyrde,  buton  se  halga  his  sunn  ara-rdc.  Hwjet  5a,  Benedie- 
tus  code  to  bais  cnapan  lice,  and  5aer  on-uppon  gelieg,  and 
aras,  and  his  handbrcdu  astrehte  witS  heofenas  weard,  )Jus 
cwe^ende,  "  Miu  Urihten,  ne  beheald  J>u  mine  synna,  ac  ge- 
leafan  Sises  mannes,  se  JSe  bitt  ara^ran  his  sunu  :  and  agif  nu, 
Drihten,  Sa  sawle  "Se  ^u  name  into  Sisum  lichaman."  Sona 
5a  tefter  Sisum  gebede  ge-edcucode  se  deada  cnapa,  and  se 
halga  wer  hine  betiiehte  ansundne  his  feeder. 

Se  halga  wer  hfefde  ane  cawfjeste  swustor,  Scolastica  ge- 
haten,  seo  waes  fram  cildhade  Gode  gehalgod,  on  nifegShade 
him  Seowigende,  on  gehendnysse  his  mynstres  wunigende  j 
]ja  geneosode  se  halga  wer  symle  aene  ymbe  geares  ymbrene. 
pa  gecom  he  sume  diege  to  hyre  cytan  fefter  gewunan  mid 
sumum  his  gebroSrum,  and  hi  ealne  ^one  dfeg  on  Godes  he- 
rungum  and  halgum  spreecum  adrugon.  Efne  5a  on  aefnunge, 
5a5a  In  a?t  gereorde  sieton,  cwai5  ]?aet  halige  nifeden  to  hire 
arwurSfullan  breSer, "  Ic  bidde  Se,  broSer  min,  ne  forlaet  5u 
me  on  ]nssere  nihte,  j^aet  wit  magon  smeagan  ymbe  gefean 
])aes  heofenlican  lifes  o5  merigen."  Da  andwyrde  se  arwur^a 
bro5or,  "  Hwaet  cweSst  |)u,  sweoster?  Ne  mseg  ic  nateshwon 
buton  mynstre  nihtes  wunian."  And  wees  Sa  swa  stille 
Avedfr,  ]>cet  nan  wolcn  luei;  on  5a? re  lyfte  gesewen.     Ilwcjet 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  183 

after  the  blessing,  exhorted  the  fierce  persecutor  to  cease 
from  his  frantic  fierceness,  and  he  then  exceedingly  appalled 
hastened  away,  and  durst  not  have  anything  from  the  christian 
man,  whom  the  blessed  Benedict,  not  by  power  of  hands  but 
by  looking  on  him,  had  released  from  his  bonds. 

A  believing  husbandman  bare  the  corpse  of  his  dead  son  to 
Benedict's  mynster,  and  with  sad  weeping  cried  to  the  holy 
man,  "Give  me  back  my  son,  give  me  back  my  son."  The 
holy  man  answered,  "What,  have  I  taken  away  thy  son  ?" 
The  husbandman  answered,  "  O  sir,  he  is  dead  :  go  and  raise 
him."  The  blessed  man  said  to  his  brotiiers,  "Goaway ;  this 
is  not  our  act,  but  is  of  the  holy  apostles."  But  the  churl 
persisted  in  his  prayer,  swearing  that  he  would  nut  go  away, 
unless  the  saint  raised  up  his  son.  Whereupon  Benedict 
went  to  the  boy's  body,  and  lay  thereon,  and  arose,  and 
stretched  out  his  palms  towards  heaven,  thus  saying,  "My 
Lord,  behold  thou  not  my  sins,  but  the  belief  of  this  man, 
who  prays  that  his  son  may  be  raised  up  :  and  restore  now, 
O  Lord,  the  s<ml  which  thou  hast  taken  into  this  body." 
Innncdiatciy  after  this  prayer  the  dead  boy  recpiickened,  and 
llic  holy  man  delivered  him  sound  to  his  father. 

The  holy  man  had  a  pious  sister,  named  Scholastica,  who 
had  from  childhood  been  hallowed  to  God,  serving  him 
in  ^i^ginity,  dwelling  in  the  neighbourhood  of  his  mynster, 
whom  the  holy  man  constantly  visited  once  in  the  course  of 
the  year.  He  came  one  day  to  her  cottage,  acconling  to  his 
wont,  with  some  of  his  brothers,  and  they  passed  the  whole 
day  in  God's  praises  and  in  holy  speeches.  Lo,  in  the  even- 
ing, when  they  were  sitting  at  their  refection,  the  holy  maiden 
said  to  her  venerable  brother,  "  I  pray  thee,  my  brother,  leave 
me  not  this  night,  that  we  may  discourse  concerning  the  joy 
of  the  heavenly  life  until  morn."  Then  answered  the  reverend 
brother,  "  What  sayest  thou,  sister  ?  I  may  not  continue  out 
of  the  mynster  at  night."  And  it  was  then  such  still  weather, 
that  there  was  no  cloud    seen   in  the  air.     Whereupon  the 


184  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

iSa,  seo  mynecyiiu,  Saba  heo  his  andsaec  gehyrde,  beclypte 
hire  neb  mid  handuni,  and  ahylde  hire  heafod  to  JSierc  tuysan, 
biddende  j^one  vEhiiihtigan  DrihtcMi.     pa  inid  JSam   Se  heo 
hire  heafod  of  Stere  mysaii  ahcfde,  Sa  absrst  swa  micel  LJunor 
and  liget,  and  swilc  storm  ySigcnde  feoU,  swa  j^aet  se  halga 
wer  and  his  gebroSra   ne  miiiton,  for  "5am   ormfetan   gyte, 
heora  fet  of  Stjere  cytan  astyrian.     Da  c\v;e5  se  halga  wer  to 
his  sweoster,  "  Arie  "Se  se  ^Ehiiihtiga  God,  sweostcr  :  hwa^t 
li«fst  ])u  gedon  ?"     Heo  aiidwyrde,  "  Efne  ic  baed  |)e,  and  ])u 
me  noldest  tiiSian;   5a  b;ed  ic  minne  Drihtcn,  and  he  me  ge- 
hyrde.     Gang  nu  to  mynstre,  gif  Su  mage,  and  me  ana  for- 
Ic'et."     He  "Sa  ne  mihte  baton   5am  hrofe  acumaii,  ac  "Sfer 
vvunodc  J)a  nilit  unuilles,  se5e  sylfwillcs  nolde.    And  hi  ealle 
5a  niht  mid  halgum  spr;ecum  ])xs  gastlican  ITfcs  '5urhwacole 
aspendon.     Eft  si55an  ymbe  5ry  d;igas  stod  sc  halga  wer  on 
his  gehedum,  and  bescali  ut,  and  gcseah  5icre  ylcan  myne- 
cene  his  sweoster  sawle  lanlan  to  hcofenan,  on  anre  culfran 
hiwe.     He    "5a   hire  wuldres  blissigende,   "5am   yEhnihtigan 
Gode  l^ancode,  and  hire  for5si5  his  gebro5runi  cy5dc,  and 
sende  hi  '5aerrilito,  j^a^t  hi  hire  lie  to  mynstre  feredon,  and  on 
his  agenre  byrgene,  J)aer  he  sylf  licgan  wolde,  mid  arwur5- 
nysse  bebyrigdon  ;  ])iet  heora  lichaman  on  anre  byrgene  ht 
gereston,  swa  swa  heora  mod  on  annysse  symle  Gode  5eow- 
ode. 

Eft  on  o'5rum  timan,  stod  se  halga  wer  on  his  gebcdum  up- 
pon  anre  upflora,  pier  his  bedd  inne  waes  :  |?a  gestod  he  ist 
anum  eh-"5yrle  o5  for"5  nibtes,  |>one  ^'Elmihtigan  God  bid- 
dende; ]>a.  faerlice  asprang  micel  leoht  bcorhtre  "Sonne  a^nig 
d}€g,  swa  \>set  se  halga  wer  oferseah  ealne  middaneard,  and 
ofseah  betwux  5am  micclum  Icoman  laedan  mid  engla  werode 
anes  biscopes  sawle  to  heofenum ;  his  nama  waes  Germanus. 
Da  wolde  se  halga  habban  him  gewitan  ]7fere  wunderlican 
gesihSe,  and  ofclypode  his  diacon  him  hraedlice  to,  and  he 
geseah  sumne  dael  j^ses  leohtes.  pa  sonde  se  halga  wer  swyft- 
ne  ferendracan  to  j^aes  biscopes  ceastre,  j'cet  he  sccolde  ge- 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  185 

mynchen,  when  she  hoard  his  rcfusiil,  covered  her  face  with 
her  hands,  and  inclined  her  head  to  the  table,  praying  to  the 
Ainiighty  Lord.  Then  when  she  raised  her  head  from  the 
table  there  bin^^t  forth  so  much  thinuler  and  lightning,  and 
such  a  storm  fell  in  torrents,  that  the  holy  man  and  his 
brothers  could  not,  on  account  of  the  excessively  great  in- 
midatioii,  move  their  feet  from  the  cottage.  Then  said  the 
holy  man  to  his  sister,  "  May  the  Almighty  God  have  mercy 
on  thee,  sister  :  what  hast  thou  done  ?  "  She  answered,  "  Lo, 
I  prayed  thee,  ami  thou  x^ouldst  not  comply  ;  I  then  prayed 
my  Lord,  and  he  has  heard  me.  Go  now  to  the  myuster,  if 
thou  canst,  and  leave  n)e  alone."  He  could  not  then  go  from 
under  tiie  roof,  but  luiwillingly  remained  there  the  night, 
who  of  his  own  will  would  not  remain.  And  all  the  night 
they  spent  thoroughly  awake  in  holy  discourses  of  the  ghostly 
life.  Three  days  aftir,  the  holy  num  was  stimding  at  his 
prayers,  and  looked  out,  and  saw  the  soul  of  the  same  myn- 
chen, his  sister,  led  to  heaven  in  form  of  a  dove.  He  then 
rejoicing  in  her  glory,  thanked  the  Almighty  God,  and  an- 
nounced her  departure  to  his  brothers,  and  straightways 
sent  them  to  bear  her  corj)se  to  the  mynster,  and  to  bury 
it  honourably  in  his  own  se])ulchre,  where  he  desired  to  lie 
himself;  that  their  bodies  might  rest  in  one  grave,  as  their 
minds  had  in  unison  ever  served  God. 

Again,  another  time,  the  holy  man  was  standing  at  his 
prayers  on  an  upper  story,  w  herein  his  bed  was  :  there  stood 
he  at  a  window  till  far  in  the  night,  praying  to  Almighty 
God  ;  when  suddeidy  there  sprang  up  a  great  light  brighter 
than  any  day,  so  that  the  holy  man  saw  over  all  the  world, 
and  perceived  among  the  great  beams  of  light  the  soul  of  a 
bishop  led  by  a  host  of  angels  to  heaven  ;  his  name  was  Ger- 
manus.  Then  would  the  saint  have  witnesses  of  that  won- 
derful sight,  and  called  his  deacon  quickly  to  him,  and  he 
saw  a  part  of  the  light.  The  holy  man  then  sent  a  swift 
messenger  to  the  bishop's  city,  that  he  might  learn  wliether 


188  S.  BENEDICTI  ABBATIS. 

axian  lnva;^er  he  lifes  waere.  Se  serendraca  "Sa  hiue  gemette 
deadne,  and  smealice  ymbe  his  forSsiS  befran,  and  geaxode 
'5a,  |?ast  he  on  ^aere  tide  gewat  "Se  se  halga  Benedictus  his 
sawle  to  heofenan  ferian  geseah. 

Wunderlic  gesihS,  ])iet  an  deadlic  man  niihte  eahie  niid- 
daneard  oferseon  ;  |>cah  gif  se  man  gesihS  Godcs  Icoht,  |jonne 
biS  J^ffit  gesceaft  swiSe  nearu  geSuht,  and  ISies  mannes  sawl 
bi^  on  Gode  mid  |7am  Icohte  tospried,  sua  ])iet  heo  ofcrstiht) 
middaneard,  and  eac  hi  sylfe.  Hwilc  wundor  waes,  '5eah  se 
halga  wer  eahie  middaneard  fetforan  him  gesawe,  "SaSa  he 
waes  ahafen  on  his  modes  leohte  ofer  middanearde  ?  Witod- 
lice  l^aet  leoht  ]>e  he  wiJSutan  geseah  Wivs  on  his  mode  sei- 
nende,  and  his  mod  to  Sam  upplican  abned,  and  him  {eteow- 
ode  hu  nearowe  ealle  Sa  niSerlican  gesceafta  him  waeron 
geSuhte,  |>urh  orma^tnysse  piEn  godcundhcan  leohtes. 

pes  eadiga  vver  Benedictus  awriit  muneea  regol  mid  mic- 
clum  gesceade,  mid  beorhtre  sprjece,  on  -Sam  nifeg  gehvva 
tocnawan  ealle  d;eda  his  lareowdomes ;  for^an  "Se  se  halga 
swa  leofode  svva  he  taehte.  Se  eadiga  wtes  blitie  on  andwlitan, 
mid  hwitum  h^erum,  ffegere  gehiwod,  and  mid  micelre  lufe 
on  mode  afylled,  swa  )>a^t  he  on  heofonlicum  eSle  eardigende 
waes,  peah  5e  he  on  eorSan  5a-gyt  wunode.  pses  geares  ^e 
he  gewat  he  cybde  his  forJSsib  on  ier  sumuni  his  leorning- 
cnihtum  mid  him  drohtnigendum  and  sumum  oSrum  on  fyr- 
lenum  stowum  wunigendum.  Seofon  nihtuni  fier  he  gewite, 
he  het  his  byrgene  geopenian,  and  he  ^aerrihte  mid  swiSli- 
cmn  fefore  geond  ^a  seofon  niht  ];earle  gedreht  wearS.  On 
"Sara  sixtan  daege  his  legeres  he  het  hine  beran  into  cyrcan, 
and  paer  hine  gehuslian.  He  ^a  astod  betwux  his  gebro^ra 
handmn,  astrehtum  handuni  wib  heofonas  Aveard,  and  betwux 
his  gebedum  his  gast  ut-ableow.  On  Sam  ylcan  daege  wear^ 
aeteowod  his  twam  leorning-cnihtum  an  weg  fram  ^am  huse 
]>e  he  on  gewat,  on  ^ani  east-daele,  astreht  oS  heofonan.  Se 
weg  waes  mid  paellum  gebricgod,  and  mid  ungerimum  leoht- 
fatum  scTncnde.     Daer  on  uppon  stod  sum  arwurSe  wer  mid 


ST.  BENEDICT,  ABBOT.  187 

he  were  alive.  The  messenger  found  him  dead,  and  accu- 
rately inquired  concerning  his  decease,  and  learned  tliat  he 
departed  at  the  time  that  the  holy  Benedict  saw  his  soul 
borne  to  heaven. 

A  wonderful  sight,  that  a  mortal  man  could  see  over  all 
the  world  ;  though  if  a  man  see  God's  light,  then  will  the 
creation  appear  very  narrow,  and  the  man's  soul  will  be  in 
God  expanded  with  that  light,  so  that  it  will  rise  above  the 
world  and  itself  also.  What  wonder  was  it,  though  the  holy 
man  saw  all  the  world  before  him,  when  he  was  exalted  in 
his  mind's  li-^ht  above  the  world  ?  For  the  li^ht  which  he 
saw  without  was  shining  in  his  mind,  and  drew  up  his 
mind  to  heaven,  and  sliowed  him  how  narrow  all  sublunary 
creatures  would  appear  to  him  through  the  immensity  of  the 
divine  light. 

This  blessed  man  Benedict  wrote  the  rule  of  monks  with 
great  judgement,  in  hrilliant  language,  in  which  every  one 
may  know  all  the  acts  of  his  tcachership  ;  for  the  saint  so 
lived  as  he  taught.  The  blessed  man  was  cheerful  in  aspect, 
Avith  white  hair,  beautifully  formed,  and  in  mind  filled  with 
great  love,  so  that  he  was  dwelling  in  the  heavenly  country, 
although  he  still  continued  on  earth.  The  year  that  he  de- 
parted he  announced  his  decease  beforehand  to  some  of  his 
disciples  living  with  him,  and  to  some  others  dwelling  in 
distant  places.  Seven  days  liefore  he  departed  he  ordered  his 
grave  to  be  opened,  and  he  straightways  was  greatly  afllicted 
with  a  violent  fever  throughout  those  seven  days.  On  the 
sixth  day  of  his  illness  he  commanded  them  to  bear  him  into 
the  church,  and  there  to  housel  him.  He  then  stood  between 
tne  hands  of  his  brothers,  with  hands  outstretched  towards 
heaven,  and  between  his  prayers  breathed  out  his  spirit.  On 
the  same  day  appeared  to  two  of  his  disciples  a  way  from  the 
house  in  which  he  departed,  on  the  east  part,  extended  to 
heaven.  The  way  was  laid  with  palls,  and  shining  with 
numberless  lamps.     Thereupon  stood  a  venerable  man  with 


188  DOMINICA  L\  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

beorhtum  gyrluin,  axigcnde  hvvaes  se  wcg  wtere  ]>e  In  bcheold- 
on  ?  Hi"  cwaedon  Jjaet  hi  nyston.  pa  cwae^  se  engel  him  to, 
"  Dis  is  se  weg  ^e  Godes  dyrling,  Benedictus,  to  heofenum 
on-astah." 

His  halga  lichama  wearS  ^a  bebyriged  to  his  sweostcr 
lice  Scohisticai),  swa  swa  he  sylf  bcbcad,  binnou  lohaniies 
cyrcan  j^ses  halgan  FuUuhteres,  on  ^am  niunte  Casino  ;  ac  he 
waes  siSSan  a-fter  nianegum  gcarum  geferod  to  Franccna  rice, 
to  ]?am  mynstre  ^e  we  hataS  Florege,  on  ^jere  stowc  his  ban 
resta^  on  micclum  vvui"Smynte  and  on  wundnnn  scinendc, 
and  his  sawl  symle  gcswlig  rixa'5  mid  Gode  on  heofenum 
for  godum  geearnungum.  paet  scnef  Se  he  terest  on  droht- 
Tiigende  wies,  gyt  oS  ISis  on  wundrum  sctnendc  JSurhwunaS. 
Witodlice  sum  gcmyndloas  wif  ferde  worigende  geond  wudas 
and  feldas,  and  iSa?r  gcheg  ]>isr  hi  seo  teorung  gelette.  Da 
beeode  hco  sume  da^ge  |nirh  nytcnnysse  into  Sam  scrfefe  J?{es 
eadigan  Benedictes,  and  ]';er  hi  gercste,  and  aras  "S/es  on 
merigen  swa  geuittig  swik'c  heo  njpfre  on  nanre  wodnysse 
naere,  and  swa  siSSan  symle  'Surhwunode.  Ilwa  m.neg  on 
worulde  ealle  Sa  wundra  gereccan  5e  se  yElmihtiga  Scyp- 
pend,  "Surh  tSisne  ieSelan  wer,  middanearde  gcswutelode  ? 
Sy  him  wuldor  and  lof  a  on  ecnysse,  mid  eallum  his  halgum, 
scSe  ana  is  unasecgendlic  God.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

MEN  "Sa  Icofostan,  we  reedaS  nu  ait  Godes  iSeimngum  ymbe 
gesetnysse  ]>a&re  ealdan  is :  nu  wylle  we  eow  sume  geswute- 
lunge  be  ^aere  Gecj' Snysse  sceortlice  secgan,  ]?aet  ge  eallunge 
J^aes  andgites  orhlyte  ne  syn  ;  for^an  Se  ure  msS  nys  J^aet 
we  eow  be  fullum  andgite  hi  geopenian  magon,  ne  ge  eac 
nateshwon  hire  deopan  digelnyssefulfremedlice  understandan 
ne  magon. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  189 

bright  garments,  asking  what  way  it  was  that  they  beheld  ? 
They  said  that  they  knew  not.  Tlien  said  the  angel  to  them, 
"This  is  the  way  on  which  God's  darling,  Benedict,  ascended 
to  heaven." 

His  holy  body  was  then  buried  by  the  corpse  of  his  sister 
Scholastica,  as  he  had  himself  commanded,  within  the  church 
of  John  the  holy  Baptist,  on  the  mount  Cassino  ;  but  he  was 
nianv  years  after  conveyed  to  the  realm  of  the  Franks,  to  the 
mynster  which  we  call  Fleury,  in  which  place  his  bones  rest  in 
great  veneration,  and  shining  with  miracles,  and  his  soul  ever 
blessed  reigns  with  God  in  heaven  for  its  good  deserts.  The 
cave  in  which  he  first  lived  continues  until  now  shining  with 
miracles.  For  a  witless  woman  went  rambling  through  the 
woods  and  fields,  and  lay  there  where  exhaustion  had  stopt 
her.  She  then  in  ii^norance  went  one  day  into  the  cave  of 
the  blessed  Benedict,  and  there  rested,  and  arose  the  morn- 
ing after  as  sensible  as  if  she  had  never  been  iti  a  state  of 
madness,  and  so  contiimed  ever  afterwards.  Who  can  in  the 
world  relate  all  tiie  wonders  that  the  Ahnighty  Creator  hath 
manifested  to  the  earth  through  this  noble  man  ?  Be  to  him 
glory  and  praise  ever  to  eternity  with  all  his  saints,  who  alone 
is  unspeakable  God.      Amen. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY 


MOST  beloved  men,  we  now  read  at  God's  services  con- 
cerning the  institute  of  the  old  law  :  we  will  now  give  shortly 
some  illustration  of  the  Testament,  that  ye  may  not  be  wholly 
ignorant  of  its  sense  ;  for  it  is  not  within  our  capacity  to  ex- 
plain it  to  you  in  its  full  signification,  nor  also  can  ye  by  any 
means  perfectly  understand  its  deep  obscurity. 


190  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

pry  timan  sind  on  |)yssere  woruldc :  Ante  legem,  Sub  lege, 
Sub  gi\itiu  ;  |)8et  is,  aer  ee,  under  ie,  under  Godes  gife.  Se 
tima  is  "aer  se,"  gecweden,  ]>e  waes  fram  Adam  buton  ae  oS 
Moysen,  Sa  gesette  God  «  "Surh  Moysen ;  and  se  tima  waes 
gecweden  *' under  cie,"  oS  Cristes  to-cyme  on  menniscnysse, 
•Sa  awende  Crist  ^a  ealdan  jk  to  gastlicere  getacnunge.  Nu 
is  se  tima  fram  Cristes  Srowunge  gebaten  "  under  Godes 
gife,"  foreman  he  liis  gifu  gewissaS  ha  gecorenan  synde  to 
soSfaestnysse  and  to  lifes  bebodum,  ]>fpX  hi  ^a  Sing  gastlice 
gehealdon  15e  seo  ealde  le  lichamlice  bebead. 

Abraham  hatte  se  heahfaeder,  ISe  wrest  aefter  Sam  micclum 
flode  to  Gode  cy55e  hjefde  :  he  waes  Godes  gespreca,  and  his 
bebodum  j'earle  geliyrsuniode  :  )?a  forgeaf  se  yKbnibtiga  Gotl 
liim  and  liis  ofspringe  ))one  eard  to  biigienne  )?e  is  gehateii 
ludeahmd,  on  Sam  is  seo  burh  Hierusalein,  Sc  Crist  on  Srow- 
ode,  Seah  Se  hco  nu  on  oSre  wisan  getyinbrod  sy.  pa  cwaiS 
se  /Ehnihtiga  God  to  Abrahilme,  "  Wite  Su  J7;et  Sin  cynn 
sceal  a^lSeodig  wunian  on  oSrum  earde  feower  liund  geara, 
and  hi  hi  on  Seowte  gebringaS,  and  micchmi  swencaS.  SoS- 
lice  ic  detnc  Sam  folce,  and  Sin  m;egS  siSSan  mid  micclum 
aditum  of  Sam  lande  fterS,  and  on  iSam  feorSan  cneowe  hi 
gecyrra"S  hider  ongcan."  Abraham  siSSan  gestrynde  sunn 
Isaac,  and  se  Isaac  gestrynde  twegen,  lacob  and  Esau.  Se 
lacob  waes  Godes  gecoren,  and  gestrynde  twclf  suna,  ^a  sind 
gebatenc  twelf  heahfccderas. 

pa  becom  se  maesta  hunger  ofer  eallum  middanearde  scofon 
gear  tosomne,  buton  on  Egypta-lande,  on  "Sam  anum  waes 
corn,  swa  hit  gecweden  is,  "  Swa  fela  swa  biS  sand-ceosol 
on  S{«."  Da  ferde  se  lacob  mid  his  twelf  sunum  and  his 
suna  sunum,  ealles  hund-seofontig  manna,  to  Egypta-lande, 
]?aer  ^Saer  hi  bigleofan  fundon  ;  and  ]?per  eardodon  feower  bund 
geara,  swa  swa  se  ^Imihtiga  God  Abrahame  saede.  pa  aet 
nextan  aras  Pharao,  se  Egyptisca  cyning,  and  j^aet  Israhela 
folc  call  on  Seowte  gebrohte,  bet  hi  wyrcan  his  burhweallas. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  191 

There  are  three  times  in  this  world :  Ante  legem,  Sub  lege, 
Sub  gratia ;  that  is,  Before  the  law,  Under  the  law,  Under 
God's  grace.  The  time  is  called  "  before  the  law,"  which 
was  from  Adam  without  law  till  Moses,  when  God  esta- 
blished the  law  through  Moses  ;  and  the  time  was  called 
"under  the  law  "  till  the  advent  of  Christ  in  humanity,  M'hen 
Christ  changed  the  old  law  to  a  ghostly  signification.  Now 
the  time  from  Christ's  passion  is  called  "under  God's  grace," 
because  his  grace  always  directs  the  chosen  to  truth  and  to 
the  commandments  of  life,  that  they  may  spiritually  hold 
those  things  wiiich  the  old  law  enjoined  bodily. 

Abraham  the  patriarch  was  named,  who  first  after  the  great 
flood  had  personal  knowledge  of  God  :  he  spake  with  God, 
and  fervently  obeyed  his  commandments  :  tlicn  the  Almighty 
God  gave  to  him  and  his  offspring  the  land  to  inhabit  which 
is  called  Judca  land,  in  which  is  the  city  of  Jerusalem,  in 
which  Christ  suffered,  though  it  is  now  built  in  anotiier  man- 
ner. Then  said  the  Almighty  God  to  Abraham,  "  Know  thou 
that  thy  kin  shall  be  a  stranger  in  another  country  four  hun- 
dred years,  and  they  shall  bring  them  into  thraldom  and 
greatly  afflict  them.  But  I  will  judge  that  people,  and  thy 
race  shall  afterwards  go  with  great  possessions  from  the  land, 
and  in  the  fourth  generation  they  shall  return  hither  again." 
Abraham  afterwards  begat  a  son,  Isaac,  and  Isaac  begat  two, 
Jacob  and  Esau.  Jacob  was  God's  chosen,  and  begat  twelve 
3ons,  who  are  called  twelve  patriarchs. 

Then  came  the  greatest  of  famines  over  all  the  earth,  for 
seven  years  together,  except  in  the  land  of  Kgypt,  in  which 
alone  there  was  corn,  as  it  is  said,  "As  much  as  is  the  sand 
in  the  sea."  Jacob,  therefore,  went  with  his  twelve  sons  and 
his  sons'  sons,  altogether  seventy  men,  to  the  land  of  Egypt, 
where  they  found  sustenance  ;  and  there  dwelt  four  iunidred 
years,  as  the  Almigiity  God  had  said  to  Abraham.  Then  at 
last  Pharaoh,  the  Egyptian  king,  arose,  and  brought  all  the 
people  of  Israel  into  thraldom,  commanded  them  to  make  his 


192  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

and  hi  bysmorlicc  geswcncte,  and  het  acwellan  abIc  hys  cild 
of  "Sam    cynne.      Betwux    Sisum    asprang  Moyses    and  his 
bro(Ser  Aaron  of  ^aere  ylcan  niaeg^e.     To  ^am  Moyse  spraec 
se  iEhnihtiga  God  J'isum  worduni,  ''Ic  geseah  mines  folces 
geswinc    on    Egypta-landc,   and    heora    hreani   ic    gchyrde, 
and  ic  niSer-astah  Jjset  ic  hi  ahrcdde  of  Egyptiscra  manna 
handuni,  and  ic  hi  gelfede  of  "Sam  cardo  to  gfldan  lande  and 
briidnm,  J>»t  '5e  flcowiS  mid  mcolce  and  mid  liunigo."     God 
cwfE(S  |?a  to  Moysen,  "  Far  to  i5am  cyninge  Pharao,  and  beod 
him  j^ffit  he  min  folc  forhete  (»f  his  leode  faran."     Moyses  5a 
and  his  broSor  Aaron  fcrdon  to  Pharao  mid  ajrende  jnes  yEl- 
mihtigan  Godes,  and  c\v;edon,  "  pus  c\vy5  Drihtcii  Israluda 
God,  Forhet  min  folc  \>xt  hit  me  lac  offrige  on  wcstenc,  swa 
ic   him   gcwistjige."     Pharao  him   andwyrdc,   "  Ilwait  is  se 
Drihten  |)aet  ic  his  stemne  gchyran  sceolc,  and  Israhel  for- 
I.ptan?     Niit 'c  tSone  Drihten,  and  ic  Israhel  nc  forla^te."    Da 
sende  se^lmihtiga  tyn  cynna  wita  ofer  Sam  5\vyran  cyninge 
and  ofer  his   leode,   jerSan   "Se  he  pffit  folc  forla'tan  wolde. 
Moyses,  biirh  Godes  mihte,  awende  eal  heora  wjeter  to  read- 
urn  blode,  and  he  afylde  eal  heora  land   mid  froggon,  and 
siiSSan  mid  gn;ettum,  eft  mid  hundes  lusum,  Sa  flugon  into 
heora  mu5e  and  heora  nresSyrlum;  and  se  /Elmihtiga  Sone 
inudigan    cyning    mid   |>am   eaJSelicnm  gesceaftnm    swa  ge- 
swencte,  se'Se  mihte  bine   mid  wildum  beruiu   and    Iconum 
gewyldan,  gif  he  swa  wolde  :  and  nan   byssera  geswenced- 
nyssa  ne  becom  on  "Sam  ende  j^tes  eardes  Se  paet  Godes  folc 
on  eardode. 

paet  fifte  wite  waes  cwealm  on  heora  orfe,  swa  |;aet  on  ^am 
lande  fornean  nan  orf  ne  belaf,  buton  Israheles  ];e  ansund 
gestod.  peet  sixte  wite  wies,  piet  mislice  geswel  and  bhedran 
asprungon  on  heora  lichaman  on  eallum  his  folce.  paet  seo- 
fo^e  wite  wees,  ^set  swa  micel  ^unor  and  hagol  becom  on 
•5am  leodscipe,  paet  aelc  ^ing  wjes  adyd  |?fet  ute  wearS  gemet, 
and  {file  treow  on  "Sam  earde  tobaerst.  pset  eahto^e  wite  waes, 
j^aet  gserstapan  ofereodon   eall   ]'wt  land  swilce   swa   nfefre 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  193 

burgh  walls,  and  contumeliously  afflicted  them,  and  com- 
manded every  male  child  of  that  race  to  be  slain.  At  this  time 
Moses  and  his  brother  Aaron  sprun<;  up  of  the  same  tribe. 
To  Moses  the  Almighty  God  spake  in  these  words,  "  I  have 
seen  the  affliction  of  my  people  in  the  land  of  Egypt,  and  I 
have  heard  their  cry,  and  I  have  descended,  that  I  might 
deliver  them  from  the  Egyptian  men's  hands,  and  I  will  lead 
them  from  the  country  to  a  land  good  and  broad,  which 
floweth  with  milk  and  honey."  God  then  spake  to  Moses, 
"Go  to  the  king  Pharaoh,  and  command  him  to  let  my  folk 
depart  from  his  people."  Moses  and  his  brother  Aaron  then 
went  to  Pharaoh  with  the  message  of  the  Almighty  God,  and 
said,  "Thus  saith  the  Lord  God  of  Israel,  Let  my  folk  depart, 
that  they  may  offer  me  an  olTeriiig  in  the  wilderness,  as  I  shall 
direct  them."  Pharaoh  answered  him,  "  Who  is  the  Lord, 
that  I  should  hear  his  voice  and  let  Israel  depart  ?  I  know 
not  the  Lord,  and  I  will  not  let  Israel  depart."  Then  the 
Almighty  sent  ten  kinds  of  plague  or.  the  perverse  king  and 
on  his  peoj)le,  before  he  would  let  the  folk  depart.  Moses, 
through  the  power  of  God,  turned  all  their  water  to  red  blood, 
and  he  filled  all  their  land  with  frogs,  and  then  \\  ith  gnats, 
afterwards  with  dog-lice,  which  flew  into  their  mouths  and 
their  nostrils;  and  the  Almighty  thus  afflicted  the  proud  king 
with  the  small  creatures,  who  might  have  (juelled  him  with 
wild  bears  and  lions,  if  he  had  so  desired  :  and  none  of  these 
afflictions  came  into  the  end  of  the  country  in  which  the 
people  of  God  dwelt. 

The  fifth  plague  was  nuirrain  among  their  cattle,  so  that 
in  the  land  scarcely  any  cattle  remained,  save  that  of  the 
Israelites,  which  stood  sound.  The  sixth  plague  was,  that 
divers  boils  and  blisters  sprung  up  on  their  bodies  among  all 
his  people.  The  seventh  plague  was,  that  so  much  thunder 
and  hail  came  on  the  nation,  that  everything  that  was  found 
without  was  destroyed,  and  every  tree  in  the  country  was 
shivered.     The  eighth  plague  was,  that   locusts  passed  over 

HOM.  VOL.  II.  o 


194  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

ffirSan  naeron,  ne  eft  iicTRfre  ne  gewiirba^ ;  and  hi  forgnogon 
swa  hvvset  swa  se  hagol  belaefde,  oSbe  on  treowum  oS5e  on 
o^rum  waestmum.  piet  nigo^e  wite  waes,  ]>cRt  becoraon  Sicce 
^eostru  and  egeslice  ofer  eallum  Egypta-lande,  swa  j^iet  lieora 
nan  binnon  ^rini  dagura  oi5ernc  ne  geseah,  ne  hi  of  ^vere  stowe 
styrian  ne  mihton,  and  on  Israhela  JSeode  waeron  gewunelice 
dagas.  pfEt  teobe  vvite  waes,  |?aet  on  aelcuni  huse  ealre  ^aere 
^eode,  on  unre  nihte,  laeg  an  dead  mann,  and  }net  wjes  se 
frum-cenneda  and  se  leofosta  pam  lilaforde. 

pa  aet  nextan  forlet  Pharao  Israhela  folc  of  his  earde  siSian 
mid  niicchnn  fehtum,  and  God  gcsetteSone  foresiedan  Moysen 
his  folce  to  heretogan,  and  his  broSer  Aaron  to  sacerde  ;  and 
hi  laeddon  ))fet  folc  to  Ssere  Readan  s«e  mid  micclre  fyrdinge, 
\>ddt  wasron  six  hund  )nisenda  wigcndra  manna,  baton  wifmn 
and  cildinn.  Da  ofiSuhte  Pharao  j'tet  he  \}nit  folc  swa  freolice 
forlet,  and  tengde  a-ftcr  mid  callinn  his  here,  and  ofFerde  hi 
aet  (Saere  Readan  s;e,  pa  cw;et)  se  ^Imihtiga  to  Moysen, 
*'Astrece  <Sine  hand  ofer  Sa  s;p,  and  tod;el  hi."  And  Moyses 
^a  sloh  ]>a^re  sae  ofer  mid  his  gyrde,  and  seo  sje  toeode  on 
twa,  and  eal  ]>iet  Israhela  folc  eodc  ofer  "8a  s;e  be  drium 
grunde,  and  ]net  waeter  stod  him  on  twa  healfa  swilce  o^er 
stan-weall.  Pharao  JSa  him  filigde  ast  Sam  hon  mid  his  ge- 
beotlicum  crietum  and  gilplicum  ridduin.  pa  cwae^  se  JEl- 
mihtiga  God  to  Moysen,  "Astrece  Sine  hand  (;fer  Sa  sae,  j^jet 
past  waeter  gecyrre  to  bam  Egiptiscum,  ofer  heora  craetum 
and  riddum."  Moyses  ^a  astrehte  his  hand  ongean  "Saere  ste, 
and  heo  oferarn  Pharao,  and  ealle  his  craetu  and  riddan  mid 
ySum  oferwreah,  swa  J>aet  ^aer  naes  fur"5oii  an  to  lafe  ealles 
^aes  heres  ]7e  him  filigde.  Israhela  folc  soSlice  code  be  ^ani 
drium  grunde,  and  hi  sungon  Godes  lof  mid  geleafan,  Godes 
mihta  maersigende. 

-(Efter  Sisuni  him  com  bigleofa  of  heofenum,  swa  hwacr 
swa  hi  wicodon  geond  ]?aet  westen,  and  geliwilc  mann  })aes 
heofonlican  metes  swa  micel  gegadrode  swa  he  to  Sam  d;ege 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  195 

all  the  land,  so  a3  had  never  been  before,  nor  ever  again  will 
be ;  and  they  gnawed  up  whatsoever  the  hail  had  left,  either 
of  trees  or  of  other  productions.  The  ninth  plague  was,  that 
thick  and  awful  darkness  came  over  all  the  land  of  Egypt,  so 
that  for  three  days  no  one  saw  another,  nor  could  they  stir 
from  the  place,  and  among  the  people  of  Israel  were  ordinary 
days.  The  tenth  plague  was,  that  in  every  house  of  all  that 
people,  in  one  night,  lay  a  dead  man,  and  that  was  the  first- 
born, and  dearest  to  the  master. 

Tiicn  at  last  Pharaoh  let  the  people  of  Israel  journey  from 
his  country  with  great  riches,  and  God  set  the  aforesaid 
Moses  as  leader  of  his  people,  and  his  brother  Aaron  as 
priest;  and  they  led  the  people  to  the  Red  sea  with  a  great 
host,  they  were  six  hundred  thousand  fighting  men,  besides 
women  and  children.  Then  Pharaoh  repented  that  he  had  so 
freely  let  the  people  depart,  and  hastened  after  them  with  all 
his  army,  and  overtook  them  at  the  Red  sea.  Tlien  said  the 
Almighty  to  Moses,  "  Stretch  thine  hand  over  the  sea,  and 
divide  it."  And  Moses  then  struck  the'sea  over  with  his  rod, 
and  the  sea  separated  in  two,  and  all  the  people  of  Israel 
went  over  the  sea  on  dry  ground,  and  the  water  stood  on  the 
two  sides  of  them  as  another  stone  wall.  Piiaraoh  then  fol- 
lowed them  at  their  heels  with  his  threatening  chariots  and 
proud  horsemen.  Then  said  the  Almighty  God  to  Moses, 
'*  Stretch  thine  hand  over  the  sea,  that  the  water  may  return 
to  the  Egyptians,  over  their  chariots  and  horsemen."  Moses 
then  stretched  his  hand  towards  the  sea,  and  it  overwhelmed 
Pharaoh,  and  all  his  chariots  and  horsemen  covered  with  its 
waves,  so  that  there  w  as  not  even  one  left  of  all  the  army 
that  had  followed  him.  But  the  people  of  Israel  went  on  dry 
ground,  and  they  sung  the  praise  of  God  witli  belief,  mag- 
nifying God's  miracles. 

After  this,  food  came  to  them  from  heaven,  wheresoever 
they  encamped  throughout  the  wilderness,  and  every  man 
gathered  so  much  of  the  heavenly  meat  as  he   couhl  eat  in 

o  2 


196  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

geSicgan  mihte  ;  and  him  daeghwomlice  edniwc  of  licofenum 
com,  pa.  feowertig  geara  ^e  hi  on  Sam  westene  ferdon.  On 
"Sam  westene  naes  nan  ^a^ra  waetera  ]>e  him  to  bearfe  mihte 
for  ^aere  biternysse;  ac  God  het  Moyses  slean  mid  his  gyrde 
)?one  heardan  stan-chid,  and  of  bam  stane  am  ormjete  stream 
wffiteres  ealhmi  Sam  folce  and  heora  orfe  to  genihtsumnysse. 
Dam  folce  code  ;etforan  symle  Godes  wolcn  swilce  ormaite 
swer,  se  waes  fyren  ge^uht  on  nihthccrc  tide,  and  on  gcwune- 
lices  wolcnes  hiwe  on  d?ege  ;  and  hi  Sam  wok-nc  synde  filig- 
don  :  swa  hwfer  swa  hit  ffitstod,  pair  hi  wicodon,  and  eft,  swa 
hra^e  swa  ]?;pt  wolcn  styrode,  swa  siSode  samtingcs  eal  seo 
fyrd  {efter  Sam  wolcnc.  Binnon  feowertig  geara  fsece  njes 
nan  man  gelegerod  on  oalluni  Sam  folce,  nc  heora  rcaf  ntps 
tosigen,  ne  him  se  heofcnlica  mete  nc  ateorode,  oSl>cet  hi.  tt) 
"Sam  earde  becomon  ]>e  him  se  /Elmihtiga  God  ]>urh  hine 
sylfne  behet. 

God  cvvaiS  to  Moysen  ]'ipt  lie  wolde  cmnan,  and  hine 
a-tforan  Sam  folce  gcsprecan,  j'jet  hi"  Sy  leafFulran  wferon  ; 
and  het  in  beon  gearowe  on  Sam  Sriddan  d«ge.  Da  on  ^am 
fifteogoSan  diege^fes  Se  hi  fram  Egypta-lande  ferdon,  wearS 
Godes  wuldor  gesewen  on  Sam  westene  uppon  anum  munte 
se  is  gehatcn  Synay,  to  Sam  astab  se  iElmibtiga  Scyppend, 
and  efne  iSa  jjser  begann  to  brastligennc  micel  Simor,  and  Hget 
sceotan  on  Saes  folces  gesihSe,  and  byman  bleowan  mid  swiS- 
licum  dreame,  and  micel  wolcn  oferwreab  calne  Sone  munt. 
Betwux  Jnsum  dreame  clypode  se  ^Elmibtiga  Drihten  Moysen 
him  to,  and  cwaeS,  "  Astih  eft  adune,  and  bebcod  ^am  folce 
\>sdt  heora  nan  tiam  munte  ne  genealaece  :  swa  hwaet  swa  hine 
hrepa^,  oSSe  mann  oj^pe  nyten,  he  ne  leofaS  sona.  Astih 
nu  eft  up  to  me,  and  Aaron  samod."  Moyses  "Sa  Godes 
h;ese  gefylde,  and  eft  up  to  him  astah.  pa  awrat  seiElmiht- 
iga  God  him  twa  sttenene  wex-bredu  mid  his  agenum  fingre, 
on  ^am  waeron  awritene  tyn  word,  ]?aet  sind  tyn  aelice  beboda. 
paera  worda  wseron  ^reoon  anre  tabelan  awrilene,  and  seofon 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  197 

that  clay;  and  daily  there  came  new  to  him  from  heaven,  the 
forty  years  that  they  journeyed  in  the  wilderness.  In  the 
wilderness  were  none  of  those  waters  tiuit  mi<ijht  serve  for 
their  use,  on  account  of  the  bitterness  ;  but  God  commanded 
Moses  to  strike  the  hard  stone  rock  with  his  rod,  and  from 
the  stone  there  ran  an  immense  stream  of  water  for  the  re- 
[)k'ti()n  of  all  the  people  and  their  cattle.  Ever  before  the  peo- 
ple went  God's  cloud  like  an  immense  pillar,  w  hich  seemed 
(jf  lire  in  the  night  time,  and  in  the  form  of  a  common  cloud 
by  day  ;  and  they  constantly  followed  that  cloud  :  m  hereso- 
I'ver  it  stood,  there  they  cncaniped,  and  again,  as  soon  as  the 
cloud  stirred,  so  journeyed  at  the  same  time  all  the  host  after 
the  cloud.  Within  a  space  of  forty  years  no  man  was  afflicted 
with  sickness  among  all  the  peoi)le,  nor  were  their  garments 
decayed,  nor  ilid  the  heavenly  meat  fail  them,  until  they  came 
to  the  country  which  the  Almighty  God  through  himself  had 
promised  them. 

God  said  to  Moses  that  he  would  come  and  speak  to  him 
before  the  people,  that  they  might  be  the  more  believing  ;  and 
commanded  them  to  be  prepared  on  the  third  day.  Then  on 
tlie  fiftieth  after  tiieir  departure  from  the  land  of  Egypt, 
God's  glory  was  seen  in  the  wilderness  on  a  mount  wliich  is 
called  Sinai,  on  which  the  Almighty  Creator  descended,  and 
lo,  great  thunder  began  there  to  rattle,  and  lightning  to  dart 
in  sight  of  the  people,  and  trumpets  to  blow  with  a  loud 
sound,  and  a  great  cloud  covered  all  the  mount.  Out  of  this 
sound  the  Almighty  Lord  called  Moses  to  him,  and  said, 
"Go  down  again,  and  command  the  people  that  none  of  them 
approach  the  mount :  whatsoever  touchcth  it,  whether  man 
or  beast,  shall  forthwith  not  live.  Come  now  again  up  to 
me  together  with  Aaron.'"  Moses  then  fulfdlcd  God's  behest, 
and  again  went  up  to  him.  Then  the  Almighty  God  wrote 
for  him  two  stone  tables  with  his  own  f\u<jcr,  on  which  were 
written  ten  ordinances,  which  are  the  ten  lawful  command- 
ments.   Of  these  ordinances,  three  were  written  on  one  table, 


198  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

on  ^aere  o^re.  pset  forme  bebod  is,  "  Drihten  5in  God  is  an 
God."  piet  o^er  word  is,  "  Ne  underfoli  Su  ^ines  Drihtncs 
naman  on  ydelnysse."  pset  ^ridde  word  is,  *' Beo  bu  ge- 
niyndig  )7fet  "Su  ^one  resten-daeg  freolsige."  Das  5reo  word 
stodon  on  anre  tabulan.  On  ^aere  o^re  tabelan  wjes  j^aet 
forme  bebod,  "  Arwur^a  Sinnc  f;eder  and  jnne  moder/'  piet 
oSer  bebod,  "  Ne  ham  ^u  unrihtlice."  paet  "Sridde,  "  Ne 
ofslih  5ii  mannan."  pjet  feorSe,  "  Ne  stala  Su."  piet  fifte, 
"  Ne  beo  "Su  leas  gewita."  piet  sixte,  "  Ne  gewihia  Su  oSres 
mannes  wifes."  piet  seofoSe,  "  Nc  gewilna  5u  oSres  manncs 
iehta."  Das  tyn  beboda  synd  calhun  mannum  gcsette  to  ge- 
healdenne.  Moyses  ^a  wies  wunigende  up  on  tSa>re  dune 
feowertig  daga  and  feowcrtig  nihta  tosomne,  and  lie  on  call- 
uni  "5am  fyrste  nuncs  corSlices  bigleofan  ne  onbyrigde  ;  and 
he  awrat  be  Godcs  dihte  j^a  fif  ielican  bee ;  aerest  be  fruui- 
seeafte,  pe  nan  rorSlic  man  ^a  nyste,  and  sicJSan  be  Adamea 
ofspringe,  and  Noes  flode,  and  jjaera  enta  getimbrunge,  and 
svva  forS  oS  )>;et  he  com  to  »Sam  dom-bocum  J^e  se  Ileofenlica 
Wealdend  his  folce  gesette  to  some,  and  to  sehtnysse,  and  to 
rihthecunge  ealra  forg.egednyssa;  and  swiSost  be  Godes  big- 
gengum,  hu  men  hine  ienne  ^Elmihtigne  wureJian  sceolon. 
And  he  sylf  het  Moysen  him  gewyrcan  an  geteld,  mid  wun- 
derlicum  dilite  gefadod,  on  menigfealdre  getacminge.  On 
5am  getelde  hi  sceokloii  |>a  godcundan  lac  symle  geofFrian, 
forSan  ^e  hi  ne  mihton  on  5ifire  fare  cyrcan  arieran.  On 
"5am  getelde  he  het  him  offrian  cucu  orf,  and  si55an  jet  ^am 
weofodc  acwellan,  swa  swa  nan  man  nu  lichamlice  don  ne 
mot. 

Ac  we  willa^  eow  secgan  )?aet  gastlice  andgyt  ))yssera  ealdra 
gesetnyssa,  for5an  5e  sec  ealde  ae  is  mid  gastlicum  andgyte 
afylled,  and  Crist  geopenode  us  ^a  deopan  digelnyssa,  and 
hi  5urh  hine  sylfne  gastlice  gefylde,  swa  swa  he  to  his  leorn- 
ing-cnihtum  cwieS,  "  Ne  wene  ge  na  j^tet  ic  come  to  ^i  Jjaet 
ic  wolde  towurpan  J;a  ealdan  ae  o55e  witegena  gesetnyssa  :  ic 
ne  com  to  5i  |'i€t  ic  hi  towurpe,  ac  ]>iei  ic  hi  gcfyldc.     SoS  ic 


MIDLE.NT  SUxXDAY.  199 

and  seven  on  the  other.  The  first  commandment  is,  "  The 
Lord  thy  God  is  one  God."  The  second  ordinance  is,  "Take 
not  thy  Lord's  name  in  vain."  The  third  ordinance  is,  "Be 
thou  mindful  that  thou  keep  holy  the  day  of  rest."  These 
three  ordinances  stood  on  one  table.  On  the  other  table  the 
first  connnandment  was,  "Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mother." 
The  second  commandment,  "  Commit  not  adultery."  The 
third,  "  Slay  no  man."  The  fourth,  "  Steal  not."  The  fifth, 
"  Be  not  a  false  witness."  The  sixth,  "  Desire  not  another 
man's  wife."  The  seventh,  "  Desire  not  another  man's  pos- 
sessions." These  ten  commandments  are  appointed  for  all 
men  to  iiold.  Moses  then  continued  on  ti)e  mount  forty  days 
and  forty  nigiits  together,  and  in  all  that  time  he  tasted  no 
earthly  food  ;  and  he  wrote  by  God's  direction  the  five  law 
books;  first  of  the  creation,  of  which  no  earthly  man  then 
knew,  and  afterwards  of  Adam's  ofi'spring,  ami  Noah's  flood, 
and  of  the  building  of  the  giants,  and  so  fortii,  until  he  came 
to  the  doom-books  which  tlie  Heavenly  Ruler  aj)poiMtcd  to 
his  people,  for  concord,  and  for  reconciliation,  and  for  the 
correction  of  all  transgressions  ;  and  above  all,  with  regard 
to  the  worship  of  God,  how  men  should  honour  him  the  one 
Almighty.  And  he  himself  comnumded  Moses  to  make  him 
a  tabernacle  disposed  with  wondrous  contrivance,  with  mani- 
fold betokening.  In  that  tabernacle  they  were  constantly  to 
offer  the  divine  offerings,  because  they  could  not  on  their 
journeying  raise  a  church.  In  that  tabernacle  he  commanded 
living  cattle  to  be  offered  to  him,  and  afterwards  to  be  slain 
at  the  altar,  so  as  no  man  may  now  do  bodily. 

But  we  will  say  to  you  the  ghostly  sense  of  these  old  in- 
stitutes, for  the  old  law  is  filled  with  ghostly  sense,  and 
Christ  has  opened  to  us  the  deep  mysteries,  and  through 
him.self  spiritually  fulfilled  them,  as  he  said  to  his  disciples, 
"  Ween  not  that  I  come  to  overthrow  the  old  law,  or  the 
institutes  of  the  prophets  :  I  come  not  to  overthrow  them, 
but  to  fulfil  them.     Verily  I  say  unto  you,  One  stroke  or  one 


200  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

COW  secge,  An  strica  o^^e  an  staef  ^aere  ealdan  ae  ne  biS  for- 
gffiged  o^jJcEt  hi  calle  gef3'llccle  been."  pus  tnim  is  seo  caltle 
ie,  ac  heo  sceal  been  gcfylled  5urh  Godes  Seowas  refter  gast- 
licuni  andgite,  and  na  lichanilice.  Hit  biS  swiSe  langsum, 
gif  we  calle  'Sas  getacnunga  eow  nu  fetsomne  gcreccaS,  ac  we 
wilkiiS  nu  sunie  eow  gcopenianj  and  sunie  eft  on  gcliuipliccre 
tide. 

paet  Egypta-land  hffifde  gctacnungc  |>yssere  woruldc,  and 
Pharao  getacnode  j^one  ISwyran  dcofol,  ]^e  symle  Godes  gc- 
corenuni  chtnysse  on  bcsett  on  andwerduni  life.  Swa  swa 
se  yEhnilitiga  God  ^a  his  folc  ahredde  wi5  pone  cyning 
Pharao,  and  hi  heddc  to  ^am  earde  J>e  he  Abrahanie  and  his 
ofspringe  behet,  swa  eac  he  arett  da^ghwomlice  his  gecorenan 
wis  })ono  ealdan  dcofol,  and  hi  alyst  frani  his  ISeowte,  and 
frain  ISyssere  geswincfullan  woruldc,  and  gcUct  hi  to  "JSam 
ecan  cc)clc  5e  we  to  gcsccapcncwteron.  Seo  lieade  s^  h?efdc 
gctacnungc  ures  fulluhtcs,  on  "Saere  adranc  Pharao  and  iiis 
licrc  saniod  ;  swa  eac  on  uruni  gastlicum  fulluhtc  hiS  se  dco- 
fol forsmorod  frani  us,  and  calle  urc  synna  bco5  adylcgode, 
and  we  "Sonne  sigefceste,  mid  gclcafan  Godes  16f  singati,  an- 
bidigcnde  mid  gciSyldc  )>;es  ecan  eScles.  Witodlicc  pa^t  westen 
and  ]>iet  feowertig  gcara  f;pc  is  urc  anbidung  on  mislicum 
costnungum  fcfler  \n*um  fulluhtc,  otSj^jet  we  becumon  ISurh 
gchcaldsumnysse  Godes  beboda  to  5am  upplican  cSclc,  on 
Sam  "Se  we  ecclicc  eardian  sceolon.  p<et  wolcn  waes  symle 
Sees  folces  latteow  on  ealre  Saere  fare,  ge  aerSan  "Se  hi  |)a 
Rcadan  sje  ofcrcodon,  and  eac  si S San  on  ^am  westenc.  past 
M'olcn  getacnode  Crist,  seSe  is  ure  latteow  on  gastlicum  Sing- 
um ;  and  he  waes  liSe  on  his  menniscnysse  swilce  on  wolcncs 
hiwe,  and  he  biS  swiSe  egefull  on  fyres  gelicnysse  on  ^am 
micclum  dome,  }?onne  he  scTnS  Sam  rihtwisum  and  byrn'S 
Sam  unrihtwisum.  SoSlice  gehwilces  rihtwises  mannes  lif 
is  dfcge  wiSmeten,  and  jjaes  synfullan  nihtlicum  Scostrum; 
and  Drihtcn  biS  liSe  iSam  rihtwisum,  and  egefull  Sam  un- 
rihtwibum. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  201 

letter  of  the  old  law  shall  not  be  transgressed,  until  they  are 
all  fulfilled."  Tims  firm  is  the  old  law,  but  it  shall  be  ful- 
filled by  God's  servants  according  to  a  ghostly  sense,  and 
not  bodily.  It  will  he  very  longsome,  if  we  now  recount  to 
you  all  these  signs  together,  but  we  will  disclose  some  to  you 
now,  and  some  afterwards  at  a  more  convenient  time. 

The  Egyptian  land  was  a  type  of  this  world,  and  Pharaoh 
betokened  the  perverse  devil,  who  is  constantly  inflicting 
persecution  on  God's  chosen,  in  this  present  life.  As  the 
Almighty  God  then  delivered  his  people  from  the  king 
Pharaoh,  and  led  them  to  the  country  which  he  had  promised 
to  Abraham  and  his  offspring,  so  also  he  delivers  daily  his 
chosen  from  the  old  dc\il,  and  releases  them  from  his  thral- 
dom and  from  this  world  of  toil,  and  leads  them  to  the  eternal 
country  for  which  we  were  created.  The  Red  sea  betokened 
our  baptism,  in  which  Pharaoh  and  his  host  were  drowned 
together;  so  also  in  our  ghostly  baptism  the  devil  is  suffocated 
by  us,  and  all  our  sins  arc  obliterated,  and  we  then  trium- 
phant, with  faith  sing  the  praise  of  God,  awaiting  with 
patience  the  eternal  country.  Moreover,  the  wilderness  and 
the  space  of  forty  years  are  our  stay  in  divers  temptations 
after  our  baptism,  until  we  come,  through  observance  of  God's 
commandments,  to  the  realm  on  high,  in  w  hich  we  shall  eter- 
nally dw  ell.  The  cloud  was  constantly  the  people's  guide  in 
all  their  journeying,  both  before  they  had  crossed  the  Red  sea, 
and  also  afterwards  in  the  w  ilderness.  Tlie  cloud  betokened 
Christ,  who  is  our  guide  in  ghostly  things  ;  and  he  was  gentle 
in  his  humanity,  as  in  semblance  of  a  cloud,  and  he  will  be 
very  awful,  in  likeness  of  fire,  at  the  great  doom,  when  he 
will  shine  to  the  righteous  and  burn  to  the  unrighteous. 
Verily  the  life  of  every  righteous  man  is  compared  w  ilh  day, 
and  of  the  sinful  with  the  nightly  darkness ;  and  the  Lord 
will  be  gentle  to  the  righteous,  and  awful  to  the  um-ightcous. 


202  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

Se  apostol  Paulus  cvvaeS  be  Sam  Israhela  folce,  )>iet  hi  ealle 
wfcron  on  ^eere  see  gefullode,  and  hi  ealle  teton  ^one  gastlican 
mete,  and  Sone  gastlican  drenc  druncon.  SoJblice  se  mete  Se 
him  of  hcofenum  com  haifde  Cristes  getacnunge,  seSe  be  him 
sylfum  cwseS,  "  Ic  eom  se  liflica  hlaf,  p»e  of  heofcnum  astah  ; 
and  swa  hwa  swa  of  Sam  hliife  geett,  he  leofa^  on  ecnysse ; 
and  se  hlaf  Se  ic  sylle  for  middaneardes  life  is  min  lichama." 
On  Sam  halgan  husle  we  SicgaS  Cristes  lichaman  :  se  hlaf  is 
soSlice  his  lichama  ga^tlice,  Seah  Se  se  ungcljereda  j^fes  ge- 
lyfan  ne  cunne.  Be  Sam  stane  ^e  )>aet  waeter  on  Sam  west- 
ene  ut-aflcow,  cw^S  se  ylca  apostol,  "  Hi  dnmcon  of  Sam 
gastlican  stane,  and  se  stun  wies  Crist."  Nfes  Seah  se  slan 
lichamlice  Crist,  ac  he  hfefde  Cristes  getacnunge.  His  side 
Wifts  on  Stcre  rode  gewundod,  and  }>a'r  fleow  ut  blud  and 
wteter  samod  ;  j'jet  blod  to  ure  alysednysse,  and  ]mt  waiter 
to  urum  fullulito.  On  Sam  fifteogoSan  da\gc  ]fiRS  folces  fjer- 
eldcs  wfes  seo  ealde  fiP  gesctt,  and  on  Sam  iiftcogoSan  diege 
a^fter  Cristes  jeriste  com  se  Halga  Gast  of  heofcnum  ofer  his 
apostolum  in  fyres  hiwc,  and  iiini  Surh  his  gife  ealle  Sing 
tfehte,  and  ealle  middaneardlice  gereord  him  forgeaf.  On 
Sam  munte  Synay,  j^e  se  .4l^lmihtiga  on  becom,  wearS  micel 
"Sunor  gehyred,  and  stcmn,  and  liget  gesewcn,  swa  swa  sci- 
nende  Icoht-fatu,  and  j'^er  Wfes  bymena  dream  idude  swegen- 
de,  and  eal  se  munt  smocigende  stod.  On  "Sam  stemnum 
and  on  Sam  |)unore  we  understandaS  j^jera  bydela  hream,  \>c 
God  sende  geond  ealne  middaneard  to  bodigenne  geleafan 
]7aere  Halgan  Drynnysse.  On  Sam  leuht-fatum  ]7fes  ITgettes 
waes  getacnod  seo  beorhtnys  J^aera  wundra  "Se  "Sa  halgan  by- 
delas  on  Godes  naman  gefremcdon.  paera  bymena  cyrm  is 
seo  strange  bodung,  ]>e  aefter  'Sses  Halgan  Gastes  to-cyme 
ferde  geond  ealne  middaneard.  On  "Sam  fyre  and  on  Sam 
smyce  wees  getacnod,  ]>iet  gehwilce  arfaeste  men  and  geleaf- 
fulle  beo^  symle  onlihte  Surh  Godes  gesetnyssum,  and  Saera 
arleasra  manna  eagan  beoS  purh  gedwyldes  smyce  symle 
aSystrode. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  203 

The  apostle  Pawl  said  of  the  people  of  Israel,  that  they 
were  all  baptized  in  the  sea,  and  they  all  ate  the  ghostly 
meat,  and  drank  the  ghostly  drink.  Now  the  meat  that  came 
to  them  from  heaven  was  a  type  of  Christ,  who  said  of  him- 
self, "  I  am  the  living  bread,  which  came  down  from  heaven, 
and  whosoever  eateth  of  that  bread,  shall  live  for  ever ;  and 
the  bread  v\  hich  I  give  for  the  life  of  the  world  is  my  body." 
In  the  holy  housel  we  eat  Christ's  body  :  the  bread  is  truly 
his  body  spiritually,  though  the  unlearned  cannot  believe  this. 
Of  the  stone,  out  of  whici  the  water  flowed  in  the  wilderneirs, 
the  same  apostle  said,  "They  drank  from  the  ghobtly  stone, 
and  the  stone  was  Christ."  Yet  was  the  stone  not  Christ 
bodily,  but  it  was  a  type  of  Christ.  His  side  was  wounded  on 
the  rood,  and  there  flowed  out  blood  and  water  together  ;  tlie 
blood  for  our  redemption,  and  the  water  for  our  baptism. 
On  the  fiftieth  day  of  the  people's  jourmying  the  old  law  was 
ehtablished,  and  on  the  fifliith  day  after  Christ's  ascension 
the  Holy  Ghost  came  from  heaven  over  his  apostles  in  like- 
ness of  fire,  and  through  his  grace  taught  them  all  things, 
and  gave  them  all  earthly  tongues.  On  mount  Sinai,  on 
which  the  Almighty  came,  great  thunder  was  heard,  and  a 
voice,  and  lightning  was  seen,  like  shining  lamps,  and  there 
was  the  noise  of  trumpets  loudly  sounding,  and  all  the  mount 
stood  smoking.  In  the  voices  and  in  the  thunder  we  perceive 
the  cry  of  those  messengers  whom  God  sends  through  all  the 
world  to  preach  belief  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  In  the  lamps  of 
the  lightJiing  was  betokened  the  brightness  of  the  miracles 
which  the  holy  messengers  performed  in  the  name  of  God. 
The  noise  of  the  trumpets  is  the  strong  preaching,  ^\hich 
after  the  coming  of  the  Holy  Ghost  pervaded  all  the  world. 
By  the  fire  and  by  the  smoke  was  betokened,  that  all  pious 
and  believing  men  shall  ever  be  enliglitened  by  God's  ordi- 
nances, and  the  eyes  of  impious  men  shall  by  the  smoke  of 
error  be  ever  darkened. 


204  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

God  awiat  tJa  eaidan  fie  mid  his  fingre  on  "Sam  sttenenuni 
weax-breduni.  Godes  finger  is  se  Halga  Gast,  swa  swa  Crist 
on  his  godspelle  c\v?e^,  "  Gif  ic,  on  Godes  fingre,  deofla 
adr;efe;"  and  se  o^er  godspcllere  awrat,  "  Gif  ic,  on  Godes 
Gaste,  deofl  adr^fe."  Nis  na  to  nnderstandenne  be  Sees 
limes  micehiysse,  ac  be  Saera  fingra  frennninge.  Nis  us  nan 
lim  swa  gewylde  to  ;elcum  weorce  swa  Qs  sind  ure  fingras, 
and  se  Halga  Gast  is  gecweden  Godes  finger,  forSan  ^e  he 
awrit  (Surh  his  gife  on  manna  heortan  Sa  gastlican  bebodu, 
and  tod;el5  his  gife  mannum  be  Sam  (Se  he  wile,  for^an  be 
he  is  -rElmihtig  Wyriita,  mid  F.eder  and  mid  Suna,  hi  iSry 
an  God,  aefre  unbegunnen  and  ungecndod.  Da  st;enenan 
weax-bredu  getacnodon  j'fera  ludeiscra  manna  heardheort- 
nysse,  be  "Sam  cwwb  se  wTtega  Ezechicl,  "  Ic  a^tbrede  him 
JSa  stfenenan  heortan,  and  ic  forgifc  him  flcjcscene  heortan;" 
}»;et  is  andgitfulle  heortan. 

Tyn  beboda  awrat  se  .Elmihtiga  on  *5am  twam  tabelnm  ; 
"Sreo  word  on  anre  tabelan,  Sa  belimpaJS  to  Godes  lufe,  and 
seofon  on  cStere  oSre,  ]>a  gcbyriaS  to  manna  lufe  and  to  gcfer- 
nedene  ure  nextan.  pa  twii  tabelan  getacnodon  Sa  twa  be- 
bodu l^e  ic  nu  namode,  Godes  lufu  and  mamia,  and  eac  "Sa 
twa  Gccybnyssa,  ])a  Eaidan  and  Sa  Niwan. 

pfet  forme  word  is,  "  Drihten  JSin  God  is  an  God."  An 
God  is  ealra  Singa  Scyppend,  on  '5rim  hadutn  Surhwunigendc, 
]7aet  is,  Fffider,  and  his  Sunn,  and  hcora  begra  Gast,  ealle 
gelice  mihtige,  and  aefre  on  anre  Godcundnysse  wunigende. 
Hi  ne  magon  beon  togiederc  genemncde,  ac  hi  ne  beoS  naefre 
tod;elede.  pisne  aenne  God  we  sceolon  mid  soISum  geleafan 
and  so  Lire  lufe  symle  wurJSian,  forSan  "be  he  is  ana  God  ure 
Scyppend,  and  nis  nan  o5er  God  buton  him  anum. 

paet  ©"Ser  bebod  is,  "  Ne  underfoh  Su  "Sines  Drihtnes  naman 
on  ydelnysse."  paet  is,  Ne  gelyf  Su  J^aet  Crist  ]/m  Drihten 
sy  gesecaft,  ac  gelyf  ]>jet  he  is  gelic  his  Feeder,  eefre  of  him 
acenned,  |nu*h  5onc  sind  ealle  Sing  geworhte.    AVitodlice  a^lc 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  205 

God  wrote  the  old  law  with  his  finger  on  the  stone  tables. 
The  finger  of  God  is  the  Holy  Ghost,  as  Christ  in  his  gospel 
said,  "  If  I,  by  the  finger  of  God,  drive  out  devils."     And 
the  other  evangelist  wrote,  "  If  I,  in  the  Spirit  of  God,  drive 
out  the  devil."     Not  to  be  considered  is  the  magnitude  of 
that  limb,  but  the  efficacy  of  the  fingers.     We  have  no  limb 
so   trained  to  every  work  as  are  our  fingers,  and  the  Holy 
Ghost  is  called  the  finger  of  God,  because  he  writes  through 
his  grace  in  the  hearts  of  men  the  ghostly  connnandments, 
and  distributes  his  grace  to  men,  according  to  his  will,  for  he 
is  the   Almighty  Worker,  with   Father  and  with   Son,  they 
three  one  God,  ever  unbegun  and  unendcd.    The  stone  tables 
betokened  the  hardheartedncss  of  the  Jewish   men,  of  which 
the  prophet  Ezekiel  said,  "  I  w  ill  take  from  them  the  hearts 
of  stone,  and  I  will  give  them  hearts  of  flesh  ;"  that  is,  hearts 
filled  \;ith  understanding. 

Ten  commandments  the  Almighty  wrote  on  the  two  tables  ; 
three  ordinances  on  one  table,  wiiich  have  reference  to  God's 
love,  and  seven  on  the  other,  which  relate  to  love  of  men  and 
to  fellowship  with  our  neighbom-.  The  two  tables  betokened 
the  two  commandments  which  I  have  named,  the  love  of  God 
and  of  men,  and  also  the  two  Testaments,  the  Old  and  the 
New. 

The  first  ordinance  is,  "The  Lord  thy  God  is  one  God." 
One  God  is  the  Creator  of  all  things,  existing  in  three  per- 
sons, that  is,  the  Father,  and  his  Son,  and  the  Spirit  of  them 
both,  all  e(iually  mighty,  and  ever  existing  in  one  Godhead. 
They  may  not  be  named  together,  but  they  are  never  sepa- 
rated. This  one  God  we  should  with  true  belief  and  true  love 
ever  worship,  for  he  alone  is  God  our  Creator,  and  there  is 
no  other  God  but  him  alone. 

The  second  conmiandment  is,  "  Take  not  thy  Lord's  name 
in  vain."  That  is,  Believe  not  that  Christ  thy  Lord  is  a 
creature,  but  believe  that  he  is  equal  to  his  Father,  ever  of 
him  born,  through  whom  all  things  are  made.     B«it  every 


206  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

gesceaft  is   ydelnysse   underSeod,    Jjaet  is,  awciuledlicnesse, 
for^an  ^e  hi  beo^  awendc  fram  brosnunjye  to  iiiibrosiiunoce. 

paet  ^ridde  bebod  is,  "  Beo  Sii  geinyndig  ]>ieX  ]?u  "Sone 
resten-daeg  gehalgige.  On  six  dagum  geworhte  God  ealle 
gesceafta,  and  geeiidode  hi  on  (Sam  seofoban."  paet  is  se 
Saetcrnes-daeg,  "|>a  gereste  he  hine,  and  5one  daeg  gclialgodc." 
Ne  gereste  he  hine  foi^Si  Jj.'jet  he  werig  waere,  se^e  ealle  ■Sing 
deS  buton  gesuince,  ac  he  geswac  Sa  his  weorces  :  he  geswac 
•Saes  dihtes  ealra  his  weorca,  ac  he  no  geswac  na  to  genienig- 
fyldenne  |>aera  gesceafta  ffiftergengnyssa.  God  geswac  ^a  his 
weorces  svva  j^fet  lie  na  nia  gecynda  sibSan  ne  gesccop,  ac 
svva-iSeah  he  genienigfylt  da?ghwonilice  \ni  ylcan  gecynd, 
swa  swa  Crist  cwwS  on  his  godspclle,  *'  Pater  ineus  usque 
tnodo  operatur,  et  ego  operor  :  "  j'c-et  is  on  Englisc,  "  Min 
F^der  wyrcS  d^eghwomlice  o5  )?is,  and  ic  wyrcc."  Se 
^Ehnihtiga  F;ed(T  gcdihte  ealle  gesceafta  jurh  his  Wisdom, 
and  se  Wisdom  is  his  Sunu ;  and  he  hi  ealle  gelilTaeste  J^urh 
^one  Halgan  Gast,  and  on  5am  deopan  dihte  stodon  ealle  |>a 
"Sing  5e  Sa-gyt  n<eron.  Witodlice  we  waeron  on  pam  dihte, 
and  eac  5a  5e  eefter  us  cumaS,  oJS  ))yssere  worulde  geendungc. 
God  gesceop  5a  ffit  fruman  twegcn  men,  wer  and  wif,  and  he 
geswac  ba  Jja^ra  gesceapennyssa,  swa  ]>cet  he  na  ma  cynna  on 
mannum  ne  gesette,  ac  he  gemenigfylt  5a  twa  cytin  daeg- 
hwomlice,  swa  paet  he  gescypS  felces  mannes  lichaman  on  his 
moder  inno5c,  and  him  sawle  si55an  on  besett.  Ne  beo5  5a 
sawla  nahwar  aer5an  wunigende,  ac  se  ^Imihtiga  Wyrhta  hi 
gescypS  ffilce  dwg,  swa  swa  he  de5  j^a  lichaman.  God  ge- 
sceop 5a  nytenu,  and  fixas,  and  fugelas,  and  ealle  eorSlice 
Wc-estmas ;  ac  he  gescypS  aelce  geare  o5re  edniwe  5aes  ylcan 
gecyndes ;  forSan  5e  5a  serran  ateoria5.  Se  Seeternes-dfeg 
waes  5a  gehaten  resten-dseg  o5  Cristes  5rowunge  :  on  5ain 
daege  Ifeg  Cristes  lie  on  byrigene,  and  he  aras  of  dea5e  on 
5am  Sunnan-daege,  and  se  daeg  is  cristenra  manna  resten-daeg, 
and  halig  5urh  Cristes  aerist :  )^one  daeg  we  sceolon  symle 
freolsian  mid  gastlicere  arwur5nysse.    Se  S;eternes-daeg  waes 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  807 

creature  is  subject  to  vanity,  tliat  is,  to  mutability,  for  tbcy 
will  be  cban<:^ecl  from  corruption  to  incorruption. 

The  third  commandment  is,  "  Be  mindful  that  thou  hallow 
the  day  of  rest.  In  six  days  God  wrought  all  creatures,  and 
finished  them  on  the  seventh."  That  is  the  Saturday,"  when 
he  rested,  and  hallowed  that  day."  He  rested  not  because  he 
was  weary,  who  does  all  things  without  fatigue,  but  he  ceased 
then  from  his  work  :  he  ceased  from  the  disposition  of  all 
his  works,  but  he  ceased  not  to  nuiltiply  the  successions  of 
created  beings.  God,  therefore,  ceased  from  his  work  so  that 
he  created  no  more  kinds  afterwards,  but,  nevertheless,  he 
daily  multiplies  the  same  kinds,  as  Christ  said  in  his  gospel, 
"  Pater  mens  usque  modo  opcratur,  ct  ego  operor  :  "  that  is 
in  English,  "  My  Father  works  daily  until  now,  and  I  work." 
The  Almighty  Father  disposed  all  creatures  through  his 
Wisdom,  and  his  Wisdom  is  his  Son  ;  and  he  quickened  them 
all  through  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  in  that  profound  disposition 
stood  all  those  things  which  yet  were  not.  But  we  were  in 
that  disposition,  and  also  those  who  come  after  us,  until  the 
ending  of  this  world.  God  created  at  the  beginning  two 
persons,  man  aiul  \\()man,  and  he  ceased  then  from  those 
creations,  so  that  he  placed  no  more  kinds  among  men,  but 
he  nniltiplies  those  two  kinds  daily,  so  that  he  creates  the 
body  of  every  man  in  his  mother's  womb,  and  afterwards 
places  in  him  a  sonl.  Souls  are  nowhere  existing  previously, 
but  the  Almiirhtv  Worker  creates  them  everyday,  as  he  does 
the  bodies.  God  created  the  beasts,  and  fishes,  and  birds, 
and  all  earthly  fruits  ;  but  he  creates  every  year  other  new 
ones  of  the  same  kind  ;  because  the  fornier  ones  decay.  The 
Saturday  was  called  the  day  of  rest  until  Christ's  passion  : 
on  that  day  Christ's  body  lay  in  the  sepulchre,  and  he  arose 
from  diMth  on  the  Sunday,  and  that  day  is  the  christians' 
day  of  rest,  and  holy  through  Christ's  resurrection  :  that  day 
we  should  ever  solenniize  with  ghostly  veneration.    Saturday 


208  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

gehtilgod  mid  micelre  gehcaMsumnyssc  on  "Saere  ealdan  ae, 
for  'Sasre  getacnunge  Ciistes  ^lowunge,  and  his  reste  on  ^aerc 
byrgene  ;  ac  se  Sunnan-daeg  is  nu  gehalgod  |?urh  so^Sfaistnysse 
his  <eristes  of  dea^c.  OSer  resten-dwg  is  us  eac  toweard, 
|?aet  is,  |?get  ece  lif,  on  ^am  biS  an  dfeg  baton  a^lcerc  nihte, 
on  |>am  we  us  geresta^  ecelice,  gif  we  nu  beowtliccra  weorca, 
J^aet  sind  synna,  geswica^. 

paet  feor^e  bebod  is,  ^'  ArwurSa  ))inne  feeder  and  c5inc 
nioder.  Se  ^e  wyrigS  f;edcr  o^Se  moder,  oJ))?e  hi  tyrigS,  se 
is  deaSes  scyldig."  La  hwaine  wile  se  man  arwurSian,  gif  ho 
■5one  ]>e  hine  gestryndc,  and  Sa  moder  "Se  hine  gcb;er  and 
afedde  nele  arwurSian  ?  yEftcr  gastiicuni  andgite  God  is  tSin 
fjedcr,  and  his  gelabung  is  Sin  nioder  :  arwurSa  hi  on  ealhnn 
(Singuni. 

paet  fifte  bebod  is,  "  Ne  unrilit-hjem  5u."  /Elc  S^era 
manna  ]>e  haSmS  baton  rihtre  ffiwe,  he  haJmS  unrihtlico  ;  and 
se  Se  ofer  his  aewe  hiemb,  he  is  forlir  Kuril  his  {ewbrice. 

paet  sixte  bebod  is,  "  Ne  ofslih  "Su  mann."  Manslaga  bib 
se  ^e  man  ofslihJS ;  and  se  "be  oSerne  to  dea^e  forsegiS,  and 
se  "Se  o"Sres  sawle  forpaerS,  se  "5e  hungriguni  o55e  nacoduni 
gchelpan  maeg  and  nele,  ac  laet  hine  acwclan  on  'Saere  hafcn- 
leaste,  ]^onne  bi<S  se  eac  ^urh  his  waelhreownysse  manslaga 
getcald. 

paet  seofoSe  bebod  is,  "  Ne  stala  ^u."  Dis  bebod  wi5- 
cvveS  aelcum  reaflace,  and  is  gehwilcum  menn  full  cu5. 

paet  eahteo^e  bebod  is,  "  Ne  beo  "Su  leas  gewita."  pis 
bebod  wi^cweS  leasunge. 

paet  nigo^e  bebod  is,  "  Ne  gewilna  Su  oSres  marines  wifes." 
Manfullic  daed  bi'5  j^aet  hwa  oSres  wif  gebysmirige ;  forSy  is 
geboden  )>aet  ^u  "Saes  ne  gewilnigc.  Witodlice  gif  ^u  "Saes  ne 
gewilnast,  ne  becymst  "Su  naefre  to  "Sam  pleolicum  leahtre. 

paet  teoSe  bebod  is,  •'  Ne  gewilna  Su  oSres  mannesaehta." 


MIDLEXT  SUNDAY.  209 

was  hallowed  with  great  observance  by  the  old  law,  in  be- 
tokening of  Christ's  passion,  and  his  rest  in  the  sepulchre  ; 
but  Sunday  is  now  hallowed  by  the  truth  of  his  resurrection 
from  death.  Another  day  of  rest  for  us  is  also  to  come,  that 
is,  the  everlasting  life,  in  which  will  be  one  day  without  any 
night,  in  which  we  shall  rest  eternally,  if  we  now  cease  from 
servile  works,  that  is,  from  sins. 

The  fourth  commandment  is,  "  Honour  thy  father  and  thy 
mother.  He  who  curses  father  or  mother,  or  provokes  them, 
is  guilty  of  death."  O  whom  will  a  man  honour,  if  he  will 
not  honour  him  who  begat  him,  and  the  mother  who  bare 
and  brought  him  forth  ?  In  a  ghostly  sense  God  is  thy  father, 
and  his  church  is  thy  mother :  honour  them  in  all  things. 

The  fifth  commandment  is,  "  Commit  not  adultery." 
Every  man  who  lies  except  with  his  lawful  wife,  commits 
adultery ;  and  he  who  lies  with  another  besides  his  lawful 
wife,  is  an  adulterer  through  breach  of  his  marriage  vow. 

The  sixth  commandment  is,  "  Slay  no  man."  A  man- 
slayer  is  he  who  kills  any  one ;  and  he  who  traduces  another 
to  death,  and  he  who  destroys  another's  soul,  he  who  can 
and  will  not  help  the  hungry  or  naked,  but  lets  him  die  in 
want,  then  will  he  also  for  his  cruelty  be  accounted  a  man- 
slayer. 

The  seventh  commandment  is,  "  Steal  not."  This  com- 
mandment forbids  all  robbery,  and  is  fully  known  to  every' 
man. 

The  eighth  commandment  is,  "  Be  not  a  false  witness." 
This  commandment  forbids  leasini;. 

The  ninth  connuandment  is,  '*  Desire  not  another  man's 
wife."  It  is  a  wicked  deed  that  any  one  defile  another's  wife  ; 
therefore  is  it  forbidden  to  desire  her.  For  if  thou  desirest 
her  not,  thou  wilt  never  come  to  that  perilous  crime. 

The  tenth  connuandment  is,  "  Desire  not  another  man's 

HOM.  VOL.   II.  p 


210  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

Dis  bebod  wi^cwe^  unrihtwisre  gewilnunge  and  woruldlicere 
gitsunge. 

Is  eac  to  understaiidenne,  )?aet  ]>aet  Egyptisce  folc  wearJS 
mid  tyn  wTtum  geslagen  ;  and  tyn  bebodaweeron  awritene  on 
"Sam  twam  tabclum,  Godcs  folce  to  rihtinge,  j^aet  ^ii  dcofelli- 
can  leahtras  Siirh  ^a  bebodii  adydde  beon.  piet  miccle  geteld 
J>ffit  God  mid  mcnigfealdum  crwftc  gcdihte,  h£efde  getacnunge 
J^aere  halgan  gelaSunge  'Se  Crist  Surh  his  to-cyme  astcalde, 
and  Jnirh  his  apostolas  and  lareowas  gctimbrode.  On  Sisnni 
gctelde  Wc'eron  menigfcalde  fiihnyssa,  and  fornean  imasec- 
gendlice  fra?t\vunga  :  swa  beoS  eac  on  Godcs  gelaJSungc  me- 
nigfcakle  fa^gernyssa  Surh  godra  manna  drohtnunge,  ]>e  Saes 
ecan  lifcs  eallunge  gewihiiaS.  Da  menigfcaldan  otTrunga  )'e 
se  ^hnilitiga  hct  on  Sam  gctelde  symle  offrian,  getacnodon 
Cristes  Srownnge ;  and  he  'Sa  eahhm  ons.egednyssa  calie  ge- 
stikle,  )»aSa  he  sylf  soSlicc  wearS  gcolTrod  )>am  .Ehnihtigan 
Fwdcr  for  urum  synnum. 

pa  cahian  sacerdas  offrodon  ccalf,  and  jet  "Sam  wcofode 
snidon.  Crist  sylf  waes  on  Sam  ccalfc  getacnod,  for  ^aere 
niihte  his  iSrowunge.  IIT  oflfrodon  lamb  binnon  Sam  gctelde, 
and  he  waes  eac  on  Sam  getacnod,  for  his  unscaeSSignysse ; 
he  waes  on  rammes  siege  getacnod,  for  his  ealdordome  ;  he 
wa^s  on  buccan  siege  getacnod,  for  gelicnysse  synfulles 
flaesces,  ])V£t  he  mid  urum  flfesclicum  gecynde  ure  synna  adi- 
legode.  Eac  gehwilce  oSre  offrunga  luefdon  getacnunge  his 
toweardan  dea^es,  and  bigencges  Godcs  Seowdomes. 

We  so^lice  aefter  ^eawlicum  andgite  cealf  offriaS  Gode  to 
lace,  gif  we  ures  lichaman  modignysse  for  his  egc  oferswiSaS. 
Lamb  we  offriaS  on  Godes  lace,  gif  we  unscaeSSignyssc  on 
urum  ^cawum  symle  healda^,  and  J^a  unsceadwislican  sty- 
runga  on  stae^^ignysse  awenda^.  Buccan  we  offria'S,  ©"S^e 
ticcen,  gif  we  ures  lichaman  galnysse  oferswiSa^.  Culfran 
we  offria"S,  gif  we  so"Se  bilewitnysse  on  urum  mode  healda^. 
Turtlan  we  offriaS,  gif  we  on  chennysse  wunia"5.  peorfe 
hlafas  we  bringaS  Gode  to  lace,  ^onne  we  buton  yfclnysse 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  211 

possessioDS."  Tliis  commandmcnl  forbids  unrighteous  desire 
and  worldly  covetousness. 

It  is  also  to  be  understood,  that  the  Egyptian  folk  were 
stricken  witii  ten  plagues ;  and  ten  commandments  were 
written  on  the  two  tables,  for  a  direction  to  God's  people, 
that  devilish  sins  might  be  destroyed  by  those  commandments. 
The  great  tabernacle  that  God  with  manifold  craft  directed, 
was  a  type  of  the  holy  church  which  Cliribt  by  his  advent 
founded,  and  by  his  apostles  and  teachers  constructed.  In 
this  tabernacle  were  manifold  colours,  and  almost  unspeak- 
able ornaments:  so  also  in  God's  church  there  are  manifold 
beauties  through  the  converse  of  good  men,  who  fervently 
desire  the  everlasting  life.  The  manifold  offerings,  which 
the  Almighty  commanded  to  be  constantly  offered  in  the  tem- 
ple, betokened  the  passion  of  Christ ;  and  he  abolished  the  old 
sacrifices,  when  he  himself  truly  was  offered  to  the  Almighty 
Father  for  our  sins. 

The  old  priests  offered  a  calf,  and  slew  it  at  the  altar. 
Christ  was  himself  betokened  in  that  calf,  in  virtue  of  his 
passion.  They  offered  a  lamb  within  the  tabernacle,  and 
he  was  also  betokened  in  that,  for  his  innocence  ;  he  was  be- 
tokened in  the  slaying  of  a  ram,  for  his  authority  ;  he  was 
betokened  in  the  slaying  of  a  buck,  for  likeness  of  the  sinful 
flesh,  that  \vith  our  fleshly  nature  he  might  extinguish  our 
sins.  Every  other  offering  also  was  a  type  of  his  future 
death,  and  of  the  observance  of  God's  service. 

But  we  in  a  figurative  sense  offer  a  calf  as  a  gift  to  God, 
if,  for  awe  of  him,  we  overcome  the  pride  of  our  body.  A 
lamb  we  offer  as  a  gift  to  God,  if  we  ever  preserve  innocence 
in  our  morals,  and  turn  irrational  perturbations  into  steadi- 
ness. A  buck  we  offer,  or  a  kid,  if  we  overcome  the  lust  of 
our  body.  \  dove  we  offer,  if  we  preserve  true  meekness 
in  our  mind.  A  turtle-dove  we  offer,  if  we  continue  in 
chastity.  Unleavened  loaves  we  bring  as  a  gift  to  God,  when 

p  2 


212  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

bcorman  on  "Seorfnysse  sjfenn'sse  and  so^ftestnysse  fai"i(5. 
Hunig  waes  forboden  on  eallum  Godes  lacum,  forban  Se  him 
ne  lica^  on  his  gecorenumnanelustfulhingaob^e  werodnyssa 
|?yssere  worulde.  On  aelcum  lacum  sceolde  beon  scalt  ge- 
nienged,  gewisslice  ]>jet  we  ealle  Godes  benunge  mid  sealte 
wislices  gesceades  symle  gemengan.  Ele  sceolde  oac  mid 
Godes  lacum  beon  geoffrod,  for  ^an'e  getacnuuge  j'<Et  we 
sceolon  don  mid  glyednysse  swa  hwaet  swa  we  Gode  gedo^, 
for^an  "be  he  lufaS  j^one  gh-edan  syllcnd. 


SECUNDA  SENTEXTIA  DE  HOC  IPSO. 

MOYSES  and  Aaron,  and  «Sa  yldcstan  caldras  Israhela  bcode 
gecndodon  heora  lif  on  bierc  langsuman  fare,  swa-Seah  buton 
legere ;  and  God  gesette  losue  JSam  folce  to  lierctogan,  y<et 
he  hi  to  Sam  behatenan  cbele  hedan  sceolde  :  and  he  him 
behet  j^aet  he  wolde  on  ealhun  bingum  his  gcfylsta  beon,  swa 
swa  he  wpes  Moyses ;  and  he  gesette  Aarones  sunu,  Eleazar, 
to  sacerde  JSam  folce.  pxt  folc  tjnuie  micelne  team  on  ^am 
westene,  and  wurdon  gewcxene  to  wTge  ful  strange,  binnon 
Sam  fyrste  feowertig  geara.  IIi  ferdon  tia  mid  fultumc  j^aes 
folces  menigu,  and  mid  gcscyldnysse  sobes  Drihtnes,  to  Sam 
leodum  ^e  hi  gelabode  waeron.  Da  lordanis  seo  ea  on  emtwa 
toeode,  and  for  ^aes  folces  fare  flowan  ne  mihte,  and  wtstod 
se  stream  swa  steap  swa  munt,  and  Israhel  code  call  be  bam 
grunde  dryge  to  lande,  and  seo  ea  eft  to-arn.  Hi  becomon 
"Sa  to  anre  byrig  lericho,  seo  waes  sellice  getimbrod,  mid 
seofon  weallum  beworht,  and  wel  wi^innan  geset.  pa  code 
Israhela  folc  on  ymbhwyrfte  }?agre  byrig  seofon  dagas  on  an, 
ealle  suwigende,  felce  daege  aene,  swa  swa  se  ^Imihtiga  het ; 
and  on  ^bam  seofoSan  daege  swi^lice  bleowan  seofon  sacerdas 
mid  sylfrenum  bymum,  and  Israhela  folc  call  samod  hrymde. 
Da  burston  "ba  seofon  weallas  ealle  tosomne,  and  hi  inn-eodon 
swa  hwaer  swa  hi  stodon,  and  ofslogon  ^a  suibe  ^ba  haeSenan, 
})fet  ^aer  nan  ne  belaf  ^aera  ungelyfedra  cucu.  Hwaet  ^a  losue 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  213 

without  the  barm  of  cvilnci^s,  we  walk  in  the  unleaven  of  so- 
berness and  truth.  Honey  was  forbidden  in  all  God's  offer- 
inn's,  for  no  luxuries,  no  sweetnesses  of  this  world  are 
pleasing  to  him  among  his  chosen.  With  all  offerings  salt 
should  he  mingled,  undoubtedly  that  we  should  always  mingle 
all  service  to  God  with  the  salt  of  wise  discretion.  Oil  also 
should  be  offered  with  offerings  to  God,  as  a  betokening 
that  Me  should  do  with  gladness  whatsoever  we  do  for  God, 
because  he  loves  the  glad  giver. 


SECOND  DISCOUUSK  ON  THE  SAME. 

MOSES  and  Aaron,  and  the  chief  elders  of  the  people  of 
Israel  ended  their  lives  on  the  longsome  journey,  though 
without  sickness  ;  and  God  set  Joshua  as  leader  of  the  people, 
that  he  might  conduct  them  to  the  promised  land  :  and  he 
promised  that  he  would  in  all  things  be  his  supporter,  as  lie 
had  been  of  Moses  ;  and  he  set  Eleazar,  the  son  of  Aaron,  as 
priest  of  the  people.  The  people  begat  a  great  progeny  in  the 
wilderness,  and  were  grown  full  strong  for  war,  within  the 
space  of  forty  years.  Tiny  went  then  with  tlie  support  of 
the  muhitude  of  people  and  with  the  protection  of  the  true 
Lord,  to  the  nations  to  which  they  had  been  called.  Then 
the  river  Jordan  separated  into  two  parts,  and  for  the  people's 
passage  might  not  flow,  and  the  stream  stopt  as  steep  as  a 
mount,  and  all  Israel  went  along  the  ground  dry  to  land,  and 
the  river  again  ran  together.  They  came  to  a  city  called 
Jericho,  Avhich  was  excellently  built,  encircled  witii  seven 
walls,  and  well  ordered  within.  Then  went  the  people  of 
Israel  round  about  the  city  for  seven  days  together,  all  hold- 
ing silence,  each  day  once,  as  the  Almighty  had  commanded  ; 
and  on  the  seventh  day  seven  priests  blew  loudly  with  silver 
trumpets,  and  the  people  of  Israel  all  cried  together.  Then 
the  seven  walls  all  burst  at  once,  and  they  went  in  where- 
soever they  stood,  and  vigorously  slew  the  heathen,  so  that 
not  one  of  the  unbelieving   remained  alive.     Joshua  after- 


214  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

si^^an  ferde  mid  Israhela  "Seode  to  eallum  leodum  |?.nes  ee'Se- 
lan  eardes,  and  hi  ealle  ofsloh  :  |?a  Se  him  oSflugon,  "Sam 
feollon  stanas  on-uppan  micele  of  heofonum,  and  hi  mid  calle 
fordydon.  losue  se  heretoga  mid  sige  wearb  gebyld,  and 
cw8e"S  to  ^aere  sunnan  mid  swiSlicum  worde,  ]>ieX  heo  of  Ssere 
stowe  styrian  ne  sceolde,  aer^an  ^e  his  fynd  feallende  swulton. 
pa  stod  seo  sunne  swi^e  healic  ongean  Gabao,  be  Godes 
htjese,  anes  daeges  faec,  ccr^an  "Se  lieo  yrnan  dorste,  oS]'aet  ^a 
sigcfffistan  lieora  fynd  aledon.  Seofon  Seoda  hi  ofslogon 
mid  swurdcs  ecge,  on  ^am  waeron  getealde  twa  and  Srytig 
cyninga  :  "Sa  wurdon  ealle  endemes  adylegode.  II\v£et  Sa,  si^- 
•San  sc  sigefjesta  ccmpa  ]>one  card  calne  enilice  dieldc  betvvux 
twelf  m;Rgt)uni])8es  jfiSelan  mancynncs,  Abrahiimesofspringcs, 
"Sc  hit  eal  ge^vann,  and  hi  on  (Sam  hinde  leofodon  siJSSan, 
oSj>aet  sc  ^Elmihtiga  Cyning  of  JSam  cynne  asprang,  Drihtcn 
Haelend,  ure  sawle  to  ha^lc.  We  habba^  nu  c)as  race  anfcald- 
lice  gcreht ;  wc  willaS  eac  ]?aet  andgit  cow  gcopcnian,  and  Sa 
dygelnysse  cow  nc  bcdyrnan. 

losuc  luTcfde  ]>pes  Hajlendcs  getacnunge  on  naman  and  on 
djedum,  Scab  hit  eow  digcle  sy.  He  wfes  gehaten  mid  hal- 
wendum  naman  losuc  and  Icsns,  ludeiscra  latteow.  lesus 
waes  gehaten  ure  Hcclend  Crist  fram  Sam  engle  aerSan  "Se 
he  mennisclice  acenned  waerc.  lesus  is  Ebrcisc  nama,  J^aet 
is  on  Leden  '  Saluator,'  and  on  Englisc  '  ILelend,'  for^an 
•Se  he  geha^lS  his  folc  fram  heora  synnum,  and  geliet  to  "Sam 
ecan  earde  hcofenan  rices,  swa  swa  se  heretoga  lesus  gelaedde 
)?one  ealdan  Israhel  to  Sam  earde  ]?e  him  behSten  wjes. 

Seo  burh  lericho  mid  hire  seofon  weallum  getacnode  "Sas 
ateorigendlican  woruld,  ]7e  tyrnS  on  seofon  dagum,  and  hi 
symle  ge-edlaeca^,  o'SJ?aet  seo  geendung  calhim  mannum  be- 
cume.  lericho  is  gereht  *  Mona,'  and  se  mona  haifS  |?issere 
worulde  gelicnysse,  for^an  ^e  he  is  hvviltidum  weaxende 
hwiltidum  wanigende,  swa  swa  "Seos  woruld.  losue  se  here- 
toga mid  Israhela  folce,  beeode  ^a  burh  seofon  si^um,  and 
^a  Godes   (Seowas  brcron  ]>Het  haligc  serin  mid  Sam  heofcn- 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  215 

wards  went  with  the  people  of  Israel  to  all  the  nations  of  that 
noble  country,  and  slew  them  all :  on  those  who  escaped  from 
him  srreat  stones  fell  from  heaven,  and  totally  destroyed  them. 
Joshua  the  leader  was  emboldened  by  victory,  and  said  to 
the  sun  with  mighty  words,  that  it  should  not  stir  from  that 
place,  before  his  foes  falling  died.  Then  stood  the  sun  very 
high  against  Gibeon,  by  God's  command,  for  the  space  of  a 
day,  before  it  durst  run,  until  the  conquerors  had  laid  low 
their  foes.  Seven  nations  they  slew  with  edge  of  sword, 
among  which  were  counted  thirty-two  kings  :  these  were  all 
finally  extirpated.  Thorcupon  the  victorious  champion  equally 
divided  all  the  country  among  the  twelve  tribes  of  the  noble 
race,  Abraham's  ofTspring,  who  had  won  it  all,  and  they 
afterwards  lived  in  tiie  land,  until  the  Almighty  King  sprang 
from  that  race,  the  Lord  Jesus,  for  our  souls'  salvation.  We 
have  now  simply  narrated  this  narrative  ;  we  will  also  open 
the  sense  to  you,  and  not  hide  the  mysteries  from  you. 

Joshua  was  a  type  of  Jesus  in  name  and  in  deeds,  though 
to  you  it  be  obscure.  He  was  called  by  the  salutary  name 
of  Joshua  and  Jesus,  the  guide  of  the  Jews.  Our  Saviour 
Christ  was  by  the  angel  called  Jesus  before  he  was  humanly 
born.  Jesus  is  a  Hebrew  name,  which  is  in  Latin  Salvator, 
and  in  English  Healing,  because  he  heals  his  people  of  their 
sins,  and  leads  them  to  the  eternal  country  of  the  kingdom 
of  heaven,  as  the  leader  Jesus  led  the  old  Israel  to  the 
country  which  had  been  promised  to  them. 

The  city  of  Jericho  with  its  seven  w;dls  betokened  tins 
perishable  world,  which  turns  in  seven  days,  and  always  re- 
peats them,  until  the  ending  comes  to  all  men.  Jericho  is 
interpreted  Jluon,  and  the  moon  has  a  likeness  to  this  world, 
because  it  is  sometimes  waxing  sometimes  waning,  like  this 
world.  Joshua  the  leader  with  the  people  of  Israel  went 
about  the  city  seven  times,  and  the  servants  of  God  bare  the 
holy  ark  with  the  heavenly  covenant,  and  the  city  was  not 


216  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

licum  haligdome,  and  seo  burh  naes  mid  nanum  wige  gewuu- 
nen,  ac  mid  j?am  ymgange  ;  and  burh^jBra  saceixlu  blawunge 
toburston  ^a  weallas.  Swa  eac  "Surh  Cristes  to-cyme  to 
^yssere  worulde,  and  ^urh  his  apostola  bodunge,  tofeollon 
•Sa  wiSerweardan  weallas  J^yssere  worulde  ungeleaftulnysse, 
oS)?aet  on  ende  ure  tida  biS  se  feondlica  dea^  farlice  towor- 
pen,  and  se  dea^  sitSSan  us  deriaii  ne  ma^g.  losue  '5a  siJSJSan 
and  Israhel  ofslogon  seofon  Seoda  mid  bam  foreswdum  cyne- 
gum,  and  he  ^one  eard  ealne  todailde  betwux  Sam  twelf 
maegSum  pe  him  mid  fuhton. 

Hit  waes  alyfed  on  ^aere  ealdan  ie,  \>nit  geluva  moste  his 
feond  ofslean,  swa  swa  Crist  sylf  to   his    leorning-cnihtum 
cwse^,    "  Go    gchyrdon   bwset  gecweden   wxs   <Sam   ealdum 
mannum  on  Moyses  te :  Lufa  Sinne  nextan,  and  hata  binne 
feond.     Ic  so^lice  eow  secge,  LufiaS  cowere  fynd,  dob  jnim 
tela  ^e  eow  hatiaS,  and  gebiddaS  for  eowerum  chterum  and 
eow  tynendum,  j>8et  ge  bcon  cowcrcs  Fjeder  beam  seSe  on 
heofonum  is,  se^e  deS  his  sunnan  scinan  ofer  iSa  yfelan  and 
ofer  'Sa  godan,  and  syl5  ren-scuras  5am  rilitwisum  and  '5am 
unrihtwisum.     Gif  ge  '5a  ane  lufiaS  ]?e  eow   lufia5,  huilcc 
mede  h.cbbe  ge  );onne  set  Gode?"     pus  t.-ehte  Crist  on  iSaere 
Niwan    Gecy5nysse    eallum   cristenum    mannum    to   donne. 
Gif  hwam  seo  lar  ollicigc,  nc  yrsige  he  nateshwon  wi5  us, 
•Scab  '5e  we  Godes  bebodu  mannum  geopenian  ;  for5an  "5e  he 
cw8e5,  "  So5  ic  eow  secge,  Buton  eower  rihtwisnyss  mare  sy 
Jjonne  '5aera  ludeiscra  bocera  and  sunder-halgena,  ne  becume 
ge  into  heofenan  rice." 

Crist  gesette  "Sa  ealdan  ae,  and  seo  stod  ^a  liAvile  ^e  he 
wolde;  and  he  hi  eft  awende  to  gastlicum  i5ingum  on  his 
andwerdnysse ;  for'San  "Se  he  is  ^iLlmihtig  God,  and  we 
sceolon  his  gesetnyssum  gehyrsumian,  "Seah  'Se  he  gyt  wolde 
]7as  Niwan  Gecy^nysse  eft  awendan  :  ac  we  witon  ]7aet  he 
nele.  peah  ^e  se  hlaford  cwe^e  to  his  men.  Do  )?is,  and  he 
eft  cwe"5e,  Ne  do  ])\i  "Sis,  ^am  ieftran  worde  he  sceal  gehyr- 
sumian, na  ^am  aerran.  Cristenc  men  sceolon  gastlice  feohtan 


MIDLEXT  SUNDAY.  217 

won  by  any  war,  but  by  that  going  about;  and  through 
the  blowing  of  the  priests  the  walls  burst  asunder.  So  like- 
wise through  Christ's  advent  to  this  world,  and  through  the 
preaching  of  the  apostles,  the  adverse  walls  of  this  world's 
unbelief  fell,  until  at  the  end  of  our  times  hostile  dcatli 
will  suddenly  be  cast  down,  and  death  can  afterwards  not 
injure  us.  Josiuia  then  and  Israel  slew  seven  nations  with 
the  aforesaid  kings,  and  he  divided  all  the  country  among  the 
twelve  tribes  which  had  fought  witii  him. 

It  was  allowed  in  the  old  lau-,  that  every  one  might  slay 
his  foe,  as  Christ  himself  said  to  his  disciples,  "  Ye  have 
heard  wiiat  was  said  to  the  men  of  old  in  the  law  of  Moses  : 
Love  thy  neighbour,  and  hate  thy  foe.  But  I  say  unto  you. 
Love  your  foes,  do  good  unto  them  who  hate  you,  auti  pray 
for  your  persecutors  and  injurers,  that  ye  be  children  of  your 
Father  who  is  in  heaven,  who  maketh  his  sun  to  shine  over 
the  evil  and  over  the  good,  and  giveth  rain-showers  to  the 
righteous  and  to  the  unrighteous.  If  ye  love  only  those  wiio 
love  you,  what  reward  have  ye  then  from  God  ?  "  Thus 
taught  Christ  in  the  New  Testament  all  christian  men  to  do. 
If  any  one  mislike  the  doctrine,  let  him  not  be  at  all  angry 
M'itii  us,  though  we  disclose  God's  commandments  to  men  ; 
for  he  said,  "  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  Unless  your  righteous- 
ness be  greater  than  that  of  the  Jewish  scribes  and  pharisees, 
ye  will  not  come  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven." 

Ciirist  established  the  old  law,  and  that  stood  as  long  as 
he  would ;  and  he  afterwards  changed  it  to  a  gliostly  sense 
by  his  presence ;  for  he  is  xVlmighty  God,  and  we  should 
obey  his  ordinances,  even  though  he  would  change  the  New 
Testament :  but  we  know  that  he  will  not.  Though  the 
lord  say  to  his  man,  Do  this,  and  he  afterwards  say,  Do  this 
not,  he  shall  obey  the  latter  command,  not  the  former. 
Chrii^tian  men   should  fight  spiritually  against  sins,  as  Paul, 


218  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

ongean  leahtrum,  swa  svva  Paulus,  ^eoda  lareow,  us  tshte 
•Sisuin  wordum,  "  Ymbsciyda^  eow  mid  Godes  vvaepnunge, 
]>eet  ge  magon  standan  ongean  deofles  syrwungum ;  forSan 
■Se  us  nis  nan  gecamp  ongean  flaesc  and  blod,  ac  togeanes 
deofellicuni  ealdrum  and  gastlicum  yfelnyssum.  StandaS 
eornostlice  mid  begyrdum  lendenum  on  soSfestnysse,  and 
ymbscrydde  mid  rihtuisnysse  byrnan  ;  and  nymaiS  )?aes  gc- 
leafan  scyld,  and  "Saes  hihtcs  helm,  and  ];8es  lialgan  Gastes 
swurd,  |>jfit  is,  Godes  word."  Mid  J'isum  gastlicum  wtepnum 
we  sceolon  ongean  Sam  awyrigedum  gastum,  j^urh  Godes 
mihte,  stranglicc  fcohtan,  gif  we  willaS  sigcftestc  to  "Sam 
behatenan  cardc  hcofenan  rices  becuman. 

Witodiice  losue  and  Israiiela  folc  oferwunnon  seofon 
Seoda :  eahtoSe  wses  Pharao,  "Se  ier  mid  his  leode  adranc  ; 
and  hi  si^^an  sigefaeste  J>one  behatenan  card  him  betwynan 
dtf'ldon.  Swa  sceolon  eac  cristene  men  ^a  eahta  heafod- 
leahtras  mid  heora  Mcrodum  eallc  oferwinnan,  gif  hi  aefre 
sceolon  to  5am  eSclc  becuman,  iSo  him  on  frymSe  sc  Ilcofen- 
lica  Faider  gemynte,  gif  hi  his  bebodum  bliSelice  gehyrsu- 
miaS.  Se  forma  heafod-leahter  is  gyfernyss,  se  o'Ser  is  gal- 
nyss,  (Srydda  gytsung,  feorSa  weamet,  fifta  unrotnys,  sixta 
asolcennyss  oS^e  aemclnys  ;  seofoSa  ydel  gylp,  eahteoba  mo- 
dignyss.  pas  eahta  hcafod-leaiitras  fordoS  and  geniSeria^ 
]?a  unwa^ran  into  belle- wite.  Hit  is  gecweden  }>aet  se  ealda 
Israhel  oferwann  seofon  "Seoda,  eahtcoSe  w'a^s  Pharao,  ac  hi 
oferwunnon  micele  ma  |?onne  "Saer  genamode  vv^ron ;  swa 
eac  aelc  "Syssera  heafod-leahtra  haefS  micelne  team,  ac  gif  we 
•Sa  raodru  acvvella^,  );onne  beoS  heora  beam  ealle  adydde. 

Gifernys  bi^  past  se  man  eer  timan  bine  gereordige,  obSe 
set  his  maele  to  micel  ^icge,  mid  oferflowendnysse  setes  o55e 
wfetes.  Of  'Sisum  leahtre  beoS  acenncde  oferfyll,  and  drun- 
cennyss,  and  unclaennys  lichaman,  and  modes  unstjeSSignys, 
and  ydel  gaffetung,  and  fela  o^re  unSeawas,  "Se  woruld-men 
to  nanum  la^e  ne  talia^,  o^Jjaet  hi  on  ende  hi  eft  geinetaS. 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  219 

the  teacher  of  the  gentiles,  taught  us  in  these  words,  "  Arm 
yourselves  with  God's  armour,  that  ye  may  stand  against  the 
wiles  of  the  devil ;  for  to  us  it  is  no  contest  against  flesh 
and  blood,  but  against  devilish  princes  and  ghostly  vices. 
Stand  firmly  with  loins  girded  with  truth,  and  armed  with 
the  breast-plate  of  righteousness:  and  take  the  shield  of  be- 
lief, and  the  helm  of  hope,  and  the  sword  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
that  is,  the  word  of  God."  With  these  ghostly  weapons  we 
must  through  God's  might  fight  strenuously  against  the  ac- 
cursed spirits,  if  we  will  come  triumphant  to  the  promised 
country  of  heaven's  kingdom. 

Now  Joshua  and  the  people  of  Israel  overcame  seven 
nations  :  the  eighth  was  Pharaoh,  who  had  been  previously 
drowned  with  his  people ;  and  they  afterwards  victorious 
divided  the  promised  land  among  them.  So  also  should 
christian  men  overcome  all  the  eight  chief  sins  with  their 
hosts,  if  they  shall  ever  come  to  the  country  which  the 
Heavenly  Father  designed  for  them  at  the  beginning,  if  they 
cheerfully  obey  his  commandments.  The  first  chief  sin  is 
greediness,  the  second  is  libidinousness,  the  third  covetous- 
ness,  the  fourth  passion,  the  fifth  discontent,  the  si.\th  sloth- 
fulness  or  aversion,  the  seventh  vain-glory,  the  eighth  pride. 
These  eight  chief  sins  fordo  and  condemn  the  unwary  to  hell- 
torment.  It  is  said  that  the  old  Israel  overcame  seven  na- 
tions, the  eighth  was  Pharaoh  ;  but  they  overcame  many 
more  than  were  there  named  ;  so  also  each  of  these  chief  sins 
has  a  great  progeny,  but  if  we  kill  the  mothers,  then  will  all 
their  children  be  destroyed. 

It  is  greediness  when  a  man  takes  food  before  his  time,  or 
at  his  meal  eats  too  much,  with  a  superfluity  of  food  or  fluid. 
Of  this  sin  are  born  gluttony,  and  drunkenness,  and  un- 
cleanncss  of  body,  and  unsteadiness  of  mind,  and  idle  obsce- 
nity, and  many  other  vices,  which  worldly  men  account  as 
no  sin,  until  they  at  the  end  meet  them  again.  Verily  through 


220  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

Witodlice  ^urh  gifernysse  waes  Adam  se  frumsccapcna  man 
bepseht,  ^a^a  lie  onbirigde  ]?aes  forbodenau  fepples.  Se  ober 
heafod-lcahter  is  gecweden  forliger  o^Se  galnyss,  ]?aet  is  ]>pet 
se  man  ungehealdsum  sy  on  haemedcj  and  hnesce  on  mode 
to  fljesclicum  lustum.  Of  Sam  leahtre  cumaS  modes  nifegen- 
least,  and  ungemctcgod  lufu,  hatung  Godes  beboda,  and  hige- 
leas  plega,  fracodlic  sprfec,  and  eagcna  unstaeSSignys.  Se 
^ridda  leahtor  is  gitsung,  se  ontent  symle  Sjes  mannes  mod 
to  maran  .•ehte,  and  swa  he  mare  htjefS  swa  he  gra^digiM  biS. 
Of  "Sisum  leahtre  beo5  acennede  leasunga  and  aiidaii,  facn 
and  reaflac,  stala  and  forsworonnys,  leas  gewitnyss  and  un- 
mfeSlic  neadung.  Se  feorSa  leahtor  is  wcamet,  ]>iei  se  man 
nage  his  modes  geweald,  ac  baton  selcere  foresceawunge  his^ 
yrsunge  gefremaS.  Of  Sam  leahtre  cymS  bream,  and  .ebi- 
lignys,  dyslic  dyrstignys,  and  mansliht.  Se  fifta  leaiitor  is 
unrotnys  Sisscre  worulde,  ]>iBt  se  man  geumotsigc  ongean 
God  for  ungelimpum  Sises  andwerdan  lifes.  Of  Sam  biS 
accnned  yfelnys  and  wacmodiiys,  heortan  biternys  and  his 
sylfes  orwcnnys.  Twa  unrotnyssa  sind  :  an  is  Seos  derigcnd- 
lice,  oScr  is  halwendlic,  j^aet  gchua  for  his  synnum  unrotsigc 
mid  soSre  d<edbote.  Se  sixta  heafod-leahtor  is  asolcemiys 
o^Se  temelnys.  Se  leahtor  deS  )?;Ht  Sam  men  ne  lyst  nan 
Sing  to  gode  gedon,  ac  gieS  him  asolcen  fram  aelcere  dugcSe. 
Nis  se  leahtor  plcolic  geSuht,  ac  he  gcbrincS  swa-Seali  Sone 
mann  to  micclum  yfele.  He  acenS  idelnysse  and  slapolnysse, 
gemagnysse  and  wordlunge,  woruiige  and  fyrwitnysse.  Se 
seofo^a  heafod-leahter  is  gehaten  idel-wuldor,  ]?Kt  is  gylp 
o^Se  gctot,  )?onne  se  man  gewilna^  J>a3t  he  hlisful  sy,  and 
cyrten,  and  nele  foresceawian  ]>set  ure  lichaman  beot)  awende 
to  duste,  and  ure  sawla  sceolon  agyldan  gescead  ealra  Sfera 
ydelnyssa  "Se  hi  unnytwurSlice  nu  bega§.  Of  ydelum  gylpe 
biSacenned  pryte  and  aebilignys,  ungeSwfernys  and  hywung, 
and  lustfullung  leasre  herunge.  Se  eahteo^a  leahter  is  mo- 
dignys.  Se  leahter  is  ord  and  ende  ielces  yfeles  :  se  geworhte 
englas   to   deoflum,   and  aelcre  synne  anginn  is  modignys. 


MIDLENT  SUxNDAY.  221 

greediness  was  Adam,  the  first-created  man,  deceived,  when 
he  tasted  the  forbidden  apple.  Tlie  second  chief  sin  is  called 
fornication  or  libidinousness,  that  is,  when  a  man  is  incon- 
tinent in  sexual  connexion  and  voluptuous  in  mind  for  fleshly 
lusts.  Of  this  vice  come  imbecility  of  mind,  and  immoderate 
love,  hate  of  God's  commandments,  and  senseless  play,  ob- 
scene speech,  and  unsteadiness  of  eyes.  The  third  sin  is  covet- 
ousncss,  which  ever  inflames  a  man's  mind  to  greater  posses- 
sion, and  as  he  has  more  so  is  he  the  greedier.  Of  tliis  sin  arc 
born  Icasings  and  envy,  fraud  and  rapine,  stealing  and  for- 
swearing, false  witness  and  immoderate  violence.  The  fourth 
sin  is  irascibility,  when  a  man  has  not  command  of  his  mind, 
but  without  any  foresight  gives  efiect  to  his  anger.  Of  this  sin 
come  uproar,  and  irritation,  fool-hardiness,  and  murder.  The 
fifth  sin  is  discontent  of  this  world,  so  that  a  man  is  discon- 
tented with  God  for  the  mishaps  of  this  present  life.  Of  this 
are  born  cvilness  and  pusillanimity,  bitterness  of  heart  and 
despair  of  one's  self.  There  are  two  discontents  :  one  is 
this  pernicious  one,  the  other  is  salutary,  when  every  one  is 
discontented,  on  account  of  his  sins,  with  true  penitence. 
The  sixth  chief  sin  is  slothfulness  or  disgust.  This  sin 
causes  a  man  to  have  no  desire  to  do  anything  good,  but  to 
go  disgusted  from  every  virtue.  Tiiis  sin  is  not  regarded  as 
perilous,  but  it,  nevertheless,  brings  a  man  into  great  evil. 
It  gives  birth  to  idleness  and  sleepiness,  petulance  and  babble, 
randiling  and  idle  curiosity.  The  seventh  chief  sin  is  called 
vain-glory,  that  is  pride  or  pomp,  when  a  man  desires  to  be 
famous  and  specious,  and  will  not  foresee  that  our  bodies  will 
be  turned  to  dust,  and  that  our  souls  shall  render  an  account 
of  all  the  vanities  which  they  now  uselessly  commit.  Of 
vain-glory  are  born  pride  and  irritation,  discord  and  hypo- 
crisy, and  lust  of  false  praise.  The  eighth  sin  is  pride.  This 
sin  is  the  beginning  and  end  of  every  evil :  it  made  angels  into 
devils,  and  of  every  sin  the  beginning  is  pride.   When  a  man 


222  DOMINICA  IN  MEDIA  QUADRAGESIME. 

Donne  se  man  ^urh  nioiiignysse  forsilrS  his  Scyppendes 
beboda,  J^onne  sona  sceal  he  befcallan  on  sumum  seabe 
svveartra  synna.  Modignys  is  endcnext  gesett  on  getele 
^aera  heafod-leahtra,  forSan  iSe  se  unwaera  on  ende  oft  nio- 
dcgaS  on  godum  weorcum,  and  ncle  Gode  "Sancian,  "JJe  hine 
mid  halgum  maegnum  healice  geglengdc.  pes  leahtor  acenS 
forsewennysHC  and  ungehyrsumnysse,  andan  and  yfel-sacuj)ge, 
ceorunge  and  gelomlicc  tala. 

pisum  heafod-leahtrum  we  sceolon  symle  on  urum  iSeawum 
wi^cweSan,  and  Surh  Godes  fultum  mid  gastlicum  w.-vpnum 
ealle  ofcr\vinnan,gif  we  "Sone  heofenlican  eard  habban  wilhiS. 
To  Sam  earde  we  waeron  gesceapene,  ac  wc  hit  forwyrhton. 
Nu  naebbe  we  hit  naefre,  butoii  we  hit  cftgcwiimon  mid  gast- 
licum  gecampc  Surh  Godcs  fultum,  swa  swa  Israhel  JSone 
eard  gewann  Se  Abrahamc  ;er  beliatcn  wics.  Wc  sceolon 
oferwinnan  terest  gifernysse  mid  gemetogunge  tetes  and 
wffites;  forltgcr  o«S5e  giilnysse  mid  claMinysse,  swa  }?aet  se 
Iffiweda  his  jjewe  hcalde,  and  se  gchadoda  Godes  "Seow  symle 
on  claennysse  wunige,  swa  swa  se  canon  him  cu Slice  scgS. 
We  sceolon  oferwinnan  woruldlice  gytsunge  mid  cystignysse 
ures  chenan  modes,  and  wcatnettc  mid  wislicum  gcSylde, 
and  woruldlice  unrotnysse  mid  gastlicere  blissc,  asolccnnysse 
mid  soSre  anraidnyssc,  ydelnegylp  mid  incundre  lufe,  modig- 
nysse  mid  micelre  eadmodnysse  ;  j^onne  sylS  us  to  leane  se 
sigeffcsta  lesus  "Sone  ccan  eSel  mid  eallum  his  halgum,  on 
"Sam  we  a  sySSan  gesajlige  rixiaS,  aelces  yfeles  orsorge,  gif 
we  hit  nu  geearnia"S. 

paet  Israhela  folc  geSafode  ]?set  sume  Sa  haeSenan  on  heora 
Seowte  kofodon,  to  wudunge  and  to  wreterunge  on  "Sam  wid- 
gillan  lande ;  swa  eac  we  ne  magon  mid  ealle  adwa^scan  aelcne 
un'Seaw  of  urum  lichaman  ;  ac  Sa  ma;stan  we  sceolon  miiitig- 
lice  oferwinnan,  and  symle  on  ^am  laessan  eadmodnysse 
leornian,  na  on  geSafunge  swa-Seah  Swyrlicera  dffida. 

Seo  sunne  stod  stille  on  heofonum  oSj^aet  Israhel  ealle  ofer- 
wann  Sa  Swyran  hsSenan  mid  stiSum  gefeohte  ;  swa  gelice 


MIDLENT  SUNDAY.  22S 

through  pride  despises  the  commandments  of  his  Creator, 
then  shall  he  forthwith  fall  into  a  pit  of  swart  sms.  Pride  is 
set  last  in  the  number  of  the  chief  sins,  because  the  heedless  is 
at  last  often  proud  of  good  works,  and  will  not  thank  God, 
who  had  highly  adorned  him  with  holy  virtues.  This  sin 
brings  forth  contempt  and  disobedience,  envy  and  evil  strife, 
murmuring  and  frequent  calumnies. 

These  chief  sins  we  should  in  our  conduct  ever  oppose, 
and  with  God's  support  overcome  them  all  \\ilh  ghostly 
weapons,  if  we  are  desirous  to  have  the  heavenly  country.  For 
that  country  we  were  created,  but  we  forfeited  it.  Now  we 
shall  never  have  it,  unless  we  again  win  it  with  ghostly  con- 
flict, through  the  aid  of  God,  as  Israel  won  the  country  which 
had  before  been  promised  to  Abraham.  We  must  first  over- 
come greediness  by  moderation  in  eating  and  drinking  ;  for- 
nication or  libidinousness  by  chastity,  so  that  the  layman 
hold  to  his  wife,  and  the  ordained  minister  of  God  ever  con- 
tinue in  chastity,  as  the  canon  plainly  tells  him.  We  u\\\>t 
overcome  worldly  covetousncss  by  the  bounty  of  our  pure 
mind,  and  irascibilit)  Ijy  wise  patience,  and  worldly  discontent 
with  ghostly  joy,  slothfulness  by  true  steadfastness,  vain- 
glory by  inward  love,  pride  witii  great  humility;  then  will 
the  triumphant  Jesus  give  us  for  reward  the  eternal  country 
with  all  his  saints,  in  which  we  shall  ever  after  reign  happily, 
careless  of  every  evil,  if  we  now  will  merit  it. 

The  people  of  Israel  allowed  some  of  the  heathen  to  live  in 
their  service,  to  supply  wood  and  water  in  the  wide-extended 
land ;  in  like  manner  also  we  cannot  wholly  eradicate  every 
vice  from  our  bodies  ;  but  the  greatest  we  should  strenuously 
overcome,  and  in  the  smaller  ever  learn  humility,  yet  not  in 
approval  of  perverse  deeds. 

The  sun  stood  still  in  heaven  until  Israel  had  overcome 
the  perverse  heathens  in  obstinate  battle ;  so  also  does  our 


224  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

cac  deS  urc  Drihtcn  Crist,  sebc  is  gecTged  rilitwisnysse  Sunne : 
he  fiht  mid  us  ongean  tSam  fuhuu  leahtrum,  seSe  jer  his  up- 
stige  us  eallum  behet  J^sethedteghwomlicemid  us  beoii  wolde 
o~S  geendunge  ^issere  worulde.  pa  Godes  Seowas  t5a  on 
Israhela  Seode  naiie  land-are  hlcotan  iie  moston,  forban  be 
God  bebead  aer  "Surh  Moysen,  ));et  hi  be  his  lacum  lybbaii 
sceoldoM  :  cwaeS  paet  lie  sylf  waere  hcora  yrfwcardnj'ss  ;  swa 
sceolon  eac  nu  "Sa  se^elau  Godes  "Seowas  lybban  be  Godcs 
daele,  gif  hi  rihtlice  doS,  and  his  rihtwisnysse  symle  ar^eran, 
and  ^a  gastlican  teolunga  Gode  gestreonan,  and  been  his 
folces  forebingcras,  a  wissian  hi  eac,  and  mid  weorcum  gc- 
bysnian,  and  habban  him  pa;t  cdlean  on  ^ani  ecan  life. 

Hwa  nifleg  tefre  on  life  calie  gcreccan  Godes  m;erlican 
mihta,  "Se  he  mannuin  cydde  fram  Adiimes  anginnc  ot)  j>isne 
andweardan  dipg  ?  Sy  him  wuldor  and  lof  a  to  worulde. 
Amen. 


DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

DEOS  tid  fram  bis um  andwerdan  dfege  ob  ba  halgan  Easter- 
tide is  gecwedcn  Cristes  bROwuNG-TiD,  and  ealle  Godes 
^eowas  on  baere  halgan  gelabnnge,  mid  heora  circlicum  be- 
nungum  wurbiab  and  on  gemynde  healdab  his  browunge, 
])urh  ^a  we  ealle  alysede  wurdon.  Secgab  eac  ure  bee  ]>iBt 
we  sceolon  iSas  feowertyne  niht  mid  micelre  geornfulnysse 
healdan,  for  genealaecunge  j^aere  halgan  "browunge,  and  j^aes 
arwurbfuUan  aeristes  ures  Haelendes.  On  ^isum  dagum  we 
forlffitab  on  urum  rcpsum  'Gloria  Patri,'  for  geomerunge 
baere  halgan  ^rowunge,  buton  sum  healic  freols-daeg  him  on 

besceote. 

Dis  daegberlice  godspel  sprecb  ymbe  baera  ludeiscra  -bwyr- 
nysse,  hu  hi  wi^erodon  ongean  Cristes  lare  burh  ungeleafful- 


THE  FIFTH   SUNDAY   IN  LENT.  285 

Lord  Christ,  who  is  culled  the  Sun  of  Righteousness  :  he 
fififhts  with  us  auainst  foul  sins,  who  before  his  ascension 
promised  to  us  all  that  he  would  be  with  us  daily  until  the 
ending  of  this  world.  To  the  servants  of  God  then  among  the 
people  of  Israel  might  not  be  allotted  any  land-possession, 
because  God  had  before  commanded  through  Moses,  that 
they  should  live  by  his  offerings  :  he  said  that  he  himself  was 
their  iidieritance  ;  so  also  now  should  tiie  noble  servants  of 
God  live  by  God's  portion,  if  they  would  do  rightly,  and  ever 
exalt  his  righteousness,  and  gain  ghostly  produce  to  God,  and 
be  the  intercessors  of  his  people,  also  constantly  direct  them, 
and  give  example  by  works,  and  have  their  reward  in  ever- 
lasting life. 

Who  may  ever  in  life  recount  the  great  powers  of  God, 
which  he  hath  manifested  from  Adam's  beginning  until  this 
present  day  ?  Be  to  him  glory  and  praise  to  all  eternity. 
Amen. 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

THIS  tide  from  this  present  day  until  the  holy  Easter-tide 
is  called  Ciiuist's  Passion  Tide,  and  all  God's  ministers  in 
the  holy  church  with  their  church-services  honour,  and  in 
remembrance  hold  his  passion,  through  which  we  were  all 
redeemed.  Our  books  also  say,  that  we  should  hold  these 
fourteen  days  with  great  earnestness,  on  account  of  the  ap- 
proach of  the  holy  passion  and  honourable  resurrection  of 
our  Saviour.  On  these  days  we  omit  in  our  responses  'Gloria 
Patri,'  on  account  of  our  lament  for  the  holy  passion,  imless 
some  high  festival-day  occur  during  them. 

This  daily  gospel  speaks  of  the  perversity  of  the  Jews,  how 
they  opposed  Christ's  doctrine  by  unbelief,  with  envious  mind. 

HOM.   VOL.    II.  Q 


226  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

nysse,  mid  JiitSfullum  mode.  Diihten  cwaeS  to  baera  ludeiscra 
meiiigu,  and  to  ]>am  caldor-biscopum,  "  Quis  ex  uobis  arguet 
me  de  pcccato  ?  Si  ucritutem  dico,  quare  uos  non  creditis 
mihi  ?"  et  reliqua  :  j^aet  is,  on  urum  ge^eode,  "  Huilc  eower 
'brea^  me  be  synne  ?  Gif  ic  so5  sccge,  hwi  nelle  ge  me  gely- 
fan?"  et  reliqua. 

We  willaS  trahtnian  ^is    godspel    aefter  Augustines  and 
Gregories  dihte.     Wc  sceolon  smeagan  mid  arfestre  hcortan 
ures  Drihtnes  manSwfernysse.     lie  com  to  ^i  j'set  he  wolde 
synna  forgifan,  and  he  cwc'eeJ,  "  Ilwilc  eower  SreaS  me  for 
synne?"    Nc  ^uhte  him  to  huxlic,  Jj;et  he  mid  gcsceade  hinc 
bctealdc  unsynninne,  se^e  ^urh  Godcundnysse  mihte  "Sa  syn- 
fullan  gerihtwisian.     He  cwaeeJ,  "  Gif  ic  sob  sccgc,  hwi  nelle 
ge  me  gelyfan?    Se  ^e  fram  Gode  is,  he  gchyrti  Godcs  word: 
forbi  ge  ncUaS  gehyran,  forSan   Se  ge  ne  sind  fram  Gode." 
pa  ludeiscan  wa^ron  fram  Gode,  and  hi  n.-rron  fram  Gode. 
Hi  \vfr,ron  fram  Gode  gcsceapene,  ac  hi  w.'eron  gelcahtrode 
]?urh  deofol,  and  "Surh  nianda?dum  hi  wepron  deoflcs  beam  ; 
s\ra  s\ra  Crist  on  'Sisum  godspelle  her-bufan  him  to  c\v;t^^, 
'*  Ge  sind  dcofles  beam,  and  ge  willaS  eoweres  ffeder  willan 
wyrcan  :  he  waes  manslaga  fram  frymSe,  and  he  ne  wunode 
on  so"(Sfsestnysse,  for  San  Se  nan  soSfa?stnys  nis  on  him."  Da 
ludeiscan  noldon  gehyran  Cristes  soSf^estnysse,  fofSan  ^e  hi 
NVferon  afyllede  mid  hcora  feeder  yfclnysse  and  leasunge  :   ac 
swa  swa  heora  faeder  ]?urh  Sudan  ofsloh  ^a  frumsccapenan 
men,  swa  eac  ^a  ludeiscan  smcadon  niSfullice  ymbe  Cristes 
cwale,  gecuenlae.cende  heora  fteder,  |?tet  is,  deofol^  Se  fram 
frymSe  vvres  manslaga,  na    Surh  wsepnum,  ac  Surh   yfelre 
tihtinge. 

Wite  gchwa  sc'Se  oSerne  to  Icahtrum  forspenS,  )?6et  he  is 
manslaga,  |?onne  he  ^aes  o^res  sawle  forpaerS  }?urh  his  yfelum 
tihtingum.  ^Ic  gesccaft  is  god  on  gecynde,  ac  hit  biS 
geleahtrod  Jnirh  yfelnysse.  pa  ludeiscan  waeron  gode  on 
gecynde  and  on  gebyrde,  for^an  ^e  hi  waeron  Abraham cs 
ofspring ;  ac  hi  waeron  yfele  and  deofles  beam  "Surh  euen- 


THE  FIFTH   SUNDAY   L\  LENT.  227 

The  Lord  said  to  the  luultitiulc  of  Jews  aiul  to  the  chief 
bishops,  "Quis  ex  vobis  arguct  me  de  peccator  Si  veritatciii 
dico,  quare  vos  non  crcditis  uiihi?"  et  reliqua  :  that  is,  in  our 
tongue,  "Which  of  you  convicteth  me  of  sin?  If  I  say  the 
truth,  why  will  ye  not  believe  me?"  etc. 

We  will  expound  this  gospel  according  to  the  authority  of 
Augustine  and  Gregory.  We  should  contemplate  with  pious 
heart  our  Lord's  meekness.  He  came  to  the  end  that  he 
might  forgive  sins,  and  he  said,  "Which  of  you  convictctli 
nie  of  sin?"  It  seemed  not  to  him  too  humiliating  with  reason 
to  prove  himself  unsinning,  who  through  Ins  divine  nature 
might  justify  the  sinful.  lie  said,  "  If  I  say  the  truth,  why 
will  ye  not  believe  me  ?  He  who  is  from  God  hcareth  God's 
word  :  ye  will  not  hear,  because  ye  are  not  from  God."  The 
Jews  were  from  God,  and  lluy  were  not  from  God.  They 
were  created  from  God,  but  they  were  corrupted  by  the  devil, 
and  through  deeds  of  wickedness  they  were  children  of  the 
devil ;  as  Christ  in  this  gospel  here  above  said  to  them,  **  Ye 
are  children  of  the  devil,  and  ye  will  work  your  father's  will: 
he  was  a  manslayer  from  the  begiiiiiitig,  and  he  existed 
not  in  truth,  because  there  was  no  truth  in  him."  The 
Jews  would  not  hear  Christ's  truth,  because  they  were  filled 
with  the  evilncss  and  leasing  of  their  father  :  but  as  their 
father  through  envy  slew  the  first  created  persons,  so  like- 
wise the  Jews  enviously  deliberated  for  the  slaying  of  Christ, 
imitating  their  father,  that  is,  the  devil,  who  was  a  manslayer 
from  the  i)eginning,  not  by  weapons,  but  through  evil  in- 
stigation. 

Let  every  one  know  who  entices  another  to  sins,  that  he 
is  a  manslayer,  when  he  perverts  the  other's  soul  by  evil  in- 
stigations. Every  creature  is  good  in  its  nature,  but  it  is 
corrupted  by  evil.  The  Je\^  s  were  good  by  nature  and  by 
birth,  for  they  were  Abraham's  offspring  ;  but  they  were  evil 
and  children  of  the  devil  through  imitation,  not  by  natm'e. 

Q  2 


228  DOiMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

Isecunge,  nn  (Surh  gecyndc.  Hit  is  gewunelic  on  halguin 
gewritura,  ]><tit  gehwam  bib  feder  genamod  be  his  gecfen- 
la?cunge :  gif  he  geeuenlaecS  Gode  on  godum  weorcum,  he 
bib  ]/onne  Godes  beam  gecTged ;  gif  he  geuenlfecb  deofle  on 
manlicuni  dsedum,  he  bib  bonne  deofles  beam,  })uih  his  yfehm 
geeuenliecunga,  na  gecyndelice. 

Drihten  cwse^  on  "byssere  ylcan  rsedinge  her-wibufan  to 
•bam  ludeiscunij  "  Sob  sob  ic  eow  secge,  -^Ic  'bfera  be  synnc 
wyrcb,  he  bi^  ];onne  ■bjere  sy nne  "beow."  Witodlice  se  syn- 
fulla  ^eowab  ]>am  ^v'yrstan  bcowte  :  j^eah  be  he  bruce  brades 
rices,  he  is  earni  ^eowthng,  na  ancs  Idafordcs  ;  ac  swa  mane- 
gum  leahtrum  swa  he  gehyrsumab,  swa  manega  deofla  him 
beob  to  hlafordum  gesette. 

Gehwa  mteg  hine  sylfne  tocnawan  on  bam  wordum  \fc 
Drihten  cw^e^,  "Se  "be  is  fram  Gode  he  geliyrb  Godes  word." 
God  yEhnihtig  bebytt  mainmm  )>iet  ht  sccolon  hcofonan  rices 
ebel  symle  gcwihiian,  and  j^yssere  worulde  ydclnysse  forscon  ; 
obrcs  mannes  aehta  ne  gewihiian,  his  agon  cysteHce  diehm  ; 
sobfestnysse  and  rihtwisnysse  mid  anraedum  mode  symle 
healdan.  Smcaga  nu  gehwa  on  his  mode,  gif  bas  beboda  and 
obre  |)illice  habba^  ienigne  stede  on  his  heortan,  bonne  to- 
cnajwb  he  hwa;ber  he  is  fram  Gode.  Witodlice  se  is  fram 
Gode  ]ye  Godes  beboda  mid  gehyrsumum  eare  gehyrb,  and 
gecneordlice  hi  mid  weorcum  gefylb.  Se  ]'e  ne  ma^g  histlice 
Godes  word  gcliyran,  ne  nele  hi  on  weorcum  awendan,  he 
bi^  ■baera  arleasra  ludeiscra  efenhlytta,  be  "bam  |?c  Crist 
cwae^,  ^'  For'bi  ge  ncllab  gehyran,  forban  "be  ge  ne  sind  fram 
Gode." 

pa  ludeiscan  cwaedon  be  Criste  ]?set  he  waere  Samaritanisc, 
and  hwfde  deofol  on  him.  Samaria  hatte  an  burh,  ba  burh 
forsawon  ]?a  ludeiscan  to  "ban  swi^e,  ]>a&t  swa  hwilcne  swa  hi 
to  hospe  habban  woldon,  "bonne  cwaedon  hi  be  ^am  ]fset  he 
waere  Samaritanisc.  Twa  bysmolice  word  hi  cweedon  to 
Criste  :  an  is,  j^aet  he  waere  Samaritanisc,  ober  past  he  deofol 
on  him  haefde,  ]>iBt  we  cwei5a^  on  Englisc  be  wodum  menu, 


I 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  L\  LENT.  229 

It  is  usual  in  the  holy  writings,  that  to  every  one  a  father  be 
named  according  to  his  imitation:  if  he  imitate  God  in  good 
worics,  he  will  then  be  called  a  child  of  God;  if  he  imitate 
the  devil  in  wicked  deeds,  he  will  then  be  a  child  of  the 
devil,  through  his  evil  imitations,  not  naturally. 

The  Lord  said  in  this  same  text  here  above  to  the  Jews, 
"Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  Each  of  those  who  work  sin 
shall  then  be  the  servant  of  sin."  But  a  sinful  man  is  a  ser- 
vant in  the  worst  servitude:  though  he  enjoy  a  broad  realm, 
he  is  a  miserable  thrall,  not  of  one  master  ;  but  so  many  vices 
as  he  obeys,  so  many  devils  arc  set  over  him  as  masters. 

Every  one  may  know  himself  by  the  words  which  the 
Lord  said,  "He  who  is  from  God  hcareth  God's  word."  God 
Almiglity  commands  men  constantly  to  desire  the  country  of 
heaven's  kingdom,  and  to  despise  this  world's  vanity;  not  to 
desire  another  man's  possessions,  to  distribute  his  own  boun- 
tifully; ever  to  observe  truth  and  righteousness  with  steadfast 
mind.  Let  every  one  now  consider  in  his  mind,  whether 
those  couunandments  and  others  like  unto  them  have  any 
place  in  Ins  heart,  then  will  he  know  whether  he  is  from 
God.  Verily  he  is  from  God  who  with  obedient  ear  hears 
God's  commandments,  and  by  works  diligently  fulfds  them. 
He  who  camiot  joyfully  hear  God's  words,  and  will  not  turn 
them  to  works,  is  a  participator  with  the  impious  Jews,  ac- 
cording to  what  Ciirist  said,  "Therefore  ye  Mill  not  hear, 
because  ye  are  not  from  God." 

The  Jews  said  of  Christ  that  he  was  a  Samaritan,  and  had 
a  devil  in  him.  Samaria  was  the  name  of  a  city,  which  city 
the  Jews  so  greatly  despised,  that  ^^'hatever  man  they  would 
hold  in  scorn,  they  said  of  him  that  he  was  a  Samaritan. 
Two  reproachful  sayings  they  said  to  Christ :  one  is,  that  he 
was  a  Samaritan,  the  other,  that  he  had  a  devil  in  him,  what 
we  sav  in  English  of  a  mad  man,  *  thou  art  mad.'   Christ  then 


230  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIiME. 

*);u  eart  wod.'  pa  wi^soc  Crist  swi^e  lihtlice  ]>£ei  he  dco- 
fol  on  him  nsefde  ;  ac  he  ne  wi^soc  ]wt  he  nsere  Samaritanisc, 
for^an  ^e  Samaritanisc  is  gecvveden  '  Hyrde,'  and  he  is  se 
so^a  Hyrde,  swa  swa  se  witega  cwae^,  "  Buton  Drihtcn  t^a 
burh  gehealde,  on  ydel  wacia^  ]>a  hyrdas  ^c  hi  healda^." 
Eft  cwae"S  se  ylca  witega,  "Ne  slaepS  ne  ne  hnappaS  se  "5e 
hylt  Israhel." 

An  'Saera  hosp-M'orda  he  forbser  suwigende,  j'aet  J>aet  he  be 
him  sj'lfum  oncneow ;  ]7aet  o^er  he  so^lice  wicSsoc,  ]>pet  he 
deofol  on  him  n;efde ;  ac  hi  waeron  witodlice  mid  deofle  afyl- 
lede,  "SaiSa  hi  swa  wodlice  to  tSam  ^veluillcnda^  Ha^lende 
sprfficon.  lie  nolde  sccgan  |'£rt  so^  wtes,  ])aet  hi  wode  waeron, 
)7y-lses  "Se  hit  waere  gcSuht  ]nvt  he  hi  for  his  teonan  Mode 
hete,  na  aefter  so^um  ^incge.  Mid  5am  getiylde  he  sealde 
cristcnum  mannum  soiSe  l)ysiie  j'.rt  hi  sccolon  forsuwian 
heora  gefcrcna  unSeawas,  JSonne  hi  fram  him  gctyrigdc  bcoS, 
"Sy-lcEs  ^e  hi  ^urh  heora  soiSscgcne  unge<Syldige  beon,  gif  hi 
heora  hosp  mid  so5c  sjemtingcs  wrecaS. 

Drihten  cwavS,  "  Ic  arwurSige  minne  Faeder,  and  ge  unar- 
wurbiaS  me."  Swilce  he  cwsede, '  Nclle  ic  me  sylfiic  arwur- 
^ian  on  eowere  gesihSe,  ]>}-ljes  5e  ic  beo  gylpcndc  geSuht.' 
^' Ic  arwur^ige  mimie  Fabler,  and  gc  woldon  me  arvvurcJian, 
gif  ge  me  rihtlice  oncneowon.  Ne  sece  ic  min  wuhlor  :  se  is 
"Se  sec^  and  tosctet."  Drihten  nis  na  oJSrum  mannum  to  wi5- 
metenne,  ■Scab  "Se  he  mann  sy  geworden  ;  ac  his  Heofonlica 
Feeder  bine  wurt^ode  toforan  calhnn  his  dj5phiymendum  on 
•Saire  menniscnysse,  ]>e  he  for  manna  alysednysse  under- 
feng. 

We  menu  beo'5  mid  synnum  acennede  :  ne  we  ne  beoS  be 
agenum  dihte  acennede,  ne  we  ne  lybbaiS  swa  lange  swa  us 
lyst,  ne  we  swa  ne  swelta^  swa  we  sylfe  geceosaS.  So^lice 
Crist,  jercSan  iSe  he  acenned  waere,  geceas  him  mreden  to 
meder,  and  wees  buton  aelcere  synne  acenned,  and  mid  wun- 
drum  geswutclode  ]?aet  he  God  is,  and  swa  hinge  leofode  on 
•Sisum  dcadlicum  life  swa  he  sylf  wolde,  ajid  be  his  agenum 


i 

J 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  231 

denied  very  rightly  that  he  had  a  devil  in  him  ;  but  he  did 
not  deny  that  he  was  a  Samaritan,  because  Samaritan  is  in- 
terpreted Keeper,  and  he  is  the  true  Keeper,  as  the  prophet 
said,  "  Unless  the  Lord  guard  the  burgh,  in  vain  will  the 
keepers  watch  who  guard  it."  Again,  the  same  prophet  said, 
"He  neither  slcepeth  nor  slumbereth  who  guardeth  Israel." 

One  of  their  reproaches  he  bore  silently,  that  which  he 
knew  of  himself ;  but  the  other  he  denied,  that  he  had  a  devil 
in  him  ;  but  they  were  undoubtedly  filled  with  a  devil,  when 
they  so  madly  spake  to  the  benevolent  Jesus.  He  would  not 
say,  what  was  true,  that  they  were  mad,  lest  it  should  appear 
that  he  in  recrimination  called  them  mad,  not  according  to 
the  truth.  By  that  patience  he  gave  christian  men  a  true 
example  that  they  should  pass  in  silence  the  vices  of  their 
companions,  when  they  are  provoked  by  them,  lest  they 
through  their  truth-telling  be  impatient,  if  they  always  with 
truth  avenge  their  contumely. 

The  Lord  said,  "  I  honour  my  Father,  and  ye  dishonour 
me."  As  if  he  had  said,  *  I  will  not  honour  mvsclf  in  vour 
sight,  lest  I  appear  boastful.'  "  I  honour  my  Father,  and  ye 
would  honour  me,  if  ye  rightly  knew  me.  I  seek  not  my 
glory:  there  is  one  who  sceketh  and  distinguisheth."  The 
Lord  is  not  to  be  compared  with  other  men,  although  he 
became  man  ;  for  his  Heavenly  Father  honoured  him  before 
all  his  participators  in  the  humanity  which  he  assumed  for 
the  redemption  of  men. 

We  men  are  born  with  sins  :  we  are  not  born  at  our 
own  pleasure,  nor  live  we  so  long  as  we  list,  nor  die  we  so 
as  we  ourselves  choose.  But  Christ,  before  he  was  born 
chose  him  a  maiden  for  mother,  and  was  born  without  any 
sin,  and  by  miracles  manifested  that  he  is  God,  and  lived  as 
long  in  this  mortal  life  as  he  himself  would,  and  by  his  own 


232  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

dihte  dea^  geceas,  and  gewat  ISaba  he  wolde.  On  Siere  byr- 
gene  he  laeg  swa  lange  swa  he  wolde ;  he  aras  of  ^fere  byr- 
gene  "Sa^a  he  wolde,  swilce  of  anum  bedde.  Eal  Sis  belunpS 
to  "Sfere  menniscnysse ;  seo  godcunduys  is  unasmeagendlic 
and  unasecgendlic.  Micel  is  betwux  Cristes  wuldre  iefter 
"Saere  menniscnysse,  and  betwux  o^ra  manna  wuldre.  Be 
his  menniscum  wuldre  he  cwae^,  "  Ic  ne  sece  min  wuldor,  is 
swa-'Scah  se^e  secS  and  toscait."  Se  Ileofenlica  Fteder  wul- 
draS  his  Beam,  and  toscfet  his  wuldor  fram  obra  manna 
wuldre  "Searle  unwiSmetenlice. 

Be  '5am  godcundum  wuldre  cwjeS  Crist  to  <Sam  ludeiscum, 
"SoS  so5  ic  eow  secge,  Swa  hna  swa  min  word  hylt,  ne  ge- 
sihS  he  dea^  on  ecnysse."  Ilrr  scalde  Crist  bysne  eaHum 
larcowum,  Jnet  In  ne  sceolon,  for  yfeha  manna  bwyrnysse, 
heora  bodungc  alccgan,  ac  swiSor  gecacnian,  swa  swa  se 
Haelend  dydc,  ^aSa  he  "Scera  ludciscra  hosp-word  gehyrde. 
pa  ludeiscan  cw<edon,  "  Nu  wc  oncnawaS  J?fet  "Su  eart  wod. 
Abraham  forSfcrde  and  witegan,  and  Su  scgst,  Swa  hwa  swa 
min  word  hylt,  ne  onbyrigS  he  deaSes  on  ecnysse."  Crist 
nicende  ^one  ecan  deaS,  to  |>am  nc  bccumaS  |?a  Se  his  bcbodu 
healdaS ;  and  "Sa  ludeiscan  mjcndon  jnsne  andweardan  dcaS, 
"Sam  ne  {etwint  nan  eorSlic  mann.  Ilwe'et  is  godra  manna 
deaS  buton  awendednys  and  fierr  fram  dea^e  to  ^am  ecan 
life  ?  Se  lichama  awent  to  eorSan,  and  anbidaS  leristes,  and 
on  "Sam  fyrste  nan  Sing  ne  gefret.  Seo  claene  sawul  anbidaS 
eac  |?ses  ecan  ieristes,  ac  heo  wunaS  on  wuldre  on  ^fere  hwile 
mid  halgum.  paes  manfullan  mannes  dea^  is,  J)a3t  his  sawul 
faeriS  fram  ^issere  scortan  blisse  to  Sam  ecum  witum,  on  Sam 
heo  sceal  ecelice  cwylmian,  and  swa-^eah  Uccfre  ne  ateoraS. 
Disum  deaSe  genealeehton  ^a  ludeiscan,  and  Sa  giu  hi  wffiron 
deade,  J'a^a  hi  to  Criste  hosplice  word  ^vedende  spraecon. 
Se  biS  dead  ecum  deaSe,  se^e  is  forestiht  to  ^am  ecum  dca^e. 
He  leofa^  on  lichaman,  and  is  swa-^eah  so^lice  dead.  Abra- 
ham forSferde  and  witegan  gemaenelicum  deaSe,  ac  hi  lybbaS 
on  ecnysse  mid  Godc. 


THE  FIPTII  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  233 

will  chose  (Iciith,  and  departed  when  he  would.  In  the  sepul- 
chre he  lay  as  long  as  he  would  ;  he  arose  from  the  sepulchre 
when  he  would,  as  from  a  bed.  All  this  belongs  to  his  hu- 
manity; his  divinity  is  inscrutable  and  unspeakable.  Greatly 
differs  the  glory  of  Christ  according  to  humanity  from  the 
glory  of  other  men.  Of  his  human  glory  he  said,  "I  seek 
not  my  glory ;  there  is,  nevertheless,  one  who  seeketli  and 
distinguishcth."  The  Heavenly  Father  glorifies  his  Son,  and 
distinguishes  his  glory  from  other  men's  glory  most  incom- 
parably. 

Of  this  divine  glory  Christ  spake  to  the  Jews,  *' Verily, 
verily  I  say  unto  you.  Whosoever  observeth  my  words  shall 
not  see  death  to  eternity."  Here  Christ  gave  an  example  to 
all  teachers,  that  they  should  not,  for  the  perversity  of  evil 
men,  abate  their  preaching,  but  rather  a\igment  it,  as  Jesus 
did  when  he  heard  the  reproaches  of  the  Jews.  The  Jews 
said,  "Now  we  know  that  thou  art  mad.  Abraham  departed, 
and  the  prophets,  and  thou  sayest,  ^^'hosoever  observeth  my 
words,  shall  not  taste  of  death  to  eternity."  Christ  meant 
the  eternal  death,  to  which  those  shall  not  come  who  hold 
his  commandments  ;  and  the  Jews  meant  this  present  death, 
from  which  no  earthly  man  escapes.  What  is  the  death  of 
good  men  but  a  change  and  passage  from  death  to  ever- 
lasting life  ?  The  body  turns  to  earth  and  awaits  the  resur- 
rection, and  in  that  space  feels  nothing.  The  pure  soul  also 
awaits  the  eternal  resurrection,  but  it  continues  in  glory  in 
that  interval  with  saints.  Tlie  wicked  man's  death  is,  that 
his  soul  passes  from  this  short  joy  to  eternal  torments,  in 
which  it  shall  suffer  eternally,  and  yet  never  perish.  To  this 
death  the  Jews  approached,  and  they  w'ere  already  long  dead, 
when  they  raging  spake  reproachful  words  to  Christ.  He  is 
dead  in  eternal  death,  who  is  predestined  to  eternal  death. 
He  lives  in  body,  and,  nevertheless,  is  truly  dead.  Abraham 
departed,  and  the  prophets,  by  common  death,  but  they  live 
to  cternitv  with  God. 


234  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

Hi  befruiion  Crist,  "Hwilcne  wyrcst  Su  "Se  sylfue?" 
Drihten  andwyrdc,  "  Gif  ic  me  sylfne  wuldrige,  |?onne  biS 
mill  wuldor  naht.  Min  Feeder  is  ^e  me  wuldrab,  be  ^am  ge 
secgatS  ]?aet  he  eower  God  sy,  and  ge  hine  ne  oncneowon." 
His  wuldor  he  tealde  to  his  Fiedcr,  of  Sam  'Se  he  is  eall  ]j;et 
he  is.  He  wuldraS  his  Fa^der,  and  se  Fteder  wuklracS  hine  ; 
forSan  "Se  him  is  an  wuldor  gem^ne,  and  an  Godcundnyss, 
mid  ^am  Halgum  Gastc.  He  cwteS  be  his  Ffeder,  "  Ge  sec- 
gaS  l^aet  he  eower  God  sj^,  and  ge  hine  nc  oncneowon."  Gif 
hi  so^lice  J)onc  Halgan  Fa^der  oncneowon,  Sonne  underfcngon 
hi  mid  gcleafan  his  anccnnecUm  Sunu,  ]?e  he  asende  to  mid- 
danearde.  He  cwae^,  "Ic  hine  cann,  and  gif  ic  sccge  ]??et  ic 
hine  ne  cunnc,  ]>onne  bco  ic  leas  cow  gcKc."  pas  word  mihton 
beon  gelSuhte  fljcsclicum  mannum  swylcc  hi  mid  gylpc  gc- 
clypode  w?eron.  Witodlicc  gylp  is  to  forbugrnne,  ac  swa- 
•(Seah  na  swa  ]>jetsoS  sy  forheten.  Drihten  cwaeS,  "Abraham, 
eower  fanler,  blissode  ]?tet  he  minne  d;eg  gcsawe,  and  lie  ge- 
scah,  and  p;es  ftegnode."  Abraham  se  heahfanler  underfeng 
bry  enghis  on  his  gcst-huse,  on  hiwe  Siere  Halgan  Drynnysse, 
to  "Sam  he  spraec  swa  swa  to  annm  ;  forSan  "Se  seo  Halige 
Drynnyss  gecyndelicc  wunaS  on  anrc  Godcundnysse,  fefre  an 
God  untodieledlic.  pa  geseah  Abraham  Drihtnes  (heg,  |)aj?a 
he  "Sas  gerynu  tocneow.  Eft  is  oSer  Sing  ]>c  Abraham  mid 
micelre  getacnunge  gedyde.  DaSa  he  ealdode,  and  his  sunu 
wTfian  sceolde,  ]>a  clypode  he  his  yldestan  cniht  him  to,  and 
het  hine  settan  his  hand  under  his  Scoh,  and  swerian  Surh 
■Sone  Heofonlican  God,  j^aet  he  naefre  geSafode  ]>aet  his  sunu 
Isaac  on  hse^enre  maegSe  wTfian  sceolde,  ac  of  "Sam  geleaf- 
fullum  folce  |?e  Abraham  on  afedd  waes.  Hwaet  belamp 
Abrahames  Seoh  to  Sam  Hcofenlican  Gode  ?  OSSe  hwaet 
miende  se  aS  swa  gesworen,  baton  pjet  mid  Sjere  diede  waes 
getacnod  se  Heofenlica  God  toweard  on  lichaman  of  Abra- 
hames cynne  ?  AVitodlice  j^aet  ^eoh  getacnode  his  cynn,  and 
Abraham  Surh  witegunge  stafodc  |>one  aS,  j;a^a  he  geseah 
Drihtnes  daeg  toweard  of  his  sfede.     His  saed  he  getacnode 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY   IX  LENT.  235 

They  asked  Christ,  "Whom  makest  thou  thyself?"  The 
Lord  answered,  "  If  I  glorify  myself,  then  will  my  glory  be 
naught.  It  is  my  Fatiier  who  glorifieth  me,  of  whom  ye  say 
that  he  is  your  God,  and  ye  know  him  not."  His  glory  he 
ascribed  to  his  Father,  through  whom  he  is  all  that  he  is. 
He  glorifies  his  Father,  and  the  Father  glorifies  him  ;  for 
there  is  one  gh^ry  and  one  Godhead  common  to  them  with 
the  Holy  Ghost.  He  said  of  his  Father,  "Ye  say  that  he  is 
your  God,  and  ye  know  him  not."  For  if  the\  had  known 
the  Holv  Father,  then  would  thcv  with  belief  have  received 
his  only-begotten  Son,  whom  he  sent  to  the  world.  He  said, 
"  I  know  him,  and  if  I  say  that  I  know  him  not,  then  shall 
I  be  false  like  unto  you."  These  words  might  appear  to 
fleshly  men  as  if  they  iuid  been  uttered  in  pride.  Pride  is 
undoubtedly  to  be  eschewed,  but  yet  not  so  that  truth  be 
abandoned.  The  Lord  said,  "Abraham,  your  father,  rejoiced 
to  see  my  day,  and  he  saw  it,  and  rejoiced  thereat."  Abraham 
the  patriarch  received  three  angels  in  his  hostel,  in  the  form 
of  the  Holy  Trinity,  to  whom  he  spake  so  as  to  one;  for  the 
Holy  Trinity  exists  by  nature  in  one  Godhead,  ever  one  God 
indivisible.  Abraham  then  saw  the  day  of  the  Lord,  when 
he  understood  these  mysteries.  There  is  again  another 
thing  which  Abraham  did  with  a  great  betokening.  When 
he  waxed  old,  and  his  son  should  take  a  wife,  he  called  his 
eldest  lad  to  him,  and  bade  him  set  hi§  hand  under  his  thigh, 
and  swear  by  the  Heavenly  God,  that  he  would  never  consent 
that  his  son  Isaac  should  take  a  wife  in  a  heathen  tribe,  but 
from  the  believing  folk  among  which  Abraham  was  born. 
Wiiat  had  Abraham's  thigh  to  do  with  the  Heavenly  God  ? 
Or  what  meant  the  oath  so  sworn,  except  that  by  that  deed 
was  betokened  that  the  Heavenly  God  was  to  come  in  body 
of  Abraham's  kin  ?  For  the  thigh  betokened  his  kin,  and 
Abraham  through  prophecy  dictated  the  oath,  when  he  saw 
that  the  day  of  the  Lord  was  to  come  of  his  seed.     His  seed 


236  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

mid  |;am  worde  ^e  he  cweeS,  "  Sete  •Sine  hand  under  minuni 
Seo.'^  His  Drihten  he  getacnode  |ja]?a  he  cwaeS,  "  Sweru 
'Surh  ^one  Heofenlican  God." 

Hvvset  ^a  ludeiscan  yrsigende  cwaedon  to  Criste^  "  Hw<Kt 
la,  git  ^u  ne  eart  fiftig  geara,  and  gesawe  "Su  Abraham?" 
Drihten  him  andwj'rde,  "  SocS  soS  ic  eow  secgc,  ^rxSan  5e 
Abraham  gewurde  ic  eom."  Abraham  wcarS  gesceapcn,  swa 
swa  gesceaft :  Crist  hine  gesceop,  swa  swa  Scyppend,  sebe 
toweard  wees  on  fla?sce  of  Abrahiimes  ofspringe.  Ne  cwjcJS 
se  Hffilend,  ^/ErSan  Se  Abraham  wrere  ic  w;es,'  ac  he  cwreS, 
"^rSan  ]>e  Abraham  gewurde  ic  com."  pjet  word  bclimpb 
synderlice  to  Gode  anum,  *' Ic  com  "  j  forSan  cSe  he  is  ana 
biiton  anginnc  and  cndc,  swa  SMa  he  sylf  cwa^^  to  Moysen, 
*'  Ic  eom  se^e  eom,  and  scge  Israhehi  bearnum,  Se  5e  is  scnde 
me  to  eow."  Gesceafta  sind  ]>;et  ]r,vX  hi  sind,  ac  cJis  word  ne 
mK"g  soblice  been  be  him  gecweden,  (Sonne  hi  nabbaS  nane 
wunungc  |'arh  hi  sylfe,  ac  "5urh  God,  seSe  ana  is  ]nirh  hine 
sylfne  wunigende,  and  ealle  gesceafta  healdcndc  baton  ge- 
s wince.  He  iiic'eg  sobiicc  cweJSan,  "  Ic  com,"  j^iet  is  on 
Lseden,  "  Ego  sum."  "  HT  iSa  namon  stanas,  ]>i£t  hi  hine 
torfodoii."  Hi  hffifdon  stienene  heardiiysse  on  heora  heortan, 
and  forbi  to  Sam  stanum  urnon,  Sam  Se  hi  gelice  wieron. 
Se  Ila'lend  soSlice  hine  bchydde,  and  code  of  Sam  temple. 
He  forbcah  heora  stanas  swa  swa  mann,  swa  swa  eadmud, 
se'Se  mihte  )?urh  his  Godcundnysse  gedon  ])aet  seo  eorSe  hi 
forswulge,  oS)>aet  hi  fserlice  f ealle iide  swulton  ;  ac  his  geSyld 
wees  to  San  micel,  paet  he  nolde  naenne  dom  ^a  gesettan,  "SaSa 
he  to  ^rowigenne  com.  Eac  is  sum  Sing  digele  on  |;aere 
daede  :  he  behydde  hine  lichamlice  wiS  )><'era  ludeiscra  st;Jen- 
inge,  and  he  behydde  hine  gastlice  fram  heora  sta^nenum 
heortum. 

Lucas  se  Godspcllere  aurat  on  oSre  stowe,  Jjset  "Sa  ludei 
laeddon  Crist  ajt  sumum  sfele  to  anum  clife,  and  woldon  hine 
niSer  ascufan  ;  ac  he  code  betweonan  heora  handum  aweg, 
swa  ]?eet  heora  nan  nyste  hwrer  he  becom.     He  noldc  ^one 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  L\  LENT.  237 

lie  betokened  by  the  words  which  he  spake,  "Set  thine  liand 
under  my  thigh."  His  Lord  he  betokened  when  he  said, 
"Swear  by  the  Heavenly  God." 

The  Jews  then  in  anger  said  to  Christ,  "  What,  thou  art 
not  yet  fifty  years  old,  and  hast  thou  seen  Abraham  ?"  The 
Lord  answered  them,  "  Verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  before 
Abraham  was,  I  am."  Abraham  was  created  as  a  creature  : 
Clirist  created  him  as  Creator,  who  was  to  come  in  flchh  of 
Abraham's  ofTspring.  Jesus  said  not,  '  Before  Abraham  was, 
1  was,'  but  he  said,  "  Before  Abraliam  was,  I  am."  That 
expression,  "  I  am,"  belongs  exclusively  to  God  alone;  for 
he  is  alone  without  begimiing  and  end,  as  he  himself  said  to 
Moses,  "  I  am  that  I  am,  and  say  to  the  children  of  Israel,  He 
who  is  hath  sent  me  to  you."  Creatures  are  that  which  they 
are,  but  this  expression  cannot  truly  be  said  of  them,  as  they 
have  no  existence  through  themselves,  but  tiu'ough  God,  who 
alone  is  existing  tiirough  himself,  and  preser^'ing  all  creatures 
without  toil.  He  may  truly  say,  "  1  am,"  that  is  in  Latin, 
"Ego  sum."  "They  then  took  stones,  that  they  might 
stone  him."  They  had  stony  hardness  in  their  hearts,  and, 
therefore,  ran  to  the  stones,  to  which  they  were  like.  But 
Jesus  hid  himself,  and  went  from  the  temple.  He  avoided 
their  stones  as  man,  as  a  humble  one,  who  juight  through 
his  Godhead  have  caused  the  earth  to  swallow  them,  until 
suddeidy  falling  they  died  ;  but  his  patience  was  so  great, 
that  he  would  not  then  fix  any  doom,  when  he  came  to 
suffer.  There  is  also  something  mysterious  in  the  deed  :  he 
hid  hiiuself  bodily  from  the  stoning  of  the  Jews,  and  he  hid 
himself  spiritually  from  their  stony  hearts. 


Luke  the  Evangelist  wrote  in  another  place,  that  the  Jews 
at  one  time  led  Christ  to  a  cliff,  and  would  shove  him  down  ; 
but  h.e  went  away  from  between  their  hands,  so  that  no  one 
knew  what  became  of  him.     He  would  not  suffer  the  death 


238  DOMINICA  V.  QUADRAGESIME. 

deaS  J^rowian  'Se  hi  gccuron,  ac  "Sone  'Se  aer  gewitegod  waes, 
and  '5one  "Se  he  sylf  gecwreS.  lohannes  se  Godspellere  awrat, 
J;aet  Drihten  cwaede  to  Nichodeme,  an  'Saera  ludciscra  ealdra, 
SaSa  he  mid  gcleafan  his  lare  sohte,  "  Swa  svva  Moyses  ahof 
^a  nffiddran   on    Sam   westene,   swa  gedafenaS   j^iet  ic   beo 
ahafen  ',  J^aet  aelc  ^sera  j^e  on  me  gelyfS  ne  losige,  ac  j^set  he 
haebbe  |>fet  ece  lif."     On  ^isum  wordiim  is  micel  getacnung, 
ac  eow  eallum  nis  cu5  naSor  ne  seo  getacnung  ne  hu  hit 
gedon  waes.     pa^t  Israhcla  folc,  SaSa  hit  ferde  fram  Egypta- 
landc,  wear's  on  ^am  westene  wiSerraede  ongean  God.     pa 
sende  he  betwux  him  fyrene  n^eddran,  |>a  totaron  Saes  folccs 
fela  manna,  and  to  deaSe  gCcEttrodon.   pa  clypode  j^a^t  folc  to 
Moysen    Sisum  wordum,  "  We  syngodon  ongean  God  and 
ongean  "Se  :  bide  for  us,  J^ast  sc  .Ehnihtiga  God  }nis  na^ddran 
fram  us  afyrsige."     Hw;et  Sa  Moyses  for  Sam  folce  gebjed, 
and  God  |;;errihtc  bcbead  Moysc  l><et  he  gcworhte  ane  ccrcne 
Dfeddran,  and  sette  up  to  tacne,  and  |?cet  he  manode  |>{et  folc, 
]?ifit  swa  hwa  swa  fram  «Sam  njeddrum  abiten  waere,  besawe 
up  to  Sjere  aerenan   naeddran,  and  he  wurde  gehreled.     Hit 
wearS  swa  gedon.     Da  nfeddran  hi  totaeron,  and  hi  bcsawon 
to  'Saere  aerenan  n.-eddran,  and  hi  wurdon  gehadede  fram  ISam 
deadbccrum  attre  j^^era  fyrenra  naeddryna.    Ilwaet  getacnodon 
]?a  terendan  njeddran  buton  synna  on  urum  deadlicum  fljesce  ? 
Hwa^t  wjes  seo  up-ahafcne  n;eddre  buton   Cristes  deaS  on 
rode  ?      Seo  aerene  n;eddre  haefde  naeddran  gelicnysse,  ac  heo 
wees  buton  aelcum  attre  ;  swa  eac  Crist  hfefde  ure  gelicnysse, 
ac  he  naefde  nane  synne  on  his   leomum,  ac   Surh   his  up- 
ahafennysse  on   tJ^ere   rode   he  geluelde   ure   synna.       purh 
naeddran  us  beconi  deatS,  and  forSi  waes  ]7urh  "Saere  naeddran 
gelicnysse  Cristes  dea^  getacnod.     Daera  naeddrena  geslit 
wses  deadlic ;  Cristes  dea^  waes  liflic.     Nu  behealde  we  ^a 
naeddran,  ]^aet  seo  naeddre  us  ne  derige.  Hwaet  gemaenS  )?aet  ? 
We  behealdaS  Cristes  deaS,  ]?aet  us  se  deaS  ne  derige,  ]?e  of 
"Saere  luneddran  asprang  seo^e  Adam  forspeon.     Hwaes  dea^ 
behealde  we  ?     Lifes  deaS.      Hwa  is  Itf  buton  Crist  ?   se^e 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  IN  LENT.  239 

which  they  chose,  but  that  which  had  before  been  prophesied, 
and  which  he  had  himself  said.  John  the  Evangelist  wrote, 
that  the  Lord  said  to  Nicodemus,  one  of  the  Jewish  elders, 
when  he  with  belief  sought  liis  instruction,  "  So  as  Moses 
lifted  up  the  serpent  in  the  waste,  so  is  it  fitting  that  I  be 
lifted  up  ;  that  everyone  of  those  who  believe  in  me  may  n(;t 
perish,  but  that  lie  may  have  everlasting  life."  In  these 
words  there  is  great  signification,  l)ut  it  is  not  known  to  you 
all,  neither  the  signification  nor  how  it  was  done.  The 
people  of  Israel,  when  they  went  from  the  land  of  Egypt, 
were  in  the  wilderness  rebellious  against  God.  lie  then  sent 
among  them  fiery  serpents,  which  tore  of  the  people  many 
men,  and  poisoned  them  to  death.  Then  the  peo[)le  cried  to 
Mcses  in  these  words,  '•'  We  have  simicd  against  God  and 
against  thee  :  pray  for  us,  that  the  Almighty  God  may  re- 
move from  us  these  serpents."  Thereupon  Moses  prayed 
for  the  people,  and  God  straightways  connnandcd  Moses  to 
make  a  brazen  serpent,  and  set  it  up  as  a  token,  and  to 
counsel  the  people  that  whosoever  had  been  bitten  by  the 
serpents  should  look  up  to  the  brazen  serpent,  and  he  would 
be  healed.  It  was  so  done.  The  serpents  tore  them,  and 
they  looked  to  the  brazen  serpent,  and  they  were  healed  of 
the  deadly  poison  of  the  fiery  serpents.  What  betokened  the 
tearing  serpents  but  sins  in  our  mortal  flesh  ?  What  was  the 
up-lifted  serpent  but  the  death  of  Christ  on  the  rood  ?  The 
brazen  serpent  had  a  serpent's  likeness,  but  it  was  without 
any  poison  ;  in  like  manner  Christ  had  our  likeness,  but  he 
had  no  sin  in  his  members,  but  by  his  being  raised  up  on  the 
rood  he  healed  our  sins.  Through  a  serpent  came  death  to 
us,  and,  therefore,  through  the  likeness  of  a  serpent  was 
Christ's  death  betokened.  The  bite  of  those  serpents  was 
mortal,  the  death  of  Christ  was  vital.  AVe  now  behold  the 
serpent,  that  the  serpent  may  not  hurt  us.  AVhat  does  that 
mean  ?  We  behold  the  death  of  Christ,  that  death  may  not 
hurt  us,  which  sprang  from  the  serpent  which  seduced  Adam. 
Whose  death  do  we  behold  ?     The  death  of  life.     What  is 


240       JJOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

cwtetS,  "  Ic  eom  serist  and  lif :  se  ^e  gelyf 5  on  me,  );eah  ^e 
he  dead  beo  he  leofab ;  and  aelc  "Saera  ]>e  leofab,  and  on  me 
gelyf^,  ne  swelte  he  on  ecnysse."  Crist  is  Iff,  and  swa-^cah 
he  waes  on  rode  ahangen.  He  is  so^  lif,  and  swa-"5eah  he 
waes  dead  on  "Saere  menniscnysse,  na  on  godcundnj-sse.  On 
Cristes  dea^e  waes  se  dcaS  adydd,  forSan  ]>e  ]?8et  dcade  h'f 
acwealde  ^one  deacS,  and  he  Wces  fornumen  on  Cristes  licha- 
man . 

Mine  gebro^ru,  uton  beheakhm  }?one  ahangcnan  Crist,  ]>iet 
we  beon  fram  ^am  cRttrigum  synnum  gchcelcde.  AVitodlice 
swa  swa  paet  Israhela  folc  besawon  to  ^ccre  aerenan  naeddran, 
and  wurdon  gehaelede  fram  ^aera  na^ddrcna  gcslito,  swa  beoS 
nu  gehaelede  fram  lieora  synnum  jja  Se  mid  geleafan  bchcaldab 
Cristes  deaS  and  his  aarist.  IIi  wwron  geh.'elede  fram  deaSe 
to  hwTIwendlicum  life,  and  her  is  gecwedcn  jm^t  we  sceolon 
habban  jjtet  ece  lif;  swa  micel  is  betwux  |>aere  gchiwodan 
anlicnysse  and  ^am  soJSan  Singe :  seo  gcbiwode  anhcnys 
getiSode  |>am  toslitenum  mannum  hwilwendhc  lif;  paet  so5e 
"Sing,  |?e  Surh  ^a  ^renan  nieddran  getacnod  waes,  |>ffit  is 
Cristes  dcaS,  getiSaS  us  |?aet  ece  lif.  purh  trcow  us  com 
dea^,  ]?a"Sa  Adam  geaRt  |?one  forbodcnan  a>ppcl,  and  Surh 
treow  us  com  eft  ITf  and  alyscdnyss,  SaSa  Crist  hangode  on 
rode  for  ure  alyscdnysse.  Dsere  halgan  rode  tacn  is  ure 
blctsung,  and  to  "Saere  rode  we  us  gebiddaS,  na  swa-Seah  to 
Sam  treowe,  ac  to  Sam  yElmihtigum  Drihtne,  ^e  on  'Saere 
halgan  rode  for  us  hangode,  Sy  him  lof  and  wuldor  his 
ormeetan  eadmodnysse  on  ealra  worulda  woruld.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

DRIHTNES  DROWUNGE  we  willa^gedafenliceeow secgan 
on  Engliscum  gereorde,  and  Sa  gerynu  samod  ;  na  swa-^eah 
to  langsumlice,  gif  we  hit  swa  gelogian  magon. 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  241 

life  but  Christ  ?  who  said,  "  I  am  the  resurrection  and  the 
life :  he  who  believeth  in  me,  though  he  be  dead  he  shall 
live  ;  and  every  one  of  those  who  live  and  believe  in  me  shall 
not  die  to  eternity."  Christ  is  life,  and,  nevertheless,  he  was 
hanged  on  a  rood.  He  is  true  life,  and,  nevertheless,  he  was 
dead  in  his  human  nature,  not  in  his  divine  nature.  By 
Christ's  death  was  deatl)  destroyed,  for  that  mortal  life  killed 
death,  and  he  was  annihilated  in  the  body  of  Clirist. 

My  brothers,  let  us  behold  the  crucified  Christ,  that  we 
may  be  healed  of  venomous  sins.  Verily  as  the  people  of 
Israel  looked  on  the  brazen  serpent,  and  were  healed  of  the 
serpents'  bite,  so  will  now  be  healed  of  their  sins  they  who 
with  belief  behold  the  death  of  Christ  and  his  resurrection. 
They  were  healed  from  death  to  transitory  life,  and  here  it  is 
said  that  we  shall  have  life  everlasting ;  so  great  is  the  differ- 
ence between  the  apparent  likeness  and  the  true  thing :  the 
apparent  likeness  imparted  to  the  torn  men  transitory  life  ; 
the  true  thing,  which  was  betokened  by  the  brazen  serpent, 
that  is,  the  death  of  Christ,  imparts  to  us  life  everlasting. 
Through  a  tree  death  came  to  us,  when  Adam  ate  the  for- 
bidden apple,  and  through  a  tree  life  came  again  to  us  and  re- 
demption, when  Christ  hung  on  the  rood  for  our  redemption. 
The  sign  of  the  holy  rood  is  our  blessing,  and  to  the  rood 
we  pray,  though  not  to  the  tree,  but  to  the  Almighty  Lord, 
who  for  us  hung  on  the  holy  rood.  To  him  be  praise  and 
glory,  for  his  boundless  humility,  to  all  eternity.     Amen. 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  TilE  LORD'S  PASSION. 

WE  will  relate  to  you  THE  LORD'S  PASSION  suitably 
in  the  English  tongue,  together  with  the  mysteries  ;  not, 
however,  at  too  great  a  length,  if  we  may  so  order  it. 

II OM.  VOL.  II.  a 


242       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

Crist  forcsaede  gefyrn,  mid  fea\Fuin  wordunij  his  agene 
"Srowunge,  aerSan  ^e  hit  gevvurde,  forSan  calle  ?ing  he 
ealhiiige  vviste  aer^an  ^e  ^eos  woruld  wurde  gesceapen. 
Moyses  and  Elias  eac  swilce  s;«don  his  t>rowunge  on  aer 
uppon  anre  dune  ^e  se  Hfelend  astah  mid  ^rim  leorning- 
cnihtum,  and  his  ansyn  setforan  him  eal  scean  swa  swa  sunne, 
and  his  geweeda  scinon  on  snawes  hwitnysse.  pa  wokle  Petrus 
slean  sona  Sreo  geteld,  for  t)jere  gesih(5e,  ac  ^aer  swegde  5a 
steinn  "Saes  Heofonlican  Feeder  healice  of  wolcne,  "  Des  is 
min  leofa  Sunn,  on  ^am  me  wel  lica^  :  gehyruIS  liine."  And 
J>aet  wolcn  ^a  toglad.  pa  gencahelite  sc  d;pg  his  deorwurSan 
■Srowungc,  and  ba  Luk'iscan  eahh'as  geornlice  smcadon  hu 
hi  Hjelend  Crist  acwcllan  mihton  ;  ondredon  him  swa-Seah 
J^aes  folces  forestcall.  Hwfet  ^a  se  dcofol  into  ludan  hestup, 
an  "Saera  twclfa  Drihtncs  «Segena,  and  he  sona  eode  to  ^c'era 
ludeiscra  nede,  and  opcnlice  befran,  hwfet  hi  liim  feos 
geuSon,  gif  he  ^one  Ha-lcnd  him  belaewan  mihte.  Hi  "Sa 
|78es  fffignodon,  and  |>fet  fcoh  gesetton  on  JSrittig  sciliingum, 
gif  he  iSone  unscapStSigan  belfewde. 

pa  com  se  Hailend  on  assan  sittende  into  Hierusalem,  aer 
■Sam  symbel-da'ge,  and  gcheold  Sa  Easter-tid  aefter  "Saere 
ealdan  ae.  On  fefnunge  hi  aeton  ealle  jetsomne,  on  Sam  fiftan 
daege  ^e  ge  Dunres  hataS.  pa  aras  Driliten  of  Sam  gereorde, 
and  awearp  his  reaf  swit)e  ricene :  vvearS  ]>a  bewaefed  mid 
ante  waeter-scytan,  and  his  gingrena  fet  eadmodlice  aSwoIi, 
and  eft  his  reaf  ardhce  genam,  and  hi  sittende  ^isum  wordum 
gcsprffic:  "  Ic  gesette  eow  nu  soSe  gebysnunge,  ]?ast  eower 
ffilc  sceole  oSres  fet  a^wean,  swa  swa  ic  lareow  eow  liSebig 
aSwoh."  Se  Hfelend  hi  a^woh  mid  ]?\veale  wi^utan  fram 
fenlicere  fuhiysse  mid  his  faegerum  handum,  and  wi^innan 
eac  heora  andgit  aSwoh  fram  ealium  horwum  heahcra  leahtra ; 
and  het  gehwilcne  o^erne  aiSwean  fram  fulum  synnum  mid 
foreSingunge,  and  eac  wiSutan  eadmodnysse  cy^an  mid  ge- 
swaesre  ^enunge  symle  gebro'Srum. 

He  eode  eft  sittan  si^San  mid  his  ^egnum,  and  on  his 


PALM  SUNDAY.     OX  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  243 

Christ  had  already  in  few  words  foretold  his  own  passion, 
before  it  took  place,  for  he  knew  all  things  perfectly  before 
this  world  was  created.  Mo^cs  and  Elias  also  previously 
aiuiounced  his  passion  on  a  mountain  which  Jesus  had 
ascended  with  three  disciples,  and  all  his  countenance  shone 
before  them  as  the  sun,  and  his  garments  shone  ^ith  the 
whiteness  of  snow.  I'hcn  w  ould  Peter  forthwith  pitch  three 
tents  on  account  of  that  vision,  but  there  sounded  then  the 
voice  of  the  Holy  Father  above  from  a  cloud,  *'  This  is  my 
beloved  Son,  in  whom  I  am  well  pleased:  obey  him."  And 
the  cloud  then  glided  away.  Then  approached  the  day  of 
his  precious  passion,  and  the  Jewish  elders  earnestly  delibe- 
rated how  they  might  slay  Jesus  Christ  ;  but  they  dreaded  a 
rescue  by  the  people.  Whereupon  the  devil  entered  into 
Judas,  one  of  the  twelve  servants  of  the  Lord,  and  he  forth- 
with went  to  the  council  of  the  Jews,  and  openly  asked, 
what  money  they  would  give  him,  if  he  would  betray  Jesus  to 
them.  At  this  they  rejoiced,  and  fixed  the  money  at  thirty 
shillings,  if  he  betrayed  the  innocent. 

Then  came  Jesus  sitting  on  an  ass  into  Jerusalem,  before 
the  feast-day,  and  held  the  Easter- tide  according  to  the  old 
law.  In  the  evening  they  all  ate  altogether,  on  the  fifth  day 
which  ye  call  Thursday.  Then  the  Lord  arose  from  the  re- 
fection, and  cast  aside  his  garment  very  suddenly  :  and  was 
then  girt  with  a  napkin,  and  hundily  washed  the  feet  of  his 
disciples,  and  afterwards  quickly  resumed  his  garment,  and 
addressed  them  sitting  in  these  words  :  "  I  have  now  set  you  a 
true  example,  that  each  of  you  shoidd  wash  another's  feet,  so 
as  I  your  teacher  have  meekly  washed  you."  Jesus  washed 
them  with  an  ablution  without  from  nuiddy  foulness  with  his 
fair  hands,  and  also  washed  their  understanding  within  from 
all  the  dirt  of  deadly  sins  ;  and  commanded  each  to  wash  other 
from  foul  sins  by  intercession,  and  also  without  ever  to  mani- 
fest humility  with  kind  service  to  brothers. 

He  went  afterwards  to  sit  again  with  his  disciples,  and  at 

R  2 


244       DOMINICA  PALMARUiM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

gereordc  he  gcunrotsode,  cwaeS  pjet  heora  an  hine  belsewan 
wolde.  Hi  Sii  ealle  mid  angsumum  mode  wnlipige  cwjedoi), 
"  Eom  ic  hit,  Drihten  ?"  pa  aiidwyrde  se  Haelend  him  sona 
"Sus,  "  Se  ^e  bedyp^  on  disce  mid  me  his  hlaf  on  hepeldre, 
he  is  min  laewa.  Wa  Sam  men  J?e  me  beltewS  !  betere  him 
was  re  J>fet  he  geboren  naere."  pa  befran  ludas  gif  he  hit 
wtere  ?  Da  cvvae^  se  Heelend,  "  Du  hit  siSedest."  Drihten 
sJede  mid  soSum  worde,  "  Mihte  ic  h;ebbe  mine  sawle  to 
syllenne,  and  ic  eaSelice  nijeg  hi  eft  geniman."  He  genam 
"Sa  hlaf  and  hine  ITflice  gchalgodo,  toda^kle  his  ^egnum,  and 
hi  ^icgan  het;  cwfeilJ  ])-<et  hit  wtere  his  agen  lichama  to 
husle  gehalgod  him  to  alyscdnysse.  Eft  svva  gelice  gehehte 
aenne  calic,  senode  mid  swi^ran,  and  scalde  his  gingrum,  of  to 
supenne  fefter  gereordc  ;  s;pde  j'aet  liit  w;erc  soblicc  his  blod 
"Sjerc  Niwan  GecyJSnysse,  juet  he  for  mannum  ageat,  on  synna 
forgyfennysse,  "Saer  iSser  se  geleafa  biS. 

Drihten  c\vu?S  soShce  be  5am  swicehm  ludan,  ]);et  him  selre 
ware  p^et  he  geboren  mere.  Nis  ]>iet  na  to  understandcnne 
aiiiigum  gesceadwisum  swilce  he  awar  wa^re  {erISan  Se  he 
geboren  waere,  ac  hit  is  anfealdlicc  gccweden,  pfet  him  betere 
waere  ]>iet  he  na?fre  naere,  ISonne  he  yfele  ware.  Forwel  fela 
manna  onscuniaS  liuhin  bcla'winge,  and  swa-Seah  nella^ 
forwandian  ])fet  hi  ne  syllon  soSfeestnysse  vvi^  sceattum.  Se 
Haelend  sylf  is  eal  soSffestnys,  and  se  ^e  so^fjestnysse  be- 
ceapaS  wiS  feo,  he  biS  ludan  gefcra  on  fyrenum  witum,  seiSe 
Crist  beltewde  for  ly^rum  sceatte. 

^fter  gereorde  Crist  bletsode  huscl,  for^an  ^e  he  wolde 
■5a  ealdan  jb  aer  gefyllan,  and  si(i5an  ^a  niwan  gecy^nysse 
halwendlice  onginnan.  Hi  teton  j^aet  lamb  tefter  "Sam  ealdan 
gewunan,  and  he  sySSan  sona  senode  husel,  seSe  hine  sylfne 
for  urum  synnum  geoffrode  liflice  onsa^gednysse  his  leofan 
Faeder.  Eft  se  Hcelend  sijede  soSlice  his  gingrum,  "  Ealle 
ge  me  aeswicia^  on  "Sissere  anre  nihte.  Hit  is  so^lice  awriten, 
Ic  ofslea  ^one  hyrde,  and  5a  seep  si^^an  sona  beo^  tostencte. 
^fter  ^an  ^e  ic  arise  of  deaSe  gesund,  ic  eow  eft  gemete  on 


PALM  SUNDAY.     OX  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  24.5 

his  refection  he  was  sad,  saying  tliat  one  of  them  would 
betray  him.  They  then  all  with  anxious  mind  singly  said, 
"  Am  I  he,  Lord  ?  "  Jesus  then  forthwith  answered  them 
thus,  "  He  who  dippeth  with  me  his  bread  in  the  dish  is  my 
betrayer.  Wo  to  the  man  who  betrayeth  me  !  better  were  it 
for  him  that  he  had  not  been  born."  Then  asked  Judas  if  it 
were  he  ?  Then  said  Jesus,  *'  Thou  hast  said  it."  The  Lord 
said  with  true  words,  "  I  have  power  to  give  my  soul,  and  I 
can  easily  take  it  again."  He  then  took  bread  and  vitally 
hallowed  it,  distributing  it  to  his  disciples,  and  bade  tlicni 
eat ;  saying  that  it  was  his  own  body  liallowed  as  houscl  for 
their  redemption.  Afterwards  in  like  manner  he  took  a  cup, 
signed  it  with  his  right  hand,  and  gave  it  to  his  disciples  to 
sip  after  the  refection ;  saying  that  it  was  truly  his  blood  of 
the  New  Testament,  which  he  shed  for  men  for  forgiveness 
of  sins,  wheresoever  there  is  belief. 

The  Lord  said  truly  of  the  treacherous  Judas,  that  better 
were  it  for  him  had  he  not  been  born.  That  is  not  to  be 
understood  by  any  sensible  person  as  if  he  were  anywhere 
before  he  was  born,  but  it  is  simply  said,  that  it  were  better 
for  him  that  he  had  never  l)een,  than  that  he  should  evilly  be. 
Very  many  men  shun  the  treachery  of  Judas,  and  yet  fear 
not  to  betray  truth  for  money.  Jesus  himself  is  all  truth, 
and  he  who  sells  truth  for  money  will  be  the  companion  of 
Judas  in  fiery  torments,  who  betrayed  Christ  for  vile  pelf. 

After  the  refection  Christ  blessed  the  housel,  because  he 
would  first  fulfil  the  old  law,  and  afterwards  salutarily  begin 
the  new  covenant.  They  ate  the  lamb  after  the  old  custom, 
and  he  immediately  afterwards  signed  the  housel,  who  offered 
himself  for  our  sins  a  living  sacrifice  to  his  beloved  Father. 
Again,  Jesus  truly  said  to  his  disciples,  "  Ye  shall  all  be 
offended  with  me  on  this  one  night.  Verily  it  is  written,  I 
will  slay  the  shepherd,  and  the  sheep  shall  afterwards  be 
forthwith   scattered.     After  that  I  shall  have  arisen   sound 


246       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

Galileiscum  earde."  pa  andwyrde  Petrus  ana  mid  gebeote, 
"  Ic  ^e  iiffifre  ne  aeswicige,  ^eah  ^e  ealle  o^re  don." 
Drihten  eft  andwyrde  anraedlice  Petre,  "  pu  me  wiSsfPCst 
"Sriwa  on  ^issere  nihte,  ser^an  "be  se  hana  hafitigende  crawe." 
Petrus  cwseS  J7aet  he  nolde  hine  naefre  wiSsacan,  ^eah  ^e  he 
sceolde  samod  mid  him  sweltan  ;  and  ealle  "Sa  o^re  ealswa 
cwffidon.  ludas  se  swicola  swi^e  hrabe  code  to  Sam  arleaiJum 
ehterum,  ]?e  he  aer  gesprfec,  and  genam  him  fultum  set  'Sam 
phariseum,  and  hi  ^a  eodon  ealle  gewfepnode  and  mid  leoht- 
fatum  to  "Sam  Lifigendum  Drihtne.  pa  cwae^  se  Ifewa  to 
^am  laSum  flocce,  "  Swa  hwilcne  swa  ic  cysse,  ccpaS  his 
sona."  And  he  ^a  mid  cosse  Crist  beUewde.  Hwjet  Sa  se 
Hfelend  him  togcancs  stop,  and  unforht  axode,  hwjene  hi 
sohton.  Hi  5a  cwa^don  |>{et  hi  Crist  sohton.  Da  stedc  he 
him,  ^'  Ic  hit  soSlice  eom."  Hi  5a  mid  j'am  worde  wendon 
underbaec,  feallende  to  corSan,  mid  fyrhte  fornumene.  Eft 
"5a  siSSan  axodc  se  Htelend  hwa^ne  lit  sohton  swa  swiSe 
gewtepnode.  Hi  eft  andwyrdon  mid  ]?am  aerran  worde, 
cwaedon  j^aet  hi  Sonc  Haelend  habban  woldon.  pa  andwyrde 
he  mid  |>am  ylcan  worde,  **  Ic  eow  saede  aer  j^aet  ic  se  eom. 
Gif  gc  me  sccaS,  ItftaS  mine  gyngran  aweg."  Da  abraed 
Petrus  bealdlice  his  swurd,  and  gesloh  heora  anum  ]>iet 
swiSre  care  of:  ac  Crist  him  styrde  mid  stiSuni  wordum, 
and  het  hine  hydan  |>a?t  liearde  isen  ;  cwseS  ]?aet  he  mihte  ^a 
ma  Sonne  twelf  eoroda  heofenlicra  engla  aet  his  Feeder  abid- 
dan,  gif  hit  weorSan  ne  sceolde  swa  swa  witegan  cwaedon. 
And  se  Haelend  Sserrihte  j^aet  eare  geha^lde. 

Wise  men  tealdon  an  eorod  to  six  Susendum,  and  tvielf 
eorod  sind  twa  and  hund-seofontig  "Susend.  Swa  fela  "Susend 
engla  mihton  eaSe  bewerian  Crist  wiS  iSam  unmannum,  mid 
heofenlicum  wsppnum,  gif  he  'Srowian  nolde  s)  Ifwilles  for  us. 
Ne  he  nolde  5a-gyt  his  gingrena  deaS,  ac  heold  hi  to  lareowum 
eallum  leodscipum  ;  and  het  Sa  ehteras  hi  ealle  forlaetan. 
He  geswutelode  his  mihte  on  Sam  manfullunvSaSa  he  mid 
anum  worde  hi  ealle  astrehte,  forlite  to  eorSan  feallende  un- 


PALM  SUNDAY.     OX  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  247 

from  death,  I  will  again  meet  you  in  the  Galilean  country." 
Then  Peter  alone  answered  with  a  promise,  "  I  will  never  be 
offended  with  thee,  though  all  others  should."  The  Lord 
again  answered  Peter  impressively,  "  Thou  w  ilt  deny  me 
thrice  in  this  nigiit,  ere  that  the  cock,  clapping  its  wings, 
shall  have  crowed."  Peter  said  that  he  would  never  deny 
him,  though  he  should  die  together  with  him  ;  and  all  the 
others  said  the  like.  Judas  the  traitor  very  speedily  went  to 
the  impious  persecutors,  to  whom  he  had  before  spoken,  and 
took  him  aid  from  the  pharisees,  and  they  then  went  all 
armed  and  with  torches  to  the  Living  Lord.  Then  said  the 
traitor  to  the  hostile  party,  "  Whomsoever  I  kiss,  take  him 
forthwith."  And  he  then  betrayed  Christ  with  a  kiss. 
Thereupon  Jesus  went  towards  them,  and  fearless  asked 
them,  whom  they  sought.  Tiiry  said  that  they  sought  Christ. 
Then  said  he  to  them,  "  I  truly  am  he."  At  these  words 
they  went  backwards,  falling  to  the  earth,  seized  with  fear. 
Again  Jesus  asked  whom  they  sought,  so  strongly  armed. 
They  again  answered  with  the  former  words,  saying  that  they 
would  have  Jesus.  Tlien  answered  he  in  the  same  words, 
**  I  said  to  you  before  that  I  am  he.  If  ye  seek  me,  let  my 
disciples  go  away."  Peter  then  boldly  drew  his  sword, 
and  struck  off  the  right  ear  of  one  of  them  :  but  Christ  re- 
proved him  with  stern  words,  and  bade  him  hide  the  hard 
iron ;  saying  that  he  could  obtain  from  his  Father  more  than 
twelve  legions  of  angels,  if  it  were  not  to  be  as  the  prophets 
had  said.     And  Jesus  straightways  healed  the  ear. 

Wise  men  have  reckoned  a  legion  at  six  thousand,  and 
twelve  legions  are  seventy-two  thousand.  80  many  angels 
might  easily  have  defended  Christ  against  those  inhuman 
ones,  with  heavenly  weapons,  if  he  would  not  voluntarily 
have  suffered  for  us.  He  desired  not  yet  the  death  of  his 
disciples,  but  preserved  them  as  teachers  to  all  nations ;  and 
bade  the  persecutors  let  them  all  go.  He  manifested  his 
power  over  the  wicked,  when  with  a  word  he  prostrated  them 


248       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  FASSIONE  DOMINI. 

derbeec,  and  pa&s  arleasan  eare  ea^elice  geluelde,  to  geswute- 
lunge  his  unscaeSSignysse,  and  to  seSunge  soSre  godcund- 
iiysse.  Naes  Petrus  gewunod  to  nanre  w«pnunge,  ac  'Saer 
wseron  tvva  swurd  siSlice  gebrohte  to  ^am  wiberstealle,  gif  hit 
swa  Crist  wolde.  Ac  he  forbead  \net  gevvinn  mid  wordum 
iSearle,  jjset  nan  Godes  5eow  ne  sceolde  on  him  sylfum  tru- 
wian,  ne  mid  waepnum  winnan  wi^  woruldlicum  cempum, 
gif  he  Cristes  fotswa^um  filigan  wile. 

Se  Haelend  ISa  geSafode  j^aet  hi  hine  namon,  and  gelanldon 
on  bendum  to  heora  ealdor-biscopc,  and  his  geferan  ^a  mid 
fleame  aetburston ;  ac  Petrus  him  filigde  feorran  sarig.  Da 
heoldon  ba  ludci  )>one  H^elend  ofer  niht,  and  mid  anum 
wfefelse  his  neb  beuundon,  sleande  mid  handbrcdum  huxlice 
and  gelome,  and  heton  hine  raklan  hwa  hine  hrcopode,  and 
mid  mcnigfealdum  hospe  hine  gegremedon,  and  mid  leasum 
gewitum  forleogan  woldon.  paaxode  hine  se  eaklor-biscop, 
and  mid  aSe  gchalsode,  ]>iBt  he  cpcnlice  stetle,  gif  he  Godes 
Sunu  soblice  waere.  Se  Hfelcnd  him  cw{e^  to,  *'  Ic  eom  swa 
"Su  sietlest ;  and  ic  sittende  beo  aet  mines  Faeder  swiSran,  and 
on  wolcnum  ic  cume  on  ^issere  worulde  geendunge."  Da 
cWcfiS  se  ealdor-biscop  mid  orgel-worde,  "  Hwaet  ^incS  eow 
nu  be  Sissere  scgene?"  HI  ealle  andwyrdon,  mid  anre 
stemne,  j^aet  he  scyldig  waere  witodlice  to  deaSc  :  and  hi  hine 
bespfetton,  huxlice  sprecende. 

Drihten  soSlice  us  sealde  hjeki  purh  Sam  ear-pljettum,  and 
ece  alysednysse  ;  and  Sa  sptetlu  aSwogon  ure  sweartan  gyltas. 
Petrus  stod  ofcalen  on  "Sam  cauertune,  aet  micckmi  fyre  mid 
manegum  oSrum.  Da  cwae^  him  an  wyln  to,  ]78et  he  waere 
mid  Criste,  ac  he  sona  wi^soc  \>xt  hit  swa  naere.  pa.  eft 
ymbe  hwile  cwae^  sum  o"Ser  wybi,  Jj^et  he  mid  ^am  Hwlende 
on  hyrede  waere,  and  he  eft  wibcwaeS  )?aet  he  hine  ne  cu^e. 
pa  genealaehton  ma  hine  meldigende,  ac  Petrus  wi^soc  gyt 
briddan  siSe,  and  se  hana  sona  hlud-swege  sang.  Da  becyrde 
se  Haelend  and  beseah  to  Petre,  and  he  sona  gemunde  his 
micclan  gebcoles,  and  mid  biterum  wope  his  wiSersaec  be- 
hreoMsode. 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  249 

all,  fearful  falling  backwards  on  the  earth,  and  easily  healed 
the  ear  of  the  impious  one,  in  manifestation  of  his  innocence, 
and  in  proof  of  his  true  divinity.  Peter  was  not  accustomed 
to  any  arming,  but  two  swords  had  been  temporarily  brought 
for  resistance,  if  Christ  had  so  willed  it.  But  he  strongly 
forbade  the  contest  by  his  words,  that  no  servant  of  God 
should  trust  to  himself,  nor  with  weapons  strive  against 
worldly  soldiers,  if  he  will  follow  the  footsteps  of  Christ. 

Jesus  then  allowed  them  to  take  him,  and  lead  him  in 
bonds  to  their  chief  bishop,  and  his  companions  then  escaped 
by  flight;  but  Peter  followed  him  afar  sorrowing.  The  Jews 
then  held  Jesus  over  night,  and  wrapt  his  face  with  a  cover- 
ing, contumeliously  and  frequently  striking  him  with  the 
palms  of  their  hands,  and  bade  him  guess  who  had  touched 
him,  and  with  manifold  insult  vexed  him,  and  would  lie  with 
false  witnesses.  Then  asked  the  chief  bishop,  and  with  an  oath 
besought  him  openly  to  say,  if  he  truly  were  the  Son  of  God. 
Jesus  said  to  him,  "  I  am  as  thou  hast  said ;  and  I  shall  l>e 
sitting  at  my  Father's  right  hand,  and  I  shall  come  in  clouds 
at  the  ending  of  this  world."  Then  said  the  chief  bishop  with 
arrogant  words,  '*  What  think  ye  now  of  this  speech  ?  "  They 
all  answered  with  one  voice,  that  he  was  certainly  guilty  of 
death  :  and  they  spat  on  him,  contumeliously  speaking. 

But  the  Lord  gave  us  salvation  through  the  ear-buffets,  and 
eternal  redemption  ;  and  the  spittle  washed  away  our  swart 
sins.  Peter  stood  chilly  in  the  hall,  at  a  great  fire  with  many 
others.  Then  said  a  maid-servant  to  him,  that  he  was  with 
Christ,  but  he  immediately  denied  that  it  was  so.  Again 
after  a  while  another  maid-servant  said,  that  he  was  in  the 
party  with  Jesus,  and  he  again  denied  that  he  knew  him. 
Then  more  drew  near  identifying  him,  but  Peter  denied  yet 
a  third  time,  and  the  cock  forthwith  sang  with  a  loud  sound. 
Then  Jesus  turned  and  looked  on  Peter,  and  he  instantly  re- 
membered his  great  promise,  and  with  bitter  wail  repented 
his  denial. 


250       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

Hvvi  vvolde  aefre  ge^afian  se  -^Imihtiga  Wealdend  ]?aet  his 
gecorena  ^egen,  j^e  he  eallum  gesette  geleaffullum  leoduiii 
lareovv  and  hyrde,  J?aet  he  hine  for  jTcSe  swa  oft  wiSsoce  ? 
Ac  se  mildheorta  Crist  wolde  him  seteowian,  on  his  agenum 
gylte,  hu  he  o^rum  sceolde  mannum  gemiltsian  on  mislicum 
gyltum,  nu  he  eallunge  liwfS  heofonaii  rices  csege ;  ]?{fit  he 
nsere  to  stiJS  unstrangum  mannum,  ac  gemiltsode  oSrum,  swa 
swa  se  ^hiiihtiga  him.  Eft  Sa  on  drPgerede  Drihtnesehteras 
comon  ealle  tosonnie  to  heora  sunder- spraece,  and  hine  |?a 
laeddon  to  ^jere  leode  ealdre,  n)id  miceh-e  wrohte  hine  wre- 
gende.  Ac  se  Hfelend  nolde  hine  betellan  mid  nanre  soS- 
segene,  "Seah  ^e  he  unscyldig  Wierc.  ludas  Sa  gescah  Sonc 
re^an  dom,  and  gcbrohte  j^set  feoh,  |?c  he  mid  facne  genam, 
to  "Sam  ealdor-biscopum,  gcbolgen  swiSe,  and  hine  sylfne 
aheng  sona  mid  grine,  and  rihtlice  gewraS  ^a  forwyrhtan 
"Srotan,  seoSe  lytic  ter  bchewdc  Drihten.  Da  noldon  ^a  ludei 
l^aet  feoh  gelecgan  on  heora  fjetolsum,  swilce  lit  ffecne  nferon, 
ac  gebohton  aMine  iecer  aelScodigum  to  byrgcisum,  Jjiet  Sies 
witegan  word  wurdon  gef\llede,  pe  ier  be  bam  feo  ealsvva 
witegode.  Yfele  behreowsode  se  arleasa  hewa  his  manfullan 
difida  mid  his  agenum  deatic.  On  Criste  he  syngodc,  and 
swiSor  on  him  sylfum,  forSan  pe  agenslaga  on  ecnysse 
browaS.  Se  gebohta  iScer  belimpS  to  us,  we  5e  on  Sysscre 
woruldc  {eliSeodige  wuniaS ;  we  us  geresta^  on  Sam  liflicum 
wurSe,  and  ludas  ne  moste  Saes  landes  brucan,  ac  tobairst  on 
emtwa,  and  his  inno^  tofleow,  nateshwon  gelogod  on  nanre 
byrgene. 

Se  Haelend  "Sa  stod  on  ^am  domerne  gel^edd.  pa  axode 
Pilatus  hine  orgollice,  gif  he  ludeiscre  beode  cyning  on 
eornost  waere.  Da  andwyrde  se  Hcelend,  "  Du  hit  sadest." 
pa  gemunde  se  ealdormann  ]>iet  Herodes  m'sbs  on  ^tere  scire 
Sa,  and  asende  Crist  him  to.  Herodes  soSlice  waes  swiSe 
geblissod  mid  ^sere  gesihSe,  for  his  swiSlicum  tacnum,  and 
vvolde  geseon  sum  wundor  fram  him ;  ac  Crist  him  nolde 
nan  bing  to  gecweban,  ne  on  ^am  timan  nane  tacna  wyrcan. 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  251 

Why  would  the  Ahiiighty  Ruler  ever  allow  that  his  chosen 
servant,  whom  he  had  set  as  a  teacher  and  guardian  over  all 
believing  people,  should  through  fear  so  often  deny  him  ? 
But  the  merciful  Christ  would  show  him,  in  his  own  sin,  how 
he  should  be  merciful  to  other  men  for  divers  sins,  now  that 
he  fully  possesses  the  key  of  heaven's  kingdom  ;  that  he 
should  not  be  too  rigorous  towards  weak  men,  but  should  be 
merciful  to  others,  as  the  Almighty  was  to  him.  Again,  at 
dawn  the  Lord's  persecutors  all  came  together  to  their  sepa- 
rate council,  and  then  led  him  to  the  ciiicf  of  the  people, 
accusing  him  with  a  great  accusation.  But  Jesus  would  not 
exculpate  himself  with  any  defence,  though  he  was  innocent. 
Judas  then  saw  the  cruel  doom,  and  brought  the  money, 
which  he  had  taken  with  guile,  to  the  chief  bishops,  very 
wroth,  and  forthwith  hanged  himself  in  a  noose,  and  justly 
bound  the  accursed  throat,  which  a  little  before  had  betrayed 
the  Lord.  But  the  Jews  would  ncjt  lay  the  money  in  their 
bags,  as  if  they  had  not  been  guileful,  but  bought  a  field  for 
the  burials  of  foreigners,  that  the  words  of  the  prophet  might 
be  fulfilled,  who  had  before  so  prophesied.  Sadly  did  the 
impious  traitor  repent  of  his  wicked  deeds  with  his  own 
death.  Against  Christ  he  sinned,  but  more  against  himself, 
because  a  suicide  suffers  eternally.  The  bought  field  has 
reference  to  us,  who  dwell  in  this  world  as  strangers ;  wc 
rest  in  the  vital  field,  and  Judas  might  not  partake  of  the 
land,  but  burst  asunder  in  two,  and  his  entrails  flowed  out, 
not  deposited  in  any  grave. 

Jesus  was  standing,  having  been  led  into  the  judgement- 
hall.  Pilate  then  asked  him  haughtily,  if  he  really  were  king 
of  the  Jewish  people.  Jesus  then  answered,  "Thou  hast 
said  it."  Then  the  governor  recollected  that  Herod  was  in 
the  province,  and  sent  Christ  to  him.  Verily  Herod  was 
greatly  rejoiced  at  the  sight,  on  account  of  his  potent  miracles, 
and  would  see  some  wonder  from  him  ;  but  Christ  would 
say  nothing  to  him,  nor  at  that  time  work  any  miracles. 


252       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

Da  forseah  Herodes  hine  swi^e  mid  his  liirede,  and  be  his 
hvvituni  reafuni  huxlice  sprtec,  and  asende  hine  sona  to  bam 
foresaedan  Pihite,  and  hi  wurdon  "Sa  gefrynd,  for  ^9ere  d;ede, 
swa  swa  hi  nferon  naefre  aer  on  life,  pa  clypode  Pihitus  eft 
to  Sam  folce,  cwseS  be  Sam  Hcelende,  ]>8et  he  unscyldig  wiere, 
forSan  Se  Herodes  ne  he  eac  ne  mihte  na>nne  gylt  on  him  to 
dea^e  afindan  :  cwaeS  )?aet  he  vvolde  hine  beswingan,  and  to 
life  ahetan,  gif  him  swa  gelicode.  Da  heoldon  ^a  ludei  on 
healicum  gewunan,  J^ajt  hi  aelce  geare  a^nne  scyldigne  abfedon 
ajt  Sam  ealdormenn  to  heora  Easter-tide,  and  hsefdon  Sa  on 
bcndum  aenne  bealdne  5eof,  Barraban  gecTgedne,  for  man- 
slihte  to  siege,  pa  bcfran  Pihitus  paes  folces  menigu,  hw;e- 
iSernehi  gecuron,  Ha4end  oSSe  Barraban  ?  pa^t  folc  him  to 
cwasb,  ]>ieX  hi  gecuron  Barraban.  Da  axode  Pihitus  eft  net 
^am  folce,  hwaet  he  be  Drihtne  gedon  sceolde?  pa  cwjedon 
hi  ealle  midanre  stcmne,  "  Sy  he  ahangen  on  healicere  rode." 
Da  geseah  Pilatus  Saera  ludeiscra  gehlyd,  and  aSwoh  his 
handa  on  heora  gcsihSe,  cwaeS  l^aet  he  unscyldig  his  sieges 
waere.  pa  cw<edon  ba  ludei  hin>  to  andsware,  "  Beo  his 
blodes  gyte  ofcr  urum  bearnum,  and  eal  seo  wracu  on  us 
M'unigende."  Da  het  Pilatus  bone  liaelend  beswingan,  and 
beta^hte  hine  Sa  to  heora  benum,  swa  ]?aet  he  wailhreawlice 
vvurde  ahangen.  Ilwtet  Sa  his  cempan  hine  geliehton  on  "Sam 
domcrnc  mid  dyrstigum  anginnc,  and  hine  unscryddon  his 
agenum  gyrelum,  and  mid  wolcn-readum  wajfelse  hine  be- 
Avaefdon,  and  mid  pyi'nenum  helme  his  heafod  bcfcngon,  and 
for  cyne-gyrde  him  hreod  forgeafon,  bigende  heora  cneowu, 
and  cvvcSende  mid  hospe,  "  Sy  Su  hal^  leof,  ludeiscre  leode 
cyning."  Hi  Sa  hraedlice  eft  hine  unscryddon  ]>an\  readan 
waefelse,  and  his  reaf  him  on  dydon,  and  woldon  ]?ferrihte 
hine  to  rode  gelaedan.  paet  ludeisce  cyn  is  yfele  bebunden, 
mid  }>am  ^e  hi  cwaedon  be  Cristes  blode,  j^aet  seo  wracu 
waere  on  him  wunigende,  and  on  heora  bearnum ;  nu  biS 
hit  eac  swa :  aer  hi  sind  gebundene  aer  hi  beon  geborene. 
Hi  gecuron  manslagan,  na  Metoda  Drihtcn,  forSan  hi  habbaS 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  253 

Herod  then  with  his  household  greatly  despised  him,  and 
spake  scornfully  of  his  white  garments,  and  forthwith  sent 
him  to  the  aforesaid   Pilate,  and  they  then  became  friends, 
for  that  deed,  as  they  never  had  been  before  in  life.     Pilate 
then  called  again  to  the  people,  saying  of  Jesus,  that  he  was 
innocent,  for  that  neither  Herod  nor  he  also  could  find  any 
guilt  in  him  deserving  of  death  :  he  said  that  he  would  scourge 
him,  and  leave  him  alive,  if  it  so  pleased  them.     The  Jews 
then  held  it  as  a  solemn  custom,  that  they  every  year  obtained 
a  criminal  from  the  governor  at  their  Easter-tide,  and  they 
had  at  that  time  a  bold  thief  in  bonds,  named  Barabi)as,  con- 
demned to  death  for  murder.      Pilate  then  asked  the  multi- 
tude of  people,  which  they  would  choose,  Jesus  or  liarabbas  ? 
The  people  said  to  him,  tliat  they  would  ciioose  Barabbas. 
Pilate  again  asked  the  people,  what  he  should  do  ^^ilh  Jesus? 
They  all  said  with  one  voice,  "  Let  him  be  hanged  on  a  high 
rood."     Pilate  then  saw  the  uproar  of  the  Jews,  and  w.'vshed 
his  hands  in  their  sight,  saying  that  he  was  guiltless  of  his 
death.     The  Jews  said  to  him  in  answer,  "  Be  the  shedding 
of  his  blood  upon  our  children,  and  all  tlie  vengeance  resting 
on  us."      Pilate  then  commanded  Jesus  to  be  scourged,  and 
delivered  him  to  their   prayers,  so  that  he  should  cruelly  be 
hanged.  Thereupon  his  soldiers  seized  him  in  the  judgement- 
hall,  with  daring  violence,  and  stript  him  of  his  own  garments, 
and  clothed   him    in   a  scarlet  robe,  and  encircled  his   head 
with  a  thorny  crown,   and  for   a   sceptre  gave  him  a  reed, 
bowing  their  knees,  and  saying  with  mockery,  "  Hail  to  thee, 
sir,  king  of  the  Jewish  people."     They  then  quickly  stript 
him  of  the  red  robe,  and  put  his  raiment  on  him,  and  Mould 
straightways   lead   hiiu    to  the   rood.      The    Jewish   race   is 
grievously  bound  by  what  they  said  relative  to  the  blood  of 
Christ,  that  the  vengeance  should  be  resting  on  them  and  on 
their  ciiildren  ;    it  is  even  now  so  :    they  are  bound  before 
they  are  born.     They  chose  a    murderer,  not  the  Creator 


254       DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

nu  ];one  hetolan  deofol  him  to  hlaforde,  na  ^one  Lifigendan 
Crist. 

paera  cempeiia  hosp  hfefde  getacnunge  on  gastlicum  ^iiiguni 
)7aet  hi  him  to  gamene  gedydon.  Se  wolcn-reada  waefels 
wislice  getacnode  ures  Drihtnes  dea^  mid  ^aere  deage  hiwe. 
So'Slice  ^urh  ^ornas  synna  beoS  getacnode,  swa  swa  ^1- 
militig  God  to  Adame  cwae^,  "Dornas  and  bremelas  ]>c  sceolon 
wexan,  forSan  ^e  "Su  waere  J?inuni  wife  gehyrsum  swiSor 
J?onne  me,  Mihtigum  Drihtne."  Nu  wurdon  ure  synna  eft 
adylegode  Surh  ^one  Syruenan  hehii  on  ^one  Hffilend  be- 
slagen.  IIi  cwjedon  mid  hospe  )>a^t  he  cyning  waere,  seiSe 
soSlice  is  |)eoda  Waldend.  IIi  liine  unscryddon,  and  eft 
gescryddon,  forban  ^e  he  wolde  his  lichaman  forhetan,  and 
siStSan  undeadlicne  eft  araran.  Ilwaet  Sa  cempan  hine 
gelaiddon  to  JSaere  cweahn-stowe,  jjaer  man  cwealde  sceaSan, 
and  him  budon  drincan  gebitrodne  win-drenc,  ac  he  hit 
asceaf  sona  fram  his  mu5e;  noldc  his  onbyrian  for  ^aere 
biternysse.  pes  gebiteroda  drcnc  h;efde  getacnunge  his  deaSes 
biternysse,  "Se  he  "ba  onbyrigde;  ac  he  hine  hrjedHce  mid  his 
aeriste  awearp.  Da?r  Wieron  gela^dde  mid  ^am  Lifigendan 
Drihtne  twegen  scyldige  sceaJSan,  for  heora  synnum  to 
honne.  pa  hengon  Sa  cempan  Crist  on  aele  middan,  and 
l^a  twegen  sceaban  him  on  twa  healfa  ;  and  Pilatus  awrat 
J^aes  wites  intingan  on  anre  tabelan  mid  j^rim  gereordum, 
Ebreiscum,  and  Greciscum,  and  Ledcnum  samod  :  "  pes  is 
se  Haelend,  ludeiscra  Cyning;"  and  asette  ^is  gewrit  sona 
to  ^aere  rode,  bufon  Cristes  heafde,  healice  to  tacne.  And 
•baer  liangode  se  Haelend  on  rode,  ludeiscra  Cyning,  weelhreaw- 
lice  gefaestnod. 

pa  dteldon  ba  cwelleras  Cristes  reaf  on  feower,  heora  {elcum 
his  dael,  swa  him  demde  seo  ta ;  and  heoldon  his  tunecan 
untoslitene,  forban  ^e  heo  waes  eal  buton  seame,  and  seo 
getacnode  "ba  so^an  annysse  ^aere  halgan  gehibvmge,  seo"be 
aefre  bib  vvib  gedwohnannum  J^urh  Drihtne  gescykl.  Drihten 
waes  gefaestnod  mid  feower  naegehmi,  to  west-daele  awend  ; 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  255 

Lord,  therefore  have  they  now  the  hateful  devil  for  lord,  not 
the  Living  Christ. 

The  mockery  of  the  soldiers  was  a  token  that  in  ghostly 
concerns  they  held  him  in  scorn.  The  scarlet  robe  wisely 
betokened  our  Lord's  death  by  its  dyed  colour.  Verily  by 
thorns  sins  are  betokened,  as  the  Almighty  God  said  to  Adam, 
"  Thorns  and  brambles  shall  wax  for  thee,  because  thou  hast 
been  obedient  to  thy  wife  rather  than  to  me,  the  Mighty  Lord." 
Now  are  our  sins  again  obliterated  by  the  thorny  crown 
placed  on  Jesus.  They  said  with  mockery  that  he  was  a 
king,  Mho  is  truly  the  Ruler  of  nations.  They  stript  him, 
and  again  clothed  him,  because  he  would  forsake  his  body, 
and  afterwards  immortal  rise  again.  Tiie  soldiers  then  led 
him  to  the  place  of  execution,  where  thieves  were  executed, 
and  bade  him  drink  an  imbittered  wine-drink,  but  he  in- 
stantly thrust  it  from  his  mouth  ;  he  would  not  taste  it  for 
its  bitterness.  Tiiis  imbittered  drink  betokened  the  bitterness 
of  his  death  which  he  then  tasted  ;  but  he  (juickly  cast  it  away 
by  his  resurrection.  There  were  led  with  the  Living  Lord  two 
guilty  thieves,  to  be  hanged  for  their  sins.  The  soldiers  then 
hanged  Christ  in  the  middle,  and  the  two  thieves  on  each  side 
of  him ;  and  Pilate  wrote  the  occasion  of  the  punishment 
on  a  tablet  in  three  tongues,  Hebrew,  and  Greek,  and  Latin 
together  :  "  This  is  Jesus,  the  King  of  the  Jews  ;  "  and  im- 
mediately set  this  writing  on  the  rood,  above  the  head  of 
Christ,  on  high  for  a  token.  And  there  hung  Jesus  on  the 
rood,  tiie  King  of  the  Jews,  cruelly  fastened. 


Then  the  executioners  parted  Christ's  garments  into  four, 
to  each  of  them  his  part,  as  the  lot  had  adjudged  to  them  ; 
and  they  held  his  tunic  untorn,  because  it  was  all  without 
seam,  and  it  betokened  the  true  unity  of  the  holy  church, 
which  will  be  ever  shielded  by  the  Lord  against  heretics. 
The  Lord  was  fastened  with  four  nails,  turned  to  the  west 


256      DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

and  his  wynstra  heold  "Sone  scynendan  su^-dael,  and  his 
swi^ra  norS-dtcl,  east-dtel  his  hnol ;  and  he  ealle  alysde 
middaneardes  hvvemmas  sua  hangiende.  Da  reSan  ludei 
beheoldon  feorran,  and  mid  hospe  clypodon  to  Haelendum 
Criste,  "  Gif  ^u  Godes  Sunu  sy,  ga  of  Saere  rode,  and  we 
si^^an  swa  on  ^e  gelyfa^."  Se  mildheorta  Drihtcn  cwaeS  to 
his  Fiedei*,  "  Min  Heofenlica  Fjeder,  ic  ^c  nu  bidde,  forgif 
^as  dfede  ];isum  gedvvohnannuni,  forSan  ^e  hi  nyton  hwcBt  hi 
nu  doS." 

An  ^aera  scea^ena  cac  swilce  clypode,  "  Gif  ^u  Haelend 
Crist  sy,  gehael  5e  and  us."  pa  andwyrde  so  oSer,  hine 
^reagendc,  "  Hwast  "Su  la,  earming,  nc  ondrietst  5u  ^c  God  ? 
Wit  synd  gewitnode  for  wa^lhrcawum  da^duni,  and  j>cs  halga 
Haelend  liungaS  her  unscyldig."  Eft  ^a  se  ylca  clypode  to 
Criste,  "  Gemun  Su  min,  Driiitcn,  |>onne  ^u  mihtig  becymst 
to  iSinum  agcnuni  rice,  rodcres  Wealdcnd  !  "  Se  Hitdend  him 
cwaeS  to  mid  soJSum  behute,  "  Nuto-djeg  5u  biston  neorxena 
wangc  mid  me."  pes  sceaSa  gesadig  siSode  to  heofcimm, 
and  se  oScr  gewende  wslhreaw  to  helle.  On  Sisum  twam 
sceaSum  wteron  gctucnode  seo  ludeisce  Seod  and  J'aet  haeSene 
folc.  piEt  ludeisce  folc  noldc  on  Crist  gelyfan,  ^one  ^e  hi 
mid  hospe  on  hengene  ftestnodon  ;  and  J^ijet  hfe^ene  folc  on 
hine  gelyfde,  |>reagende  5a  o5re  }?earle  mid  geleafan. 

Se  halige  Maria,  j^aes  Haelendes  modcr,  stod  wiS  Sa  rode 
"Searle  dreorig,  and  lohannes  samod,  hire  swuster  beam.  Da 
clypode  Drihten  to  his  dreorian  meder,  "  Efne  her  hanga^ 
nu  ^in  sunu,  faemne:"  swilce  he  cwaede,  '  pis  is  ^in  gecynd 
"Sus  'Srowigendlic,  ^e  ic  of  ^e  genam.'  He  cwae^  to  lohanne, 
"  Her  stffint  ^in  modor."  pa  haefde  lohannes  hire  siSSan 
gymene  mid  geswaesum  ^enungum,  a  on  iSisum  life.  Eft  ^a 
cwae^  se  Haelend,  ]?aet  him  hearde  Syrste.  Da  arn  to  ^am 
ecede  sum  arleas  cempa,  and  bedypte  ane  spincgan,  and  baer 
to  his  mu^e.  Hwaet  ^a,  ymbe  midne  daeg  wearb  middaneard 
aSeostrod,  and  seo  sunne  behydde  hire  hatan  leoman  o^  5a 
nigo^an  tide,  ^e  we  non  hata5.     Da  clypode  Drihten,  and 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORDS  PASSION.  257 

part ;  and  his  left  held  the  shining  south  part,  and  his  right 
the  north  part,  the  cast  part  the  crown  of  his  head ;  and  he 
redeemed  all  the  regions  of  the  world,  thus  hanging.  The 
bloodthirsty  Jews  beheld  from  afar,  and  with  mockery  cried 
to  the  Saviour  Christ,  "  If  thou  art  the  Son  of  God,  go  from 
the  rood,  and  we  will  then  believe  in  thee."  The  merciful 
Lord  said  to  his  Father,  *'  My  Heavenly  Father,  I  pray  thee 
now,  forgive  these  misled  men  for  this  deed,  for  they  know 
not  what  they  now  do." 

One  of  tlic  thieves  also  cried  in  like  manner,  "If  thou  art 
the  Saviour  Christ,  save  thyself  and  us."  Then  answered  the 
other,  reproving  him,  "  O  thou  miserable,  dreadst  thou  not 
God  ?  We  are  punished  for  cruel  deeds,  and  this  holy  Jesus 
hangeth  here  guiltless.''  Afterwards  the  same  cried  to 
Christ,  "  Remember  me,  Lord,  when  miglity  thou  comest  to 
thine  own  kingdom.  Ruler  of  the  skies!"  Jesus  said  to  him 
with  true  promise,  "  Now  to-day  thou  shalt  be  with  me  in 
paradise."  This  thief  passed  happy  to  heaven,  and  the  other 
went  bloodthirsty  to  hell.  By  these  two  thieves  were  beto- 
kened the  Jewish  nation  and  tlie  heathen  people.  The  Jewish 
people  would  not  believe  in  Christ,  whom  with  mockery  they 
fastened  on  a  gibbet ;  and  the  heathen  people  believed  in  him, 
strongly  reproving  the  others  by  their  belief. 

The  holy  Mary,  the  mother  of  Jesus,  stood  over  against 
the  rood  very  sad,  and  John,  her  sister's  child,  with  her.  The 
Lord  then  cried  to  his  disconsolate  mother,  "  Woman,  be- 
hold here  hangeth  now  thy  son:"  as  if  he  had  said,  'This 
is  thy  nature  thus  suffering,  which  I  took  from  thee.'  He 
said  to  John,  *'  Here  standeth  thy  mother."  John  then  had 
care  of  her  afterwards,  with  kind  offices,  ever  in  this  life. 
Afterwards  Jesus  said,  that  he  greatly  thirsted.  Then  an 
impious  soldier  ran  to  the  vinegar,  and  dipt  a  sponge  in  it, 
and  bare  it  to  his  mouth.  After  that,  about  mid-day  the 
earth  was  darkened,  and  the  sun  hid  his  hot  beams  until  the 
ninth  hour,  which  we  call  noon.     Then  cried  the  Lord,  and 

HOM.  VOL.  II.  S 


258      DOMINICA  PALMARUM.     DE  PASSIONE  DOMINI. 

cwse^  to  his  Faeder,  "Ic  betaece,  Feeder,  ]?e  nu  niinne  gast." 
And  he  ahyldum  heafde  hine  sona  ageaf.  Efne  "Sa  tobaerst 
]>(&&  temples  wah-ryft,  fram  "Saere  fyrste  ufan  o5  Sa  flor 
neoSan,  and  eal  eor^e  bifode,  and  toburston  stanas,  byrgenu 
openodon  mid  deadum  banum,  and  halgena  lichaman  leohtlice 
arison,  conion  to  "Saere  byrig,  cu^lice  ateowode  manegum 
mannum,  swa  swa  Matheus  avvrat.  Se  hundredes  ealdor 
so^licc  clypode,  aefter  Sisum  tacnum,  "  pes  is  so^  Godes 
Beam."  And  seo  oSer  menigu  ^e  5aer  mid  stodon  beoton 
heora  breost,  bugende  to  Gode. 

pjfit  ludeisce  folc  waes  on  ealdum  dagum  Gode  gecoren, 
swa  swa  god  win  ;  ac  hi  wurdon  awende  to  <Sani  wyrstum 
ecede,  and  forSi  gebudon  eced  5am  Drihtne,  unwynsumne 
waetan,  swa  swa  hi  sylfe  waeron. 

Seo  swearcigende  snnne,  and  <Sa  gesceafta  samod,  eahie 
middaneard  endcmes  aSeostrodon  mid  sweartre  nihte,  for 
heora  Scyppendcs  ^rowunge.  NcSorftc  sc  Ha^lend  for  ^am 
n;egehmi  gewitan  Sa-gyt  swa  hraedlice,  ac  he  ageaf  his  gast 
•tSnrh  godcundre  mihte,  swa  swa  Godes  Sunn.  Da  bifode  seo 
eorSe,  and  toburston  stanas,  j^fet  eal  middaneard  eft  wurde 
astyrcd  )jurh  Cristes  ^rowunge  to  so^um  geleafan,  and  5a 
heardheortan  haeiSenra  5eoda  to  heora  Scyppende  siSSan 
gebigde.  pfes  temples  wah-ryft  eac  wear^  toborsten,  "Se  iSa 
uigelnysse  eallungc  bedyrndc  |>;pre  ealdan  jje,  on  ^am  terran 
timan,  oS|)tEt  Drihten  sylf  5a  digelnysse  cydde  ealhim  gelcaf- 
fuUum  aefter  his  5rownnge.  Eac  swilce  geopenodon  ealdra 
manna  byrgenu,  and  hi  ansunde  arison  mid  heora  Scyppende 
on  ecum  jeriste,  and  orsorge  dea^es ;  and  heofenan  rice  mid 
Hfelende  astigon,  swa  swa  wise  lareowas  geleaflice  secga^. 

Se  Hcclend  for  his  ehterum  eadmodlice  gebaed  his  ^hiiiht- 
igan  Faeder  on  ^iere  menniscnysse,  se^e  aefre  mid  him  ealle 
^ing  geti^a^  on  ]'aere  godcundnysse  godes  willan  mannum  ; 
and  his  ben  5a  gebigde,  ^e  ydel  beon  ne  mihte,  ^one  hun- 
dredf  ;  ealdor  and  eahta  ^usend  manna,  ^e  aefter  his  "Srowunge 
ealle  gecyrdon,   5urh  Petres  bodunge,   mid   so^re  dwdbote. 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION  259 

said  to  his  Fatlier,  "  Father,  I  now  to  thee  commit  my  spirit." 
And  with  head  inclined  he  forthwith  gave  it  up.  Lo  then 
the  temple's  veil  burst  asunder,  from  the  summit  above  down 
to  the  floor  bencatii,  and  all  the  earth  trembled,  and  stones 
burst  in  pieces,  graves  opened  with  dead  bones,  and  the 
bodies  of  saints  freely  arose,  came  to  the  city,  and  publicly 
appeared  to  many  men,  as  Matthew  has  written.  The  cen 
turion  truly  cried,  after  these  tokens,  "This  is  a  true  Son  of 
God."  And  the  other  multitude  wiio  stood  there  beat  their 
breasts,  inclining  to  God. 

The  Jewish  folk  was  in  old  days  chosen  by  God,  as  good 
wine ;  but  they  were  changed  to  the  worst  vinegar,  and 
therefore  ordered  vinegar  for  the  Lord,  a  litjuur  unpleasant, 
as  they  themselves  were. 

The  darkening  sun,  and  the  heavenly  bodies  together,  at  last 
obscured  all  the  world  with  swart  night,  for  their  Creator's 
passion.  Jesus  needed  not  yet  so  quickly  to  withdraw  from 
the  nails,  but  he  gave  up  his  ghost  through  divine  power,  as 
the  Son  of  God.  Tiicn  the  earth  trembled,  and  stones  burst 
in  pieces,  so  that  all  the  earth  was  through  Christ's  passion 
excited  t«  true  belief,  and  the  hardhearted  nations  of  heathens 
afterwards  turned  to  their  Creator.  The  veil  of  the  temple 
was  also  rent,  which  wholly  concealed  the  mystery  of  the  old 
law,  in  the  former  time,  until  the  Lord  himself  manifested 
that  mystery  to  all  the  faithful  after  his  passion.  In  like 
manner  also  were  opened  the  graves  of  ancient  men,  and  they 
arose  uncorrupted  with  their  Creator  in  an  eternal  resurrec- 
tion, and  free  from  fear  of  death  ;  and  ascended  to  the  king- 
dom of  heaven  with  Jesus,  as  wise  teachers  credibly  say, 

Jesus  in  his  humanity  humbly  prayed  for  his  persecutors 
to  his  Almighty  Father,  who  ever  with  him  grants  in  his 
divine  nature  all  things  with  good  will  to  men  ;  and  his 
prayer,  which  might  not  be  vain,  inclined  the  centurion  and 
eight  thousand  men,  who  after  his  passion  were  all  converted, 
through  the  preaching  of  Peter,  with  true  repentance,  though 

s  2 


J^cah  ^e  "Sa  heafod-men  hearde  wit)cwaedon,  and  mid  for- 
sewennjsse  symle  ^wyrodon. 

Da  waelhreowan  ludei  noldon  geSafian,  for  iSam  symbel- 
dsege,  pffit  hi  swa  hangodon  cuce  on  ^.im  rodum,  ac  woldon 
hi  acwellan,  and  bfedon  Pilate,  j^aet  man  lieora  sceancan  to- 
braece  aer  ]?fere  Easter-tide,  and  of  Sam  rodum  awurpe.  fa 
comon  ^a  cempan  mid  cwylmbaerum  tokun,  and  sona  ^aera 
sceaSena  sceancan  tobrtecon,  "Se  "Sa-gyt  cwyhnigcndc  cuce 
hangodon.  Hi  gcmetton  Sa  Crist  middanearde  deadne,  and 
liis  halgan  sceancan  sctenan  ne  dorston  ;  ac  an  ^aera  cempena 
mid  cweahnbserum  spere  his  sidan  gcopcnode,  and  of  Sfere 
ut-fleow  blod  and  waeter  samod  mid  sobre  gerynu.  pa^t  ut- 
flowcnde  blud  wiBs  ure  alysednys  on  synna  forgifenysse,  mid 
soSum  geleafan.  pxt  wteter  witodlice  w;ps  ure  fulluht,  on 
Sam  beo5  ubwogene  Seoda  menigu  fram  fyrnlicere  synne'Saes 
frumsceapcnan  manncs. 

Of  geswefcdum  Adame  wans  Eua  gcsceapcn,  and  Drihten 
on  rode  mid  dcaSc  wa?s  geswefod,  ])iet  seo  halige  gclabung 
eac  gcsceapcn  wurde  burh  5a  gerynu  ^^ere  readan  wunde, 
seoSe  hahvcnde  waRs  sobfaestum  gchwilcum  ]>e  on  Godes  gela- 
"Sunge  mid  geleafan  drohtniab.  God  /Elmihtig  gesceop  man 
on  'Sam  sixtan  daege,  ^aSa  he  gesceafta  Scyppende  gedihtc, 
and  on  Sam  seofo^an  daege  bine  sylfne  gereste,  geendodum 
weorcum,  swa  swa  he  sylf  woldc.  Eft  soSlicc  se  Scyppend, 
on  Sam  sixtan  da^ge,  on  rode  hangiende,  his  hand-geweorc 
alysde,  Adames  ofspring,  mid  his  agenum  dea^e,  and  on 
byrgene  si^^an  anbidiciide  laRg  on  ^am  seofo^an  daege,  "Se  ge 
Sseternes  hataS.  pa  sum  rice  ^egen  "Searle  waes  gelyfed 
dearnunge  on  Drihten,  for  ^am  dyrstigum  folce,  his  nama 
Wees  Joseph  ;  and  he  genealaehte  Sa  hraedlice  on  aefen  to  'Sam 
ealdormen,  baed  )>aet  he  moste  Drihtnes  lie  bebyrian.  pa 
wundrode  Pilatus  ])aet  he  swa  hra^e  gewat,  and  ge^afode  ^am 
"Segene  ]?aet  he  bine  behwurfe.  Da  com  eac  Nichodemus  mid 
gemengedre  scalfe  of  myrran  and  alwan  manegra  punda 
gewyht ;  and  hi  bewundon  his  lie  mid  linenre  scytan,  gedeced 


PALM  SUNDAY.     ON  THE  LORD'S  PASSION.  261 

the  chief  men  obstinately  refused,  and  with  contempt  always 
acted  perversely. 

The  bloodthirsty  Jews  would  not  consent,  on  account  of 
the  feast-day,  that  they  should  hang  so  alive  on  the  roods, 
but  would  kill  them,  and  prayed  to  Pilate  that  their  legs 
might  be  broken  before  the  Easter-tide,  and  that  they  might 
be  cast  from  the  roods.  The  soldiers  then  came  with  the 
deadly  tools,  and  forthwith  brake  the  legs  of  the  tiiieves,  who 
yet  hung  alive  in  torment.  They  found  Christ  dead  to  the 
world,  and  durst  not  break  his  holy  legs ;  but  one  of  the 
soldiers  opened  his  side  \\  ilii  a  deadly  spear,  and  from  it 
flowed  out  blood  and  water  together,  m  ith  a  true  mystery. 
The  out-flowing  blood  was  our  redemption  in  forgiveness  of 
sins,  with  true  belief.  The  water  verily  was  our  baptism,  in 
which  are  washed  the  multitude  of  the  gentiles  from  the  ori- 
ginal sin  of  the  first-created  man. 

Of  Adam  made  to  sleep  was  Eve  created,  and  the  Lord  on 
the  rood  was  put  to  sleep  by  death,  that  the  holy  church  also 
might  be  created  through  the  mystery  of  the  red  wound, 
which  was  salutary  to  every  just  one  who  lives  with  belief  in 
the  church  of  God.  God  Almighty  created  man  on  the  sixth 
day,  when  he,  the  Creator,  had  disposed  the  creatures,  and  on 
the  seventh  day  rested,  his  work  being  ended,  as  he  himself 
would.  Verily  afterwards  the  Creator,  on  the  sixth  day,  on 
the  rood  hanging,  his  handiwork  redeemed,  Adam's  oflspring, 
with  his  own  death,  and  in  the  grave  then  awaiting  lay  on 
the  seventh  day,  which  ye  call  Saturn's.  Then  was  a  rich 
thane  fervently  believing  in  the  Lord,  secretly,  on  accouiit  of 
the  daring  folk,  his  name  was  Joseph  ;  and  he  (juickly  at  eve 
approached  the  governor,  praying  that  he  might  bury  the 
Lord's  body.  Then  Pilate  wondered  that  he  so  quickly  had 
departed,  and  allowed  the  thane  to  attend  to  him.  Then  also 
came  Nicodcmus  with  a  mixed  ointment  of  myrrh  and  aloes 
of  many  pomids  weight;  and  they  wound  his  body  in  a  linen 


mid  wyrtum,  swa  swa  heora  gewuna  vvfes.  pa  stod  on  ^fere 
stowe  sum  steenen  ^ruh,  on  ^aere  naefre  ne  laeg  nan  eorSlic 
mann.  Da  ledon  ^a  )?egenas  ^one  Hfielend  ^seron,  and  mid 
hlide  belucon  ure  ealra  Alysend.  Rihtlice  wtes  seo  byrgen 
swa  niwe  gefunden,  and  naenne  o^erne  njefre  ne  underfeng, 
swa  swa  Alaria  Wfes,  nioder  Cristes,  mjeden  and  modor,  and 
o^erne  ne  gebaer.  Hwaet  ^a  ludei  eodon  to  Pilate,  bapdon 
]jfet  he  bude  ^a  byrgene  besettan  mid  wacelum  weardum, 
]>iBt  he  ne  wurdc  forstolen,  and  ^am  folce  gesiSd,  }>aet  he  sylf 
aryse.  pa  getSafode  Pihitus  j'jet  hi  hine  besfeton  mid  ymtrym- 
mincge,  and  ^a  Sruh  ge-innsegelodon  ;  ac  Crist  aras  swa- 
^eah  of  "Sam  deaSe  gesund,  on  5am  ^riddan  d.'ege  a^fter  his 
iSrowunge,  ofcrswiJSdiwn  dcaJSe.  Sy  liim  a  wuldor  mid  his 
Heofonlican  Fa:der  and  -Sam  Halgan  Gaste,  on  anre  God- 
cundnysse  on  ecere  woruldc.     Amen. 


Ne  mot  nan  man  secgan  spell  on  |'am  Srim  swig-dagum. 


SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

MEN  jnileofostan,  gelome  eow  is  gesaed  ymbe  arcs  Haelendes 
aeriste,  hu  he  on  ^isum  andwerdan  dfege,  aefter  his  ^rowunge 
mihtiglice  of  deaiSe  aras.  Nu  willc  we  eow  geopenian,  ]mvh 
Godes  gife,  be  ^am  halgan  huslk  '5e  ge  nu  to  gan  sceolon, 
and  gewissian  eower  andgit  ymbe  j^sere  gerynu,  aeg^er  ge  aefter 
■Sa3re  Ealdan  Gecy^nysse  ge  eefter  ^aere  Niwan ;  })y-laes  "Se 
aenig  tvvyning  eow  derian  mage  be  ^am  liflicum  gereorde. 

Se  JElmihtiiga  God  bebcad  Moysen  ^am  heretogan  on 
Egypta-lande,  J^ajt  he  sceolde  bebeodan  Israhela  folce  |/aet  hi 
namon  aet  aelcum  heorSe  anes  geares  lamb,  on  "Saere  nihte  ^e 
hi  ferdon  of  Sam  lande  to  ^am  behatenan  earde,  and  sceoldon 
)?get  lamb  Gode  geoftVian,  and  siSISan  sniSan,  and  wyrcan 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON   EASTER-DAY.      263 

sheet,  with  spices  covered,  as  their  wont  was.  There  stood 
in  that  place  a  tomb  of  stone,  in  which  no  earthly  man  had 
ever  lain.  Then  the  thanes  laid  Jesus  therein,  and  with  a 
lid  closed  up  the  Redeemer  of  us  all.  Rightly  was  a  grave 
found  so  new  and  which  had  no  otlicr  ever  received,  so  as 
Mary  was,  mother  of  Cliriat,  maiden  and  mother,  and  no 
other  bare.  Hereupon  the  Jews  went  to  Pilate,  praying  that 
he  would  command  the  sepulchre  to  be  beset  with  watchful 
guards,  that  he  might  not  be  stolen,  and  the  people  be  told 
that  he  had  himself  arisen.  Then  Pilate  permitted  them  to 
watch  him  with  a  guard,  and  to  seal  the  scpidchre ;  but 
Christ,  nevertheless,  arose  sound  on  the  third  day  after  his 
passion,  having  overcome  death.  Be  to  him  ever  glory  with 
his  Heavenly  Father  and  the  Holy  Giiost,  in  one  Godhead 
to  eternity.     Amen. 


No  sermon  mav  be  said  on  the  three  ^till  davs. 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-UAY. 

MEN  most  beloved,  it  has  frequently  been  related  to  you  con- 
cerning our  Saviour's  resurrection,  how  he  on  this  present 
day,  after  his  passion  mightily  arose  from  death.  We  will 
now  disclose  to  you,  through  the  grace  of  God,  concerning 
the  HOLY  iiousEL  to  which  ye  are  now  to  go,  and  direct 
your  understanding  with  regard  to  that  mystery,  both  accord- 
ing to  the  Old  Testament  and  according  to  the  New ;  lest 
any  doubt  may  injure  you  concerning  the  vital  refection. 

The  Almighty  God  commanded  Moses  the  leader  in  the 
land  of  Egypt,  that  he  should  command  the  people  of  Israel 
to  take  for  every  hearth  a  yearling  lamb,  on  the  night  in 
which  they  departed  from  that  land  to  the  promised  country, 
and  to  offer  that  lamb  to  God,  and  afterwards  to  shiughtcr 


rode-tacn  on  heora  gedyrnm  and  oferslegum  mid  ^ccs  lambes 
blode,  etan  siS^an  "Saes  lambes  flaesc  gebraed,  and  ^eorfe 
hlafas  mid  feldlicere  lactucan. 

God  cwee^  to  Moysen,  "  Ne  ete  ge  of  "Sam  lambe  nan  ^ing 
hreaw,  ne  on  waetere  gesoden,  ac  gebraed  to  fyre.  Etab  ]>set 
hcafodj  and  Sa  fet,  and  paet  inncwearde,  ne  his  nan  ^ing  ne 
belife  o^  merigen  :  gif  ^a^r  hwaet  to  lafe  sy,  forbfiernaiS  J^aet. 
Dicga^  bit  on  "Sas  wison.  Begyrda^  eowere  lendenu,  and 
beoS  gesceode,  habba^  eow  staef  on  handa,  and  etaiS  ardlice : 
]?eos  tid  is  Godes  ffereld/'  And  wearS  "Sa  on  ]?<ere  nihte 
ofslegen  on  aelcum  huse  geond  cal  Pharaones  rice  ]?cet  frum- 
cennede  cild  ;  and  waes  j^fet  Godes  folc  Israhel  ahrcdd  fram 
■Sam  faerlican  deaSe  j^urh  ^;es  lambes  offrunge,  and  his  blodes 
mearcunge.  pa  cwoeb  God  to  Moysen,  "HealdalS  |nsne  dieg 
on  eowerum  gemynde,  and  freolsiaS  bine  mterlice  on  eovver- 
lun  cynrenum  mid  ecum  biggcncge,  and  etaS  J^corfne  Idaf 
symlc  seofon  dagas  fet  Sissere  freolstide."  /Efter  ^issere 
deede  la^ddc  God  ))fet  Israhela  folc  ofer  <Sa  Readan  sae  mid 
drium  fotum,  and  adrencte  Saeron  Pharao  and  ealne  his  here 
samod,  Se  heora  ehton,  and  afedde  si^San  yast  Israhela  folc 
feowertig  gcara  mid  hcofenlicum]  bigleofan,  and  him  forgeaf 
waeter  of  heardiun  stan-clude,  o^j^aet  In  comon  to  ^am  be- 
hatenan  e^ele.  Sume  ^as  race  we  habbaS  getrahtnod  on 
oSre  stowe,  sume  wewillaS  nu  geopenian,  ]?aet  J^e  belimpS  to 
"Sam  halgan  husle. 

Cristene  men  ne  moton  healdan  nu  iSa  ealdan  ae  lichamlicc, 
ac  him  gedafena^  |>3et  hi  cunnon  hwaet  heogastlice  getacnige. 
paet  unscaebSige  lamb,  l^e  se  ealda  Israhel  ^a  ofsnaS,  haefde 
getacnunge,  aefter  gastlicum  andgite,  Cristes  ^rowunge,  scSe 
unscae^Sig  for  ure  alysednysse  his  halige  blod  ageat;  be  ^am 
singa^  Godes  ^eowas  set  aelcere  maessan,  "  Agnus  Dei,  qui 
tollis  peccata  mundi,  miserere  nobis:  "  J?aet  is  on  urum  ge- 
reorde,  "  pu  Godes  Lamb,  Se  aetbretst  middaneardes  synna, 
gemiltsa  us."  paet  Israhela  folc  wearS  ahredd  fram  )?am 
faerlican  deaSe,  and  fram  Pharaones  beowte  J)urh  J^aes  lambes 


A  SERiMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      265 

it,  and  to  make  the  sign  of  the  cross  on  their  door-posts 
and  lintels  with  the  lamb's  blood,  to  cat  afterwards  the  lamb's 
flesh  roasted,  and  unleavened  loaves  with  field  lettuce. 

God  said  to  Moses,  "Eat  ye  not  of  the  lamb  anything  raw, 
nor  sodden  in  water,  but  roasted  at  the  fire.  Eat  the  head 
and  the  feet,  and  the  inward  parts,  nor  let  anything  remain 
of  it  till  morning  :  if  there  be  aught  left,  burn  it.  Eat  it  in 
this  wise.  Begird  your  loins,  and  be  shod,  have  your  staff 
in  hand,  and  eat  in  haste  :  this  tide  is  God's  passover."  And 
on  that  night  there  was  slain  in  every  house  throughout  the 
realm  of  Pharaoh  the  first-born  child  ;  and  Israel,  the  people 
of  God,  was  delivered  from  that  sudden  death  through  the 
offering  of  the  lamb,  and  the  marking  with  its  blood.  Then 
said  God  to  Moses,  "  Hold  this  day  in  your  memory,  and 
celebrate  it  solemnly  in  your  generations  with  eternal  obser- 
vance, and  eat  unleavened  bread  constantly  for  seven  days  at 
this  feast-tide."  After  this  deed  God  led  tiie  people  of  Israel 
over  the  lied  sea  with  dry  feet,  and  drowned  therein  Pharaoh 
and  all  liis  host  together,  who  had  persecuted  them,  and  after- 
wards fed  the  people  of  Israel  for  forty  years  with  heavenly 
food,  and  gave  them  water  from  the  hard  stony  rock,  until 
they  came  to  the  promised  country.  Some  of  this  narrative 
we  have  expounded  in  another  place,  some  we  will  now  ex- 
plain, namely  that  which  relates  to  the  holy  housel. 

Christian  men  may  not  now  hold  the  old  law  bodily,  but 
it  is  fitting  that  they  know  what  it  betokens  spiritually.  The 
innocent  lamb,  which  the  old  Israel  then  slaughtered,  was  a 
token,  according  to  the  ghostly  sense,  of  Christ's  passion, 
who  innocent  shed  his  holy  blood  for  our  redemption  ;  in 
reference  to  which  God's  ministers  sing  at  every  mass, 
"Agnus  Dei,  qui  tollis  peccata  mundi,  miserere  nobis:"  that 
is  in  our  tongue,  "  Thou  Lamb  of  God,  who  takest  away  the 
sins  of  the  world,  have  mercy  upon  us."  The  Israelitish  peo- 
ple were  delivered  from  sudden  death,  and  from  Pharaoh's 


266  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

offrunge,  ^e  h?efde  getacnunge  Cristes  ^rowunge,  "Surh  ^a 
we  sind  alysede  fram  ^am  eciim  deaSe  and  J^aes  reSan  deofles 
anvvealde,  gif  we  rihtlice  gelyfa^  on  ^one  so^an  Alysend  ealles 
middaneardes,  Hselend  Crist,  past  lamb  wtes  geoffrod  on 
eefnunge,  and  ure  Hselend  Srowade  on  ]?8ere  sixtan  ylde  ]>ys~ 
sere  worulde ;  seo  yld  is  geteald  to  jefnunge  j^ises  ateorigend- 
lican  middaneardes.  Hi  mearcodon  mid  Sfes  lambes  blode, 
on  heora  gedyrum  and  oferslegum,  Tau,  ]?aet  is,  rode-tacen, 
and  wurdon  swa  gescylde  fram  ^am  engle  Se  acwealde  )?aera 
Egyptiscra  frumcemiedan  cild.  And  we  sceolon  mearcian 
ure  forewearde  heafod  and  urne  lichaman  mid  Cristes  rode- 
tacne,  piet  we  beoii  ahredde  fram  forwyrde,  ponne  we  beob 
gemearcode  iegber  ge  on  foran  heafdege  on  heortan  mid  blode 
]78ere  drihtcnlican  ^rowunge. 

D;et  Israiicla  folc  {ett  ));es  lambes  flsesc  on  heora  Easter- 
tide, ];a]ni  hi  ahredde  wurdon,  and  we  JSicgaS  nu  gastlice 
Cristes  lichaman,  and  his  blod  drincaS,  J>oiine  we  mid  soSum 
gclcafan  |;iet  halige  husel  bicgaS.  pone  timan  ht  heoldon 
him  to  Easter-tide,  seofon  dagas  mid  micclum  wurSmynte, 
Se  hi  ahredde  wurdon  wiS  Pharao,  and  of  5am  earde  ferdon  ; 
swa  we  eac  cristcne  men  hcaldaS  Cristes  aerist  Gs  to  Easter- 
tide J7as  seofon  dagas,  forSan  ^e  we  sind,  ]:>iirh  his  Srowunge 
and  jeriste,  alysde,  and  we  beoS  gechensode  j>urh  "5,'es  halgan 
husel-ganges,  swa  swa  Crist  sylf  cwaeS  on  his  godspelle, 
*'  So^  so5  ic  eow  secgc,  naebbe  ge  lif  on  eow,  baton  ge  eton 
min  flaesc  and  driricon  min  blod.  Se  "Se  et  min  flaesc  and 
min  blod  drinc^,  he  wunaS  on  me,  and  ic  on  him,  and  he 
haef^  |?tfit  ece  lif,  and  ic  hine  araere  on  ^am  endenextan  daege. 
Ic  eoQi  se  liflica  hlaf  ^e  of  heofonum  astah.  Na  swa  swa 
eowere  for^faederas  eeton  |>one  heofenlican  mete  on  westene, 
and  sibSan  swulton  ;  se  "Se  et  ^isne  hlaf,  he  leofaS  on 
ecnysse.'  He  halgode  hlaf  aer  his  ^rowunge,  and  todaelde 
his  discipulum,  J>us  cwecSende,  *'  EtaS  }?isne  hlaf,  hit  is  min 
lichama;  and  doS  j?is  on  minum  gemynde."  Eft  he  bletsode 
win  on  anum  calico,  and  cwae^,  "  DrincaS  calle  of  Sisum  : 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.     267 

thraldom  through  the  offering  of  the  lamb,  which  was  a  be- 
tokening of  Christ's  passion,  through  which  we  are  redeemed 
from  eternal  death  and  the  power  of  the  cruel  devil,  if  we 
rightly  believe  in  the  true  Redeemer  of  all  the  world,  Jesus 
Christ.  Tiie  lamb  was  offered  in  the  evening,  and  our  Saviour 
suffered  in  the  sixth  age  of  this  world  ;  that  age  is  considered 
as  the  evening  of  this  perishable  world.  They  marked  with 
the  blood  of  the  lamb,  on  their  door-posts  and  lintels,  the 
letter  Tau,  that  is,  the  sign  of  the  rood,  and  so  were  shielded 
from  the  angel  who  slew  the  first-born  children  of  the  Egyp- 
tians. And  we  should  mark  our  foreheads  and  our  bodies 
with  the  sign  of  Christ's  rood,  that  we  may  be  saved  from 
destruction,  when  we  are  marked  botii  on  the  forehead  and 
in  heart  with  the  blood  of  the  divine  passion. 

The  people  of  Israel  ate  the  flesh  of  the  lamb  at  their 
Easter-tide,  when  they  were  delivered,  and  we  now  partake 
spiritually  of  Christ's  body,  and  drink  his  blood,  when  with 
true  belief  we  partake  of  the  holy  housel.     The  time  they 
held  as  their  Easter-tide,  for  seven  days,  with  great  venera- 
tion, in  which  they  were  delivered  from  Pharaoh,  and  de- 
parted from  the  country  ;   so  likewise  we  christian  men  hold 
Christ's  resurrection  as  our  Easter- tide,  during  these  seven 
days,  because,  through  his  passion  and  resurrection,  we  are 
redeemed,  and  we  shall  be  purified  by  partaking  of  the  holy 
housel,  as  Christ  himself  said  in  his  gospel,  "Verily,  verily 
I  say  unto  you,  ye  have  not  life  in  you,  unless  ye  eat  my  flesh 
and  drink  my  blood.     lie  that  eateth  my  flesh  and  drinketh 
my  blood,  he  dwelleth  in  me,  and  I  in  him,  and  he  shall  have 
everlasting  life,  and  I  will  raise  him  at  the  last  day.     I  am 
the  living  bread,  which  came  down  from  heaven.     Not  so  as 
your  fathers  ate  the  heavenly  meat  in  the  wilderness,  and 
afterwards  died  ;  he  who  eateth  this  bread  shall  live  to  eter- 
nity."    He  hallowed  the  bread  before  his  passion,  and  dis- 
tributed to  his  disciples,  thus  saying,  "  Eat  this  bread,  it  is 
my  body,  and  do  this  in  my  remembrance."     Afterwards  he 
blessed  wine  in  a  cup,  and  said,  "  Drink  all  of  this  :  this  is 


268  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

|?is  is  min  blod,  pset  ^e  biS  for  manegum  agoten  on  synna 
forgifenysse."  pa  apostoli  dydon  swa  swa  Crist  het,  ])iet  hi 
halgodon  hlaf  and  win  to  husle  eft  si^San  on  his  gemynde. 
Eac  swilce  heora  aeftergencgan  and  ealle  sacerdas,  be  Cristes 
haese,  halgia^  hlaf  and  win  to  husle,  on  his  naman,  mid  J'tere 
apostolican  bletsunge. 

Nu  smeadon  gehwilce  men  oft,  and  gyt  gelome  smeagaS, 
hu  se  hlaf,  ]>e  bi^  of  corne  gegearcod,  and  iSurh  fyres  hjetan 
abacen,  mage  beon  awend  to  Cristes  lichaman  ;  o^5e  Jjaet 
win,  "Se  biS  of  manegum  beriuni  awrungen,  weor'Se  awend, 
)?urh  eenigre  bletsunge  to  Drihtnes  blode  ?  Nu  secge  we 
swilcum  mannum,  j^cet  sume  "Sing  sind  gccwedene  be  Criste 
|>urh  getacnunge,  sume  Surh  gewissum  Singe.  So5  )^ing  is 
and  gewiss,  |)fet  Crist  wses  of  maideneacenned,  and  sylfwillcs 
^rowade  deaS,  and  wies  bebyriged,  and  on  ^isum  daege  of 
deaSc  aras.  He  is  gecweden  hlaf  ]nirh  getacnunge,  and  lamb, 
and  leo,  and  gehu  clles.  He  is  hlaf  gehaten,  forSan  "Se  he  is 
ure  lif  and  engla;  he  is  lamb  gecweden  for  his  unscae^Sig- 
nysse ;  leo  for  "Sfere  strencSe  pe  he  ofcrswic)de  |>one  strangan 
deofol.  Ac  swa-"Seah,  aefter  so^uni  gecynde  nis  Crist  natJor 
ne  hlaf,  ne  lamb,  ne  leo.  Hwi  is  "Sonne  ]><Bt  halige  husel 
gecweden  Cristes  lichama  o^Se  his  blod,  gif  hit  nis  so^lice 
j^aet  l^aet  hit  gehaten  is  ?  SoSlice  se  hlaf  and  j^aet  win,  "Se 
beo^  Surh  sacerda  massan  gehalgode,  o"Ser  ^ing  hi  seteowia^ 
menniscum  andgitum  wiSutan,  and  oSer  "Sing  hi  clypia^ 
wiSinnan  geleaffullum  modum.  Wi^utan  hi  beo"S  gesewene 
hlaf  and  win,  aeg^er  ge  on  hiwe  ge  on  swsecce,  ac  hi  beoS 
so^lice,  t-efter  ^aere  halgunge,  Cristes  lichama  and  his  blod 
];urh  gastlicere  gerynu.  Hae^Sen  cild  biS  gefullod,  ac  hit  ne 
bret  na  his  hiw  wiSutan,  Seah  (5e  hit  beo  wi^innan  awend. 
Hit  biS  gebroht  synfuU  }?urh  Adames  forgaegednysse  to  "Sam 
fant-faete,  ac  hit  biS  a^wogen  fram  eallum  synnum  wi^innan, 
]?eah  "Se  hit  wiSutan  his  hiw  ne  awende.  Eac  swilce  |?aet 
halige  fant-waeter,  ]>e  is  gehaten  lifes  wyl-spring,  is  gelic  on 
hiwe  obrum  waeterum,  and  is  underfeed  brosnunge ;  ac  )?aes 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      269 

my  blood,  which  shall  be  shed  for  many  in  forgiveness  of 
sins."  The  apostles  did  as  Christ  commanded,  in  afterwards 
hallowing  bread  and  wine  for  housel  in  his  remembrance. 
In  like  manner  their  after-comers  and  all  priests,  at  Christ's 
behest,  hallow  bread  and  wine  for  housel,  in  his  name,  with 
the  apostolic  blessing. 

Now  certain  men  have  often  inquired,  and  yet  frequently 
inquire,  how  the  bread,   which  is  prepared  from  corn,  and 
baked  by  the  heat  of  fire,  can  be  changed  to  Christ's  body ; 
or  the  wine,  which  is  wrung  from  many  berries,  can  by  any 
blessing  be  changed  to  the  Lord's  blood  ?     Now  we  say  to 
such  men,  that   some   things   are  said  of  Christ   typically, 
some  literally.     It  is  a  true  and  certain  thing  that  Christ  was 
born  of  a  maiden,  and  of  his  own  will  suffered  death,  and 
was  buried,  and  on  this  day  arose  from  death.     He  is  called 
bread  typically,  and  lamb,  and  lion,  and  whatever  else.     He 
is  called  bread,  because  he  is  the  life  of  us  and  of  angels  ;  he 
is  called  a  lamb  for  his  innocence  ;  a  lion  for  the  strength 
wherewith  he  overcame  the  strong  devil.    But  yet,  according 
to  true  nature,  Christ  is  neither  bread,  nor  a  lamb,  nor  a  lion. 
Why  then  is  the  holy  housel  called  Christ's  body  or  his  blood, 
if  it  is  not  truly  that  which  it  is  called  ?      But  the  bread  and 
the  wine  which  are  hallowed  through  the  mass  of  the  priests, 
appear  one  thing  to  human  understandings  without,  and  cry 
another  thing  to  believing  minds  within.     Without  they  ap- 
pear bread  and  wine,  both  in  aspect  and  in  taste  ;  but  they 
are  truly,  after  the  hallowing,  Christ's  body  and  his  blood 
through  a  ghostly  mystery.   A  heathen  child  is  baptized,  but 
it    varies    not  its  aspect    without,   although    it   be   changed 
within.      It  is   brought   to    the    font-vessel   sinful    through 
Adam's  transgression,  but  it  will  be  washed  from  all  sins 
within,  though   it   without  change  not  its  aspect.     In  like 
manner  the  holy  font-water,  which  is  called  the  well-spring 
of  life,  is  in  appearance  like  other  waters,  and  is  subject  to 


270  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

Halgan  Gastes  miht  geiiealseh^  ]?am  brosniendlicum  waetere 
^urh  sacerda  bletsunge,  and  hit  maeg  si^San  lichamaii  and 
sawle  a^wean  fram  eallum  synnuni  Surh  gastlicere  mihte. 
Efne  nu  we  geseo^  twa  Sing  on  Sisum  ainun  gesceafte.  ^fter 
so^uni  gecynde  ]?8et  waeter  is  brosniendlic  wiJeta,  and  aefter 
gastlicere  gerynu  haefS  halv\-ende  mihte ;  swa  eac,  gif  we 
sceavviab  j^cct  halige  husel  ffifter  lichauilicum  andgite,  );onne 
geseo  we  j^set  hit  is  gesceaft  brosniendlic  and  awendedlic. 
Gif  we  ^a  gastlican  mihte  ^aeron  tocnawab,  j^onne  undcrgyte 
we  })aet  'Ster  is  lif  on,  and  forgifci  imdoadlicnysse  Sam  ]>e  hit 
mid  geleafan  ]?icga^.  Micel  is  betwux  l^aere  ungesewenlican 
mihte  ])ies  halgan  busies  and  ]?am  gesewenlican  hnve  agenes 
gccyndes.  Hit  is  on  gecynde  brosniendlic  hlaf,  and  brosni- 
endlic win,  and  is  ffifter  mihte  godcundes  wordes  soSlice 
Cristes  lichama  and  his  blod ;  na  swa-5eah  lichamlice,  ac 
gastlice.  Micel  is  betwux  |nam  lichaman  ]'c  Crist  on  Srowade, 
and  -(Sam  lichaman  ]>e  to  husle  biS  gchalgod.  Se  lichama 
so^lice  5e  Crist  on  iSrowode  was  geboren  of  Marian  flfesce, 
mid  blode  and  mid  baimm,  mid  felle  and  mid  sinum,  on 
menniscum  limum,  mid  gesceadwisre  sawle  gelTffiest;  and 
his  gastlica  lichama,  Se  we  husel  hataS,  is  of  manegum 
cornum  gegadcrod,  buton  blode  and  bane,  limleas  and  sawul- 
leas,  and  nis  forSi  nan  Sing  )?teron  to  understandenne  licham- 
lice, ac  is  call  gastlice  to  understandenne.  Swa  hwffit  swa 
on  ^am  husle  is  ]>e  us  lifes  edwist  forgifS,  j?set  is  of  -Ssere 
gastlican  mihte  and  ungesewenlicere  fremminge  :  for^i  is  paet 
halige  husel  gehaten  gerynu,  foi-San  ^e  o^er  Sing  is  'Seeron 
gesewen,  and  oSer  ^ing  undergyten.  paet  ]7«fit  "Saer  gesewen 
is  hsefS  lichamlic  hiw,  and  J'set  ]>ist  we  -Saeron  understanda"S 
hfef^  trastlice  mihte.  Witodlice  Cristes  lichama  "Se  dca^ 
Srowade,  and  of  dea^e  aras,  ne  swylt  nsefre  heonon-for^,  ac 
is  ece  and  unSrowiendlic.  peet  husel  is  hwilwendlic,  na  ece  ; 
brosniendlic,  and  biS  sticmselum  todaeled  ;  betwux  to^um  to- 
cowen,  and  into  Sam  buce  asend :  ac  hit  biS  |7eah-hwaeSere, 
aefter  gastlicere  mihte,  on  aelcum  daele  eall.     Manega  under- 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      271 

corruption ;  but  the  might  of  the  Holy  Ghost  approaches  the 
corruptible  water  through  the  blessing  of  the  priests,  and  it 
can  afterwards  wash  body  and  soul  from  all  sins  tlirough 
ghostly  might.  Lo  now  we  see  two  things  in  this  one  crea- 
ture. According  to  true  nature  the  water  is  a  corruptible 
fluid,  and  according  to  a  ghostly  mystery  has  salutary  power  ; 
in  like  manner,  if  we  behold  the  holy  housel  in  a  bodily  sense, 
then  we  see  that  it  is  a  corruptible  and  changeable  creature. 
But  if  we  distinguish  the  ghostly  might  therein,  then  under- 
stand we  that  there  is  life  in  it,  and  tiiat  it  gives  immortality 
to  those  who  partake  of  it  witli  belief.  Great  is  the  ditTor- 
ence  between  the  invisible  might  of  the  holy  housel  and  the 
visible  appearance  of  its  own  nature.  By  nature  it  is  cor- 
ruptible bread  and  corruptible  wine,  and  is  by  power  of  the 
divine  word  truly  Christ's  body  and  his  blood  ;  not,  however, 
bodily,  but  spiritually.  Great  is  the  difference  between  the 
body  in  which  Christ  suffered,  and  the  body  Avhich  is  hallowed 
for  housel.  The  body  verily  in  wliich  Christ  suffered  was 
born  of  Mary's  flesh,  with  blood  and  with  bones,  wiili  skin 
and  with  sinews,  with  human  limbs,  quickened  by  a  rational 
soul ;  and  iiis  ghostly  body,  which  we  call  housel,  is  gathered 
of  many  corns,  without  blood  and  bone,  limbless  and  soulless, 
and  there  is,  therefore,  nothing  therein  to  be  understood 
bodily,  but  all  is  to  be  understood  spiritually.  Whatsoever 
there  is  in  the  housel  which  gives  us  the  substance  of  life, 
that  is  from  its  ghostly  power  and  invisible  efficacy :  therefore 
is  the  holy  housel  called  a  mystery,  because  one  thing  is  seen 
therein  and  another  thinij  understood.  That  which  's  there 
seen  has  a  bodily  appearance,  and  that  which  we  understand 
therein  has  ghostly  might.  Verily  Christ's  body  which  suf- 
fered death,  and  from  death  arose,  will  henceforth  never  die, 
but  is  eternal  and  impassible.  The  housel  is  temporarj^,  not 
eternal;  corruptible,  and  is  distributed  piece-meal;  chewed 
betwixt  teeth,  and  sent  into  the  belly:  but  it  is,  nevertiieless, 
by  ghostly  might,  in  every  part  all.     Many  receive  the  holy 


272  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

fo^  )?one  halgan  lichaman,  and  he  bi^  swa--Seah  on  aelcuni 
daele  eall,  a^ftcr  gastlicere  gerynu.  peah  sumum  men  gesceote 
Isesse  dsel,  ne  bi^  swa-^eah  na  mare  miht  on  Sam  maran  dfele 
]7onne  on  ^am  Ifessan ;  forSan  ^e  hit  bi^  on  aeghwylcum 
menn  ansund,  aefter  Saere  ungesewenlican  mihte. 

peos  gerynu  is  wedd  and  hiw ;  Cristes  lichama  is  so^faest- 
nyss.  Dis  wed  we  healda^  gerynelice  oSpaet  we  becumon  to 
"Saere  so^faestnysse,  and  ^onne  biS  J^is  wedd  gccndod.  So'S- 
lice  hit  is,  swa  swa  we  iev  cw.-edon,  Cristes  lichama  and  his 
blod,  na  lichamlice  ac  gastlice.  Ne  sceole  ge  smeagan  hu  hit 
gedon  sy,  ac  healdan  on  eowerum  geleafan  ]?aet  hit  swa  ge- 
don  sy. 

We  raeda^  on  "Saere  bee  ^e  is  gehatcn  *  Uitac  Patrum/  )?aet 
twegen  niunecas  baedon  act  Gode  sume  swutclunge  be  "Sam 
halgan  husle,  and  aefter  iSjere  bene  gestodon  him  macssan. 
Da  gesawon  hi  iicgan  an  cild  on  ^am  weofode  pe  se  niaesse- 
prcost  ;et  ma^ssodc,  and  Godes  engcl  stod  mid  hand-sexe, 
anbidicnde  o5|/\et  se  preost  jjaet  husel  tobrjec.  pa  toliSode 
se  engel  ]yxt  cild  on  ^am  disce,  and  his  blod  into  ^am  calice 
ageat.  Eft,  5aSa  hi  to  ^am  husle  eodon,  ^a  wearS  hit  awend 
to  hlafe  and  to  wine,  and  In  hit  iSygedon,  Gode  Sancigende 
};aere  swutelunge.  Eac  se  halga  Gregorius  abaed  aet  Criste, 
)>aet  he  aeteowode  anum  twynigendum  wife  embe  his  gerynu 
micele  seSunge.  Heo  code  to  husle  mid  twynigendum  mode, 
and  Gregorius  begcat  a^t  Gode  j^acrrihto,  j^oet  him  bam  wear^ 
aiteowed  seo  snaed  |?aes  busies  ^e  heo  Sicgan  sceolde,  swilce 
■Saer  laege  on  "Sam  disce  anes  fingres  li^  eal  geblodgod :  and 
}?aes  wifes  twynung  wear^  ^a  gerihtlaeccd.  Uton  nu  gehyran 
}?aes  apostoles  word  embe  ^as  gerynu. 

Paulus  se  Apostol  cwae'S  be  ^am  ealdan  folce  Israhel,  ^Sus 
writende  on  his  pistole  to  geleaffullum  mannum  :  "  Ealle  ure 
foriSfaederas  waeron  gefullode  on  wolcne  and  on  sae,  and  ealle 
hi  aeton  j^one  ylcan  gastlican  mete,  and  ealle  hi  druncon  |?one 
ylcan  gastlican  drenc.    Hi"  druncon  so^lice  of  aefterfiligendum 


A  SERMOxN  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      273 

body,  and  it  is,  nevertheless,  in  every  part  all,  by  a  ghostly 
miracle.  Though  to  one  man  a  less  part  be  allotted,  yet  is 
there  no  more  power  in  the  great  part  than  in  the  less; 
because  it  is  in  every  man  whole,  by  the  invisible  miglit. 

This  mystery  is  a  pledge  and  a  symbol;  Christ's  body  is 
truth.  This  pledge  we  hold  mystically  until  we  come  to  the 
truth,  and  then  will  this  pledge  be  ended.  But  it  is,  as  we 
before  said,  Christ's  body  and  his  blood,  not  bodily  but  spi- 
ritually. Ye  are  not  to  incjuire  how  it  is  done,  but  to  hold 
in  your  belief  that  it  is  so  done. 

We  read  in  the  book  that  is  called  *  Vit<TB  Patrum,'  that 
two  monks  prayed  of  God  some  manifestation  concerning 
the  holy  housel,  and  after  the  prayer  assisted  at  mass.  Then 
saw  they  a  child  lying  on  the  altar  at  which  the  mass-priest 
was  celebrating  mass,  and  God's  angel  stood  with  a  hand- 
knife,  waiting  until  the  priest  should  break  the  hoiisel.  The 
angel  then  dismembered  the  child  in  tiie  dish,  and  poured  its 
blood  into  the  cup.  Afterwards,  when  they  went  to  the 
housel,  it  was  changed  to  bread  and  to  wine,  and  they  par- 
took of  it,  thanking  God  for  that  manifestation.  The  holy 
Gregory  also  obtained  from  Christ,  that  he  would  show  to  a 
doubting  womaji  some  great  proof  with  reference  to  hie  my- 
stery. She  went  to  housel  with  doubtful  mind,  and  Gregory 
straightways  obtained  of  God,  so  that  there  appeared  to  them 
both  the  morsel  of  the  housel  that  she  should  eat,  as  if  there 
lay  in  the  dish  the  joint  of  a  finger  all  bloody:  and  the 
woman's  doubt  was  then  rectified.  Let  us  now  hear  the 
words  of  the  apostle  with  reference  to  this  mystery. 

Paul  the  Apostle  said  of  the  old  people  of  Israel,  thus 
writing  in  his  epistle  to  believing  men  :  "All  our  forefathers 
were  baptized  in  the  cloud  and  in  the  sea,  and  they  all  ate 
the  same  ghostly  meat,  and  they  all  drank  the  same  ghostlv 
drink.     Verily  they  drank  from  the  stone  that  followed  after 

noM.  VOL.  ir.  X 


274  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

stane,  luul  se  stan  wfes  Crist."  Naes  se  stan  5e  j^fet  Wicter  Sa  of 
fleow  lichamlice  Crist,  ac  he  getacnode  Crist,  Se  clypode  l^us 
to  eallum  geleaffuUum  mannum,  '•  Swa  liwam  swa  Syrste, 
cumetome  and  driiice,  and  of  his  innoSe  fleowS  liflic  waeter." 
pis  he  Sciede  be  ^am  Halgan  Gaste,  ^e  Sa  underfengon  Se  on 
hine  gelyfdon.  Se  apostol  Paiilus  cvvae^,  ])iet  j^aet  Israhela 
folc  aete  Sone  ylcan  gastlican  mete,  and  drunce  'Sone  ylcan 
gastlican  drcnc,  forSan  <!Je  se  heofenlica  nicte  \>c  hi  afedde 
feowertig  geara,  and  J;cet  wseter  j^e  of  Sam  stane  fleow,  hc'efde 
getacnunge  Cristes  lichaman  and  his  blodes,  |>e  nii  beoS 
geoff'rode  dffighwonilice  on  Godes  cyrcan.  Hit  Wirron  Sa 
ylcan  Se  we  nu  offriaS,  na  lichamlice  ac  gastlice. 

VVe  sfedon  eow  hwenc  jjer,  J)ffit  Crist  halgode  hlaf  and  \\u\, 
aer  his  Srowunge,  to  husle,  and  cwaeS,  "  pis  is  min  lichania 
and  min  blod."  Ne  Srowodc  he  ^a-gyt,  ac  swa-Seah  he 
awende  Surh  ungesewenlicere  mihle  pone  hlaf  to  his  agcnum 
lichaman,  and  ))a}t  wtn  to  his  blode,  swa  swa  he  jer  dydeoji  j^am 
westcnc,  ierSan  Se  he  to  men  geboren  wurde,  ^a^a  he  a\\ende 
Sone  heofenlican  mete  to  his  fljesce,  and  piet  flowende  waeter 
of  Sam  stane  to  his  agenum  blode.  Fcla  manna  aeton  of  c5am 
heofonlican  mete  on  ^am  westene,  and  druncon  ]>onc  gastlican 
drenc,  and  wurdon  swa-^eah  deade,  swa  swa  Crist  saede.  Ne 
mtende  Crist  Sone  deaS  pe  nan  man  forbugan  ne  maeg,  ac  he 
m^ende  pone  ecan  deaS,  ]>e  sume  of  Sam  folce  for  heora 
geleafleaste  geearnodon.  Moyses,  and  Aaron,  and  manega 
oSre  of  Sam  folce  pe  Gode  gelicodon,  seton  pone  heofenlican  " 
hlaf,  ac  hi  naeron  deade  pam  ecum  deaSe,  "Seah  Se  hi  gem<e- 
num  dea^e  forSferdon.  Hi  gesawon  p^et  se  heofonlica  mete 
wees  gesewenlic  and  brosniendlic,  ac  hi  understodon  gastlice 
be  ^am  gesewenlican  "Singe,  and  hit  gastlice  ^igdon.  Se 
Haelend  cwaeS,  "  Se  ^e  et  min  flaesc,  and  drinc^  min  blod, 
he  hfefS  ece  lif."  Ne  het  he  etan  pone  lichaman  ^e  he  mid 
befangen  w;es,  ne  pfetblod  drincan  "Se  he  for  us  ageat;  ac  he 
mtende  mid  pam  worde  pset  halige  husel,  pe  gastlice  is  his 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      275 

them,  and  the  stone  was  Christ."  The  stone  from  which  the 
water  then  flowed  was  not  Christ  bodily,  but  it  betokened 
Christ,  who  thus  cried  to  all  believing  men,  "Whosoever  is 
thirsty,  let  him  come  to  me  and  drink,  and  from  his  inside  shall 
flow  living  water."  This  he  said  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  whom 
they  received  who  believed  in  him.  The  apostle  Paul  said, 
that  the  people  of  Israel  ate  the  same  ghostly  meat,  and  drank 
the  same  ghostly  drink,  because  the  heavenly  meat  which  fed 
them  forty  years,  and  the  water  which  flowed  from  the  stone, 
were  a  type  of  Christ's  body  and  his  blood,  which  are  now 
off"ered  daily  in  God's  church.  Thev  were  the  same  which  we 
now  off*er,  not  bodily  but  spiritually. 

We  have  said  to  you  a  little  before,  that  Christ  hallowed 
bread  and  wiiu^,  before  his  passion,  for  housel,  and  said, 
"  This  is  my  body  and  my  blood."  He  had  not  yet  suffered, 
but,  nevertheless,  he  changed,  through  invisible  might,  the 
bread  to  his  own  body,  and  the  w  ine  to  his  blood,  as  he  had 
before  done  in  the  wilderness,  before  he  was  born  as  man, 
when  he  changed  the  heavenly  meat  to  his  flesh,  and  the 
flowing  water  from  the  stone  to  his  own  blood.  Many  men 
ate  of  the  heavenly  meat  in  the  wilderness,  and  drank  the 
ghostly  drink,  and,  nevertheless,  became  dead,  as  Christ  said. 
Christ  meant  not  the  death  which  no  man  may  avoid,  but  he 
meant  the  eternal  death,  which  some  of  the  people  had  me- 
rited for  their  inibelief.  Moses  and  Aaron,  and  many  others 
of  the  people  who  were  pleasing  to  God  ate  the  heavenly 
bread,  but  they  died  not  the  eternal  death,  although  they  de- 
parted by  the  common  death.  Tiiey  saw  that  the  heavenly 
meat  was  visible  and  corruptible,  but  they  understood  spiri- 
tually concerning  the  visible  thing,  and  partook  of  it  spiri- 
tually. Jesus  said,  "  He  who  eateth  my  flesh,  and  drinketh 
my  blood,  shall  have  everlasting  life."  He  did  not  comnumd 
the  body  with  which  he  was  invested  to  be  eaten,  nor  the 
blood  to  be  drunk  which  he  shed  for  us ;  but  he  meant  by 
that  speech  the  holy  housel,  which  is  spiritually  his  body  and 


276  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

lichama  and  his  blod  :  and  se  ^e  |7?es  onbyrigS  mid  geleaffulre 
heortan,  he  h£ef^  ];aet  ece  Iff. 

On  ^aere  ealdan  ae  geleaffulle  menn  offrodon  Gode  mislice 
lac,  "Se  haefdon  towearde  getacnunge  Cristes  lichaman,  Se  he 
sylf,  for  uriim  synnum,  siSSan  geoffrode  his  Ileofenlican 
Faeder  to  onsasgednysse.  Witodlice  jns  husel,  ^e  nu  biS 
gehalgod  aet  Godes  weofode,  is  gcmynd  Cristes  lichaman,  ];e 
he  for  us  geoffrode,  and  his  blodcs,  ]'c  lie  for  us  ageat,  swa 
svva  he  sylf  bet,  "  DoS  |?is  on  minum  gemynde." 

^ne  "Srowadc  Crist  Surh  bine  sylfne,  ac  swa-"beah  daeg- 
hwomlice  bib  bis  ]>ro\vung  ge-edniwod  |nirb  gcrynu  ])fes  hal- 
gan  busies  set  ^aere  halgan  nuessan  ;  forSi  fremaS  seo  balige 
maesse  micclum  ge  ]?am  lybbcnduni  ge  Sam  forSfarenum,  swa 
swa  bit  for  oft  geswutelod  is.  Us  is  eac  to  smcagcnne,  ]?;et 
);aet  balige  husel  is  aegSer  ge  Cristes  lichama  ge  ealles  gcleaf- 
fullcs  folces,  aefter  gastlicere  gcrynu,  swa  swa  se  wisa  Au- 
gustiniis  be  "San  cwaetS,  "  Gif  gc  MJllaS  undcrstandan  be 
Cristes  licbanuin,  gcliyraS  j?one  apostol  Paulum,  ];u8  cweS- 
ende,  Ge  soSlice  siiidon  Cristes  lichama  and  Icornu.  Nu  is 
cower  gcrynu  geled  on  Godes  mysan,  and  ge  undcrfoS  cower 
gcrynu,  to  San  ]>e  ge  sylfe  sind.  BeoS  ])aet  |?aet  ge  geseoS 
on  "Sam  weofode,  and  underfo^  j^fct  ]7apt  ge  sylfe  sind."  Eft 
cwae^  se  apostol  Paulus  be  ^isum,  '"  We  mancga  sindon  an 
hlaf  and  an  lichama."  UnderstandaS  im  and  blissia^ ;  fela 
sind  an  hlaf  and  an  lichama  on  Criste.  He  is  ure  heafod, 
and  we  sind  his  lima.  Ne  bi^  se  hlaf  of  anum  cornc,  ac  of 
manegum  ;  ne  Jnet  win  of  anre  berian,  ac  of  manegum.  Swa 
we  sceolon  eac  babban  annysse  on  urum  Drihtne,  swa  swa 
hit  awriten  is  be  ^am  geleaffullan  werode,  ]'aet  hi  waeron  on 
swa  micelre  annysse,  swilce  him  eallum  waere  an  sawul  and 
an  beorte. 

Crist  gehalgode  on  his  beode  ]?a  gerynu  ure  sibbe  and  ure 
annysse.  Se  Se  underfeb^  )>aere  annysse  gerynu,  and  ne  hylt 
Sone  bend  ]?fere  so^an  sibbe,  ne  underfebS  he  na  gerynu  for 
him  sylfum,  ac  gecy^nysse  togeanes  him  sylfum.    Micel  god 


A  SERMOX  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.     277 

his  blood  :  and  he  who  tastes  that  with  believing  heart  shall 
have  everlasting  life. 

In  the  old  law  believing  men  offered  to  God  divers  gifts, 
which  had  a  future  tokening  of  Christ's  body,  which  he  him- 
self, for  our  sins,  afterwards  offered  to  his  Heavenly  Father 
as  a  sacrifice.  Verily  this  housel,  which  is  now  hallowed  at 
God's  altar,  is  a  remembrance  of  Christ's  body,  which  he 
offered  for  us,  and  of  his  blood,  which  he  shed  for  us,  as  he 
himself  commanded,  "  Do  this  in  remembrance  of  me." 

Christ  suffered  once  through  himself,  but  yet  his  passion 
is  renewed  daily  through  the  mystery  of  the  holy  housel  at 
the  holy  mass  ;  therefore  the  holy  mass  greatly  benefits  both 
the  living  and  the  departed,  as  has  very  often  been  manifested. 
We  have  also  to  consider,  that  the  holy  housel  is  both  the 
body  of  Christ  and  of  all  believing  people,  by  a  ghostly 
mystery,  as  the  wise  Augustine  said  of  it,  "■  If  ye  will  under- 
stand concerning  the  body  of  Christ,  hear  the  apostle  Paul, 
thus  savini;,  Ye  are  tndv  Christ's  body  and  limbs.  Now 
your  mystery  is  laid  on  God's  table,  and  ye  receive  your 
mystery,  for  which  ye  yourselves  are.  Be  that  which  ye  see 
on  the  altar,  and  receive  that  which  ye  yourselves  are." 
Again  the  apostle  Paul  said  of  this,  "  We  many  are  one  bread 
and  one  body."  Understand  now  and  rejoice  ;  many  are  one 
bread  and  one  body  in  Christ.  He  is  our  head,  and  wc  are 
his  limbs.  Tiie  bread  is  not  of  one  corn,  but  of  many ;  nor 
the  wine  of  one  berry,  but  of  many.  So  we  should  also 
have  unity  in  our  Lord,  as  it  is  written  of  the  faithful  com- 
pany, that  they  were  in  so  great  unity,  as  if  there  were  for 
them  all  one  soul  and  one  heart. 


Christ  hallowed  on  his  table  the  mystery  of  our  peace  and 
our  unity.  He  who  receives  the  mystery  of  unity,  and  holds 
not  the  bond  of  true  peace,  receives  not  the  mystery  for 
himself,  but  as  a  witness  against  himself.  Great  good  it  is  to 


278  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

biS  cri-steiium  niannum  J^aet  hi  geloine  to  husle  gan,  gif  In 
unscffiSSignysse  on  heoni  hcortan  bera^  to  Sam  wcofode,  gif 
hi  ne  beo5  mid  leahtrum  ofsette.  pam  yfelan  men  ne  becymS 
to  nanum  gode,  ac  to  forwyrde,  gif  he  "Sees  halgan  busies 
unwurSe  onbyrigS.  Halige  bee  beodaS  j^aet  man  gcmencge 
waiter  to  t)am  wine  ^e  to  husle  sceal,  forcian  "Se  ]>iet  wfeter 
hajfS  l^cBS  folces  getacnunge,  swa  swa  j^eet  win  Cristes  blodes  ; 
and  forbi  ne  sceal  naSor  buton  oi5rum  beon  geoffrod  aet  Sjfire 
halgan  m;essan,  ]>set  Crist  bco  mid  us,  and  we  mid  Criste  j 
piBt  iieafod  mid  ]^ani  leomum,  and  "Sa  Icomu  mid  5am  hcafde. 

We  woldon  gefyrn  trahtnian  be  <Sam  lambe,  ]>e  se  ealda 
Israhel  jet  hcora  Easter-lide  geoffrodon,  ac  we  \^■oldon  terest 
eow  geieccan  ymbc  Sas  gerynu,  and  si<S5an  hu  hit  man 
Sicgan  sceal.  j^.et  getaenigendlice  lamb  waes  geoffrod  *!t 
heora  Easter-tide,  and  se  apostol  Paulus  cw;e5  on  Sisum 
(hegj'erlicum  pistole,  jnct  Crist  is  ure  Easter-tid,  se^e  for 
(is  WcES  geoffrod,  and  on  |?isum  daege  of  deaSe  aras.  Israhel 
JSigde  )^ces  lambes  fla^sc,  swa  swa  God  behead,  mid  j^eorfum 
hlafum  and  feldlicum  lactucum  ;  and  we  sccoloti  tSicgan  pfet 
halige  husel,  Cristes  lichaman  and  his  blod,  buton  beorman 
yfelnysse  and  maiifulnysse.  Swa  swa  se  beorma  awent  pu 
gesceafta  of  heora  gecynde,  swa  awendaS  eac  leahtras  ])ies 
mannes  gecynd  fram  unscseSbignysse  to  gewemmednysse. 
Se  apostol  taehte  ]>{et  we  sceoldon  wistfuUian  na  on  yfelnysse 
beorman,  ac  on  JK^orfnyssum  syfernysse  and  soSfcfistnysse. 
Lactuca  hatte  seo  wyrt  ])e  hi  etan  sceoldon  mid  ^am  |;eorfum 
hlafum  ;  heo  is  biter  on  "Sigene  :  and  we  sceolon  mid  biter- 
nysse  soSre  behreowsunge  ure  mod  gechensian,  gif  we  willa^ 
Cristes  lichaman  bicgan.  Na^s  J^aet  Israhela  folc  gewunod  to 
hreawum  flasce,  |?eah  be  God  him  bebude  \>(et  hi  hit  hreaw 
ne  «ton,  ne  on  waitere  gesoden,  ac  gcbr;ed  to  fyre.  Se  wile 
bicgan  Godes  lichaman  hreawne,  se^e  buton  gesceade  wen's 
J?aet  he  waere  anfeald  man  us  gelic,  and  naere  God.  And  se 
^e,  fefter  menniscum  wisdome,  w  ile  smeagan  ymbe  tia  gerynu 
Cristes  flfesclicnysse,  he   deb    swilce  he  seobe    bfes    lanibes 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY. 


m 


christian  men  that  they  frequently  go  to  housel,  if  they  bear 
innocence  in  their  hearts  to  the  altar,  if  they  are  not  possessed 
with  sins.  For  the  evil  man  it  turns  to  no  good,  but  to  per- 
dition, if  he  unworthy  taste  the  holy  housel.  Holy  books  en- 
join that  water  be  mixed  with  the  wine  destined  for  housel, 
because  water  is  typical  of  the  people,  as  the  wine  is  of  the 
blood  of  Christ ;  and,  therefore,  that  neither  sl)ould  be 
offered  without  the  other  at  the  holy  mass,  that  Christ  may 
be  witii  us,  and  we  with  Christ ;  the  head  with  the  limbs, 
and  the  limbs  with  the  head. 

We  would  long  since  have  treated  of  the  lamb,  which  the 
old  Israel  offered  at  their  Eastcr-tide,  but  we  woukl  first  re- 
late to  you  concerning  this  mystery,  and  afterwards  how  it  is 
to  be  eaten.     The  typical  lamb  was  offered  at  their  Easter- 
tide,  and  the  apostle  Paul  said  in   this   day's  epistle,   that 
Christ  is  our  Easter-tide,  who  was  offered  for  us,  and  on  this 
day  arose  from  death.     Israel  ate  the  flesh  of  the  lamb,  as 
God  commanded,  witii  unleavened  bread  and  field  lettuces  ; 
and  we  should  partake  of  the  holy  housel,  Christ's  body  and 
his  blood,  without  the  barm  of  evilness  and  wickedness.    As 
barm  changes  creatures  from  their  nature,  so  also  sins  change 
the  nature  of  man  from  innocence  to  corruption.  The  apostle 
taught  that  we  should  feast  not  on  the  barm  of  evilness,  but 
on  the  unleavened  loaves  of  soberness  and  truth.  Lettuce  the 
plant  was  called  which  they  were  to  eat  with  the  unleavened 
loaves ;  it  is  bitter  In  the  eating :  and  we  should  purify  our 
minds  with  the  bitterness  of  true  repentance,  if  we  desire  to 
partake  of  Christ's  body.     The  people  of  Israel  were  not  ac- 
customed to  raw  flesh,  though  God  commanded  them  not  to 
eat  it  raw,  nor  sodden  in  water,  but  roasted  at  the  fire.     He 
will  partake  of  God's  body  raw,  who  without  reason  weens 
that  he  was  a  simple  man  like  unto  us,  and  not  God.     And 
he  who,  according  to  human  wisdom,  will  incjuire  into  the 
mystery  of  Christ's  incarnation,  does  as  though  he  seethed 


2aO  SERMO  DE  SACRIFICIO  IN  DIE  PASCAE. 

flfBSC  on  waetere ;  forlSan  ^e  waster  getaciia'S  on  pyssere  stowe 
mennisc  ingehyd.  Ac  we  sceolon  witan,  Y<et  ealle  Sa  gerynu 
Cristes  menniscnysse  waeron  gefadode  )?urh  mihte  j^'c-es  Ilalgan 
Gastes,  ]?onne  ^icge  we  his  lichanian  gebraedne  to  fyre, 
forSan  "Se  se  Halga  Gast  com  on  fyres  hivve  to  "Sam  aposto- 
liim,  on  niislicum  gereorduni.  Israhel  sceoldc  etan  j?£es 
lambcs  heafod,  and  <Sa  fet,  and  )?;et  innewerde,  and  ];{er  nan 
"Sing  belifan  ne  nioste  ofer  niht ;  gif  )?fer  hwfet  belife,  for- 
bcernan  |?8et  on  fyre  ;  and  ne  tobrtecon  Sa  ban.  ^fter  gast- 
licuni  andgite  we  eta^  J?aes  lanibes  lieafod,  J^onne  we  underfoS 
Cristes  godcundnysse  on  uruin  geleafan.  Eft,  bonne  we  his 
nienniscnysse  mid  lufe  undcrfoS,  [?onne  ete  we  |;a^s  lambes 
fet,  forSaii  iSc  Crist  is  angynn  and  endc,  God  {er  ealle  worulda, 
and  man  on  |>y&sere  worulde  geendunge.  Ilwait  is  ]>ies 
lambcs  innowcrde  buton  Cristes  digelan  bcbodu  ?  Sa  we  etaJS 
J?onne  we  lifcs  word  mid  grjedignyssc  underfot).  Nan  ^ing 
ne  mostc  pH?s  lambes  belifan  o5  mcrien,  forSan  |>c  Godes 
cwydas  sind  to  smcagenne  mid  swa  micelre  carfulnysse,  swa 
|?fet  ealle  his  beboda  mid  andgite  and  weorce  bcon  asmcadc 
on  nihte  'Sises  andwerdan  lifes,  isrSan  ^  se  endencxta  dfeg 
\>iBS  gema^nelican  jeristes  teteowige.  Gif  we  Sonne  ealle  Sa 
gerynn  Cristes  flfeesclicnysse  ^urhsmcagan  ne  magon,  "Sonne 
sceole  we  )^a  lafe  bet;pcan  ]?8es  Ilalgan  Gastes  mihte  mid 
soSrc  cadmodnysse,  and  na  to  dyrstelice  embe  "Sa  deopan 
digelnyssa  ofer  ures  andgites  niieSe  smeagan. 

Hi  seton  J^aet  lamb  mid  begyrdum  lendenum.  On  Icndennm 
is  seo  galnys  Sees  lichaman,  and  se  ^e  wile  \>iBt  husel  ^icgan, 
he  sceal  gewri^an  \>n  galnysse,  and  mid  clasnnysse  "Sa  halgan 
Sigene  onfon.  Hi  waeron  eac  gesceode.  Hwiet  sind  gescy 
buton  deadra  nytena  hyda  ?  We  beoS  soSlice  gesceode,  gif 
we  gcefenlaeca^  mid  urum  faerelde  and  weorce  forSfarenra 
manna  lif,  ])cera  Se  Gode  geSugon  ))urh  gehaltsumnysse  his 
beboda. 

Hi  htefdon  him  st^f  on  handa  aet  ^sere  Sigene.  Se  stfef 
gctacnaS  gymene  and  hyrdrcrdenc.     J^a   Se  bet  cunnon  and 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  SACRIFICE  ON  EASTER-DAY.      281 

the  flesh  of  the  lamb  in  water ;  for  water  in  this  place  be- 
tokens human  knowledge.  But  we  are  to  know,  that  all  the 
mysteries  of  Christ's  humanity  were  ordained  through  the 
might  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  then  eat  we  his  body  roasted  at 
the  fire,  because  the  Holy  Ghost  came  in  form  of  fire  to  the 
apostles,  in  various  tongues.  Israel  was  to  eat  the  lamb's  head, 
and  the  feet,  and  the  inward  part,  and  nothing  might  there 
remain  over  night ;  if  anything  remained,  it  was  to  be  burnt 
in  the  fire ;  and  they  were  not  to  break  the  bones.  In  a 
ghostly  sense  we  cat  of  the  lamb's  head,  when  we  receive  the 
divinity  of  Christ  into  our  belief.  Again,  when  we  with  love 
receive  his  humanity,  then  cat  wc  the  feet  of  the  lamb,  for 
Christ  is  beginning  and  end,  God  before  all  worlds,  and  man 
at  the  ending  of  this  world.  What  is  the  lamb's  inward  part 
but  Christ's  occult  connnands?  those  we  eat  when  with 
eagerness  we  receive  the  word  of  life.  Nothing  of  the  lamb 
might  remain  until  morning,  because  the  words  of  God  are 
to  be  considered  with  so  great  carefulness,  that  all  his  com- 
mands, with  imderstanding  and  effect,  be  pondered  over  in 
the  night  of  this  present  life,  ere  the  last  day  of  the  universal 
resurrection  appears.  But  if  wc  caimot  investigate  all  the 
mysteries  of  Christ's  incarnation,  then  should  we  with  true 
humility  commit  the  remainder  to  the  might  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  and  not  too  daringly,  beyond  the  compass  of  our  un- 
derstanding, inquire  concerning  those  deep  secrets. 

They  ate  the  lamb  with  girded  loins.  In  the  h)ins  is  the 
lust  of  the  body,  and  he  who  will  cat  the  housel  shall  bind 
up  lust,  and  with  chastity  receive  the  holy  aliment  They 
were  also  shod.  What  arc  shoes  but  the  hides  of  dead  beasts  ? 
We  shall  be  truly  siiod,  if  in  our  course  and  work  we  imitate 
the  lives  of  men  departed,  who  throve  to  God  through  ob- 
servance of  his  commandments. 

They  had  staff  in  hand  at  the  refection.  The  staff  betokens 
care  and  guardianship.  They  who  better  know  and  can  should 


282  ALIUS  SERMO  DE  DIE  PASCAE. 

nuigon,  sceolon  gyman  o'Sra  manna,  and  mid  heora  fultuine 
underwry^ian.  Dam  gemettum  vvies  bebodcn  ]>iet  hi  sceoldon 
caflice  etan,  forSan  ^e  God  onscuna^  pa  sleacnysse  on  his 
Segnuni,  and  "Sa  he  lufa^  ]>e  mid  Godes  cafnysse  )78es  ecan 
lifes  myrhSe  seca^.  Hit  is  awritcn,  "  Ne  elca  "Su  to  ge- 
cyrrenne  to  Gode,  ^y-laes  ]>e  se  tima  losigc  }?urh  Sa  slcacan 
elcunge."  pa  gemettan  ne  moston  j^aes  lambes  ban  scaenan, 
nc  -Sa  cempan  5e  Crist  ahcngon  ne  moston  tobrccan  his 
halgan  sceancan.  swa  swa  ht  dydon  jjfera  twcgra  scea*Sena, 
•5e  him  on  twTi  healfa  hangodon.  Ac  Drihten  aras  of  deaSe 
gcsund,  buton  ielcore  forrotodnysse,  and  In  sceolon  geseon 
{fit  "(Sam  micchm  dome  hwaene  hi  geuundodon  wtelhreawlice 
on  rode. 

peos  tid  is  gehatcn  on  Ebreiscum  gereordc  Pasciia,  that 
is  on  Leden  '  Transitus,'  and  on  Englisc  '  Fjercld';  forSan 
•(Se  on  ■Sisnm  d'pge  fcrde  Godes  folc  fram  Egypta-lande  ofer 
"Sa  Readan  sa',  fram  'Seowte  to  ^anl  beliatenan  carde.  Urc 
Drihten  fcrde  cac  on  ])isne  timan,  swa  swa  se  godspellcre 
lohannes  cWrTeJS,  fram  cJisuni  niiddancarde  to  his  Ileofonlican 
Faeder.  We  sceolon  fyligan  urum  Ileafde,  and  faran  fram 
deofle  to  Criste,  fram  ^issere  unst«i^SiSigan  worulde  to  his 
staSelfffistan  rice;  ac  we  sceolon  aerest,  on  urum  andwcrdan 
life,  faran  fram  leahtrum  to  halgum  maegnum,  fram  unSeawum 
to  godum  beawnm,  gif  we  willaS  aefter  -Sisuni  laRnan  life 
faran  to  c)am  ecan,  and,  a^ftcr  urum  aeriste,  to  ILelende  Criste. 
He  us  geUede  to  his  Lifigendan  Ffeder,  |?e  hine  sealde  for 
urum  synnum  to  deaSe-  Sy  him  wuldor  and  lof  J>aere  wcl- 
daede  on  ealra  worulda  woruld.     Amen. 


ALIUS  SERMO  DE  DIE  PASCAE. 

HIT  is  swi^e  gedafenlic,  |?aet  ge  on  Sisum  drihtenlicum  teriste 
sume  larlice  word  aet  eowerum  lareowum  gehyron. 

Lucas  se  Godspellcre  awrat  on  Cristes  bee,  j^ael  on  Sisum 


ANOTHER  SERMON  ON  EASTER-DAY.  283 

hiive  care  of  other  men,  and  support  them  with  their  aid. 
The  partakers  were  commanded  to  eat  quickly,  because  God 
abominates  shickness  in  his  servants,  and  he  loves  those  who 
with  the  speed  of  God  seek  the  joy  of  everlasting  life.  It  is 
written,  •'  Tarry  not  to  turn  to  God,  lest  the  time  be  lost 
through  slothful  delay."  The  partakers  migiit  not  break  the 
bones  of  the  lamb,  nor  might  the  soldiers  who  hanged  Christ 
break  his  holy  legs,  as  they  did  those  of  the  two  thieves  who 
hung  on  the  two  sides  of  him.  But  the  Lord  arose  from 
death  sound,  without  any  corruption,  and  they  shall  see  at 
the  great  doom  him  whom  they  cruelly  wounded  on  the 
rood. 

This  tide  is  in  the  Hebrew  tongue  called  Pascha,  that  is 
in  Latin,  Trausifus,  and  in  English,  Passover;  because  on 
this  day  God's  folk  passed  from  the  land  of  Egypt  over  the 
Red  sea,  from  thraldom  to  the  promised  country.  Our  Lord 
also  passed  at  this  time,  as  the  evangelist  John  said,  from 
this  Morld  to  his  Heavenly  Father.  We  should  follow  our 
Head,  and  pass  from  the  devil  to  Christ,  frou)  this  unsteady 
world  to  his  steadfast  kingdom  ;  but  we  should  first,  in  our 
present  life,  pass  from  sins  to  holy  virtues,  from  vices  to  good 
morals,  if  we  desire,  after  this  transitory  life,  to  pass  to  the 
life  everlasting,  and,  after  our  resurrection,  to  Jesus  Christ. 
May  he  lead  us  to  his  Living  Father,  who  gave  him  to  death 
for  our  sins.  Be  to  him  glory  and  praise  for  that  beneficence 
to  all  eternity.     Amen. 


ANOTHER  SERMON  ON  EASTER-DAY. 

IT  is  very  fitting,  that  on  this  divine  resurrection  ye  hear 
some  instructive  words  frotn  your  teachers. 

Luke  the  Evangelist  wrote  in  the  book  of  Christ,  that  on 


284  ALIUS  SERMO  DE  DIE  PASCAE. 

Easterlicnm  d<ege  "  eodon  twegen  Drihtnes  leorning-cnihtas 
to  an  re  by  rig,  seo  waes  fif  mila  fram  Hierusalem,  Emmaus 
gehaten  :  ]?a  eodon  hi,  sprecende  ymbe  J^aes  Hielendes  prow- 
unge  hitn  betwynan;"  et  reliqua. 

On  ^isum  andwerdan  daege  gelanip  5is,  |»eah  "Se  J^is  godspel 
aet  o^re  nifessan  geraed  sy.  Gregorius,  se  halga  papa,  ure 
apostol,  trahtnode  |?is  godspel  mid  sceortre  trahtnunge,  and 
cwcR'S,  Mine  gebroSra  Sa  leofostan,  efne  ge  geliyrdon  )7aet 
ure  Drihtcn  refter  his  feriste  hine  SRteowode  on  si*5fete  his 
tvvam  leorning-cnihtuni,  na  fulfremedlice  be  him  gclyfendum, 
ae  be  him  sprecendum  ;  and  he  nolde  for  Saere  twynunge  him 
aeteowian  his  oncnawennysse.  Swa  dydc  Drihten  on  heora 
gesihbe  swa  swa  hi  sylfe  dydon  on  heora  heortum.  Hi 
so^lice  hine  hifodon  wiSinnan,  and  swa-^eah  him  twynode 
be  his  ffiristc ;  Driiiten  him  waes  andwcrd  wibutan,  and  swa- 
Seah  him  ne  gcswutelode  hwaet  he  waes.  He  gefyldc  his 
behat,  J^e  he  <er  his  Srowunge  gccwaeS,  "  Swa  hwfcer  swa  beo^ 
twegen  o^Se  ^ry  gegadrodc  on  minum  naman,  J?aer  ic  sylf 
beo  him  to-middes."  He  Sreadc  heora  andgites  hcardiiysse, 
and  him  geopenode  ISa  halgan  gewritu  5e  be  him  wjeron 
gesette ;  and  swa-^cah  he  waes  him  geSuht  swilce  ael^eodig 
for  ^aere  twynunge. 

Be  ciison  Me  magon  tocnawan  j^fet  us  is  twyfeald  neod  on 
boclicum  gewritum.  Anfeald  neod  us  is,  }>aet  we  "Sa  boclican 
lare  midcarfulliim  modcsmeagan  ;  oSerj^aet  we  hi  to  weorcum 
a\vendan.  Gif  Moyses  and  ealle  witegan  witegodon  j^aet 
Crist  sceolde,  ^urh  nearunysse  his  "Srowunge,  into  his  heo- 
fonlican  wuldre  faran,  humeta  maeg  ^onne  se  beon  cristen 
geteald,  se^e  nele,  be  his  andgites  mae^e,  ]?a  boclican  gewritu 
aspyrian,  hu  hi  to  Criste  belimpaS,  ne  ^urh  nanre  earfo^nysse 
]>gdt  ece  wuldor  mid  Criste  geearnian  ? 

Hi  ^a  gclaSodon  hine  to  heora  gest-huse,  and  him  mete 
gebudon,  and  hine  on  'Sam  gereorde  oncneowon,  );one  "Se  hi 
ne  mihton  on  onwrigennysse  haliges  ge  writes  oncnawan. 
Naeron  hi  onlihte  j^urh  j^aet  j^aet  hi  Godes  beboda  gehyrdon, 


ANOTHER  SERMON  ON  EASTER-DAY.  285 

this  Easter  day  "  two  of  the  Lord's  disciples  went  to  a  town, 
which  was  five  miles  from  Jerusalem,  called  Emmaus :  then 
went  they,  speaking  among  themselves  of  the  passion  of 
Jesus  :  "  et  reliqua. 

On  this  present  day  this  happened,  though  this  gospel  is 
read  at  another  mass.  Gregory,  the  holy  pope,  our  apostle, 
has  expounded  tiiis  gospel  in  a  short  exposition,  and  said, 
My  dearest  brothers,  behold  ye  have  heard  that  our  Lord 
after  his  resurrection  appeared  on  a  journey  to  his  two  dis- 
ciples, who  did  not  fully  believe  concerning  him,  but  were 
speaking  of  him  ;  and  he  would  not,  on  account  of  their 
doubt,  show  that  he  knew  them.  The  Lord  did  in  their  sight 
as  they  themselves  did  in  their  hearts.  They  truly  loved  him 
witliin,  and  yet  doubted  as  to  his  resurrection  ;  the  Lord  was 
present  to  them  without,  and  yet  did  not  manifest  to  then) 
M ho  he  Mas.  He  fulfilled  his  promise,  which  he  made  before 
his  passion,  "  Wheresoever  two  or  three  shall  be  gathered 
together  in  my  name,  there  1  myself  will  be  in  the  midst  ol 
them."  He  reproved  the  hardness  of  their  understanding, 
and  opened  to  them  the  holy  writings  which  had  been  com- 
posetl  concerning  him ;  and,  nevertheless,  he  appeared  to 
them  as  a  stranger,  because  of  their  doubt. 

By  this  we  may  know  that  we  have  a  twofold  need  in  book- 
writings.  Our  simple  need  is  to  consider  with  careful  mind 
the  written  lore  ;  the  other,  to  turn  it  to  works.  If  Moses  and 
all  the  prophets  prophesied  that  Christ,  through  the  anguish 
of  his  passion,  should  pass  into  his  heavenh  glory,  how  then 
can  he  be  accounted  a  christian,  who  will  not,  according  to 
the  capacity  of  his  understanding,  search  the  book-writings, 
how  they  I'efer  to  Christ,  nor  through  any  ditliculty  merit 
with  Christ  eternal  glory  ? 

They  then  invited  him  to  their  guest-house,  and  offered 
him  meat,  and  knew  him  at  the  refection,  whom  they  might 
not  know  by  the  revelation  of  the  holy  writ.  They  were 
not  enlightened  because  they  had  heard  the  commandments 


286  ALIUS  "SEIIMO  Dl£  DIE  PASCAE. 

ac  hi  vvurdon  onlihte  pa^a  hi  Godes  beboda  to  weorce  awen- 
don,  )?nrh  "Sa  cumlibnysse ;  for^aii  ^e  hit  is  awriten,  Jjset  "Sa 
ne  beoiS  rihtwise  getealde  mid  Gode,  J?a  "Se  buton  weorce  his 
beboda  geh}  raS  ;  ac  5a  beo5  rihtwise  getealde,  ]>e  mid  weor- 
cum  his  beboda  gefylla^.  Efne  ure  Drihten  na?s  onciiawen, 
iSaSa  he  on  siSfjete  hi  gespra^c,  ac  Saba  he  mid  him  gereor- 
dode,  j;a  wearS  he  oncnawen  |>urh  heora  cumliSnysse.  Mine 
gebrobra,  lufiaS  cumliSnysse  and  soSre  hife  weorc,  swa  swa 
se  apostol  Paulus  ^a  geleatTullan  Soode  J>isuin  wordum  tihte, 
"  Wunige  betwux  cow  hifu  soSre  broScrraedcne,  and  ne 
forgymeleasige  ge  cumliJSnysse." 

Sume  gecwemdon  englum  on  heora  gcst-hiisum  undeifinig- 
enum  })nrh  cumli5nyi?se.  Be  Sisnin  eac  cwfeS  se  apostol 
Petriis,  "  BcoiS  cumliSe  eow  betwynan,  buton  ceorungum." 
Drihten  sylf  cWceS,  "  Ic  waes  cuma,  and  ge  me  underfongon." 
Witodlicc  cumliSnys  is  swiSe  hlisful  Sing,  and  astcald  Surh 
halguni  heahfjederum.  Sum  hiredes  ealdor  beeode  cnniliS- 
nysse  mid  micelre  gecneordnysse,  anddc'eghwomlicc  alSeodige 
men  aet  his  mysan  gereordode.  Hwtfit  Sa,  on  sumum  da^ge 
com  sum  aelSeodig  man  betwux  "bam  oSruin  to  his  mysan, 
and  se  hiredes  ealdor,  swa  swa  his  gewuna  wfes,  b;er  him 
waeter  to  han(hnn.  pa  fa^rlice  fordwan  se  foresa'da  a^lSeodiga 
of  his  gesihSum,  and  he  S^-s  micclum  wundrode.  Eft  on 
J?cere  ylcan  nihte,  cwifiS  se  Ilffilend  iSurh  onwrigennysse  to 
^am  hiredes  hlaforde,  "  OSrum  dagum  Jni  underfenge  me  on 
minum  limum,  gyrstan-daeg  |?u  underfenge  me  on  me  sylfum." 
SmeagaS  nu,  mine  gebroSra,  hu  micel  miht  stent  on  cumli^- 
nysse,  gif  heo  bi^  orhlyte  ydeles  gylpes.  Drihten  gelaeste 
Jjam  hiredes  hlaforde  J^aet  j^aet  he  on  his  godspelle  gecwaeS, 
"  Se  ^e  underfehS  ffinne  lytling  on  minum  naman,  he  undcr- 
feh^  me  sylfne."  Sy  lof  and  wuldor  a  -Sam  welwyllendan 
Haelende.     Amen. 


ANOTHER  SERMOX  ON  EASTER-DAY.  287 

of  God,  but  they  were  enlightened  when  they  turned  the  com- 
mandments of  God  to  work,  by  hospitality;  for  it  is  written, 
that  they  shall  not  be  accounted  righteous  with  God,  who 
without  work  hear  his  commandments  ;  but  they  shall  be  ac- 
counted righteous,  who  fulfil  his  commandments  with  works. 
Lo  our  Lord  was  not  known,  when  he  spake  with  them  on 
the  journey,  but  when  he  ate  with  them,  tiien  he  became 
known  through  their  hospitality.  My  brothers,  love  hospi- 
tality and  works  of  true  love,  as  the  apostle  Paul  stimulated  the 
faithful  people  in  these  words,  "  Let  the  love  of  true  brother- 
hood dwell  among  you,  and  neglect  not  hospitality." 

Some  through  hospitality  have  given  pleasure  to  angels, 
whom  they  received  into  their  guest-houses.  Of  this  also 
the  apostle  Peter  said,  "  Be  hospitable  among  yourselves, 
without  murmuring."  The  Lord  himself  said,  "  I  uas  a 
guest,  and  ye  received  me."  Verily  hospitality  is  a  very 
excellent  thing,  and  was  established  by  the  holy  patriarchs. 
A  chief  of  a  household  practised  hospitality  with  great  assi- 
duity, and  daily  entertained  strangers  at  bis  board.  Behold 
on  a  certain  day  a  stranger  came  among  others  to  his  table, 
and  the  chief  of  the  household,  as  was  his  wont,  bare  water 
to  him  for  his  hands.  The  before-said  stranger  then  sud- 
denly vanished  from  his  sight,  and  thereat  he  greatly  won- 
dered. Afterwards,  on  the  same  night,  Jesus  through  reve- 
lation said  to  the  master  of  the  household,  "  On  other  days 
thou  hast  received  me  in  my  limbs,  yesterday  thou  receivedst 
me  in  myself."  Consider  now,  my  brothers,  what  great 
virtue  exists  in  hospitality,  if  it  be  void  of  vain-glory.  The 
Lord  made  good  to  the  master  of  the  household  that  which 
he  said  in  his  gospel,  "  He  who  receivcth  one  little  one  in  my 
name,  he  receiveth  myself."  Be  ever  praise  and  glory  to 
the  benevolent  Jesus.     Amen. 


28S 


FERIA  IV.  IN  HEBDOMADE  PASCAE. 

GELOME  aeteowode  ure  Drihtcn  hine  sylfne  his  leorning- 
cnihtum  fefter  his  sriste,  and  mid  him  ^igde  lichamlicc 
bigleofan,  and  hi  mid  his  lare  gctrymde.  Sume  his  geswute- 
hnige  we  eow  saedon  on  oSre  stowe,  sume  we  wiila^  eow  nu 
sccgan,  nn  gc  her  gcgaderodc  syndon.  We  wenaS  ]hpX  ge 
culle  on  andwerdnysse  her  ne  beon  to  ham  dpRgc  ^e  we  )><et 
godspel  nrdan  sceolon. 

lohannes  se  Godspellcre  awrat  on  |i;prc  feorSan  Cristcs 
bee,  ^us  cweScnde,  "  Manifestauit  se  lesus  ad  mare  Tybe- 
riadis  :"  ct  rclicjua  :  "  Se  Hfelcnd  hine  ges\vutch)dc  tefter  his 
feriste  set  ■Sicre  see  Tybcriadis  his  seofon  Icorning-cnihtum," 
etc. 

Gregorius  trahtnodc  )ns  godspel,  and  smcadc  hwi  Pctrus 
0i!)5c  heora  tenig  to  San  oft  fcngc  \>e  he  jjer  forlet.  VVitodHcc 
Pctrus  waes  fisccre  fier  his  gecyrrcdnysse,  and  Matheus  wa^s 
tollcre.  Pctrus  gccyrde  eft  to  his  fixnoSe,  and  Matheus 
nfefre  a^fter  his  gecyrrcdnysse  set  toU-setle  ne  saet ;  forSan 
"Se  o"Ser  is  j^ait  man  him  JSurh  fixno'Se  bigleofan  tilige,  and 
o'Ser  paet  man  Surh  toll  fcoh  gegadrigc.  Sume  teolunga 
sind  l^e  man  began  m.'cg  buton  synnum,  sume  siiid  5e  man 
carfoiSlice  mseg  oS^e  nateshwon  buton  synnum  began.  Is 
forSi  neod  J^am  ^e  to  Gode  annedlice  bihS,  j^iet  his  mod  ne 
ge-edlfece  5a  teolunga  ];e  hine  fram  Gode  wemaS.  Pctrus 
hffifde  mipleolice  teolunge  iev  his  gecyrrcdnysse,  and  he  eac 
for  Si  eft  buton  pleo  to  his  fixno^e  gecyrde. 

Se  Haelend  stod  on  ^am  strande,  ^a^a  he  hine  geswutelode 
his  Icorning-cnihtum  after  his  eeriste,  and  nolde  gan  up  on 
■5am  sielicum  ySum,  swa  swa  he  dyde  {3er  his  ^rowunge.  Seo 
sifi  getacna^  ]>as  andwerdan  woruld,  and  |7fet  strand  getacnode 
^a  ecan  sta^olfccstnysse  )?aes  towerdan  lifes.  Hi  swuncon 
on  Saere  sae,  for^an  '5e  hi  waeron  ^a-gyt  on  geswincfuUum 
y^um  |?ises  deadlican  lifes.    Se  H.'i^lend  stod  on  5am  strande, 


289 


WEDNESDAY  IN  EASTER  WEEK. 

OUR  Lord,  after  his  resurrection,  frequently  appeared  to 
his  disciples,  and  with  them  bodily  ate  food,  and  confirmed 
them  with  his  teaching.  Some  of  his  manifestation  we  have 
related  to  you  in  another  place,  some  we  will  now  relate  to 
you,  now  that  ye  are  here  assembled.  We  ween  that  ye  will 
not  all  be  present  here  on  the  day  when  we  shall  read  that 
gospel. 

John  the  Evangelist  wrote  in  the  fourth  book  of  Christ, 
thus  saying,  "  Manifestavit  se  Jesus  ad  mare  Tiberiadis,"  et 
reliqua :  "  Jesus  showed  himself  after  his  resurrection  at  the 
sea  of  Tiberias  to  his  seven  disciples,"  etc. 

Gregory  has  commented  on  this  gospel,  and  considered 
why  Peter  or  any  of  them  again  took  to  that  which  they  had 
before  abandoned.  For  Peter  before  his  conversion  was  a 
fisher,  and  Matthew  a  toll-gatherer.  Peter  turned  again  let 
his  fishing,  but  Matthew  after  his  conversion  never  sat  at  the 
toll-seat;  because  it  is  one  thing  that  a  man  provide  himself 
sustenance  by  fishing,  and  another  that  a  man  accumulate 
money  by  toll.  Some  occupations  there  are  that  a  man  may 
follow  without  sins,  some  there  are  that  a  man  can  hardly, 
or  not  at  all  follow  without  sins.  It  is,  therefore,  needful  for 
him  who  steadfastly  inclines  to  God,  that  his  mind  approach 
not  those  pursuits  which  may  seduce  him  from  God.  Peter 
had  an  occupation  void  of  peril  before  his  conversion,  and  he, 
therefore,  turned  again  v.ithout  peril  to  his  fishing. 

Jesus  stood  on  the  strand,  when  he  t^howcd  himself  to  hii 
disciples  after  his  resurrection,  and  would  not  go  upon  the 
sea  waves,  as  he  did  before  his  passion.  The  sea  betokens 
this  present  world,  and  the  strand  betokened  the  eternal 
stability  of  the  life  to  come.  They  toiled  on  the  sea,  because 
they  were  yet  in  the  toilsome  waves  of  this  mortal  life.  Jesus 
stood  on  the  strand,  because,  through  his  resurrection,  he 

HOM.  VOL.   IT.  U 


290  FERIA  IV.  IN  HEBDOMADE  PASCAE. 

forSan  ^e  he  haefde  5urh  his  aeristealle  deadlicnyssaaworpen, 
swilce  he  mid  weorcum  hi  gesprsece,  '  Nelle  ic  on  sjje  eow 
aeteowian,  forSan  5e  ic  ne  eom  mid  cow  on  geswincfuHum 
ySum  anJwerdrc  deaSlicnyssc.' 

Heora  fixnoSe  gelamp  micel  earfoSnys,  j^aet  Cristes  tacne 
gehmipe  micel  mjersung.  Wc  raedab  on  Cristes  bee,  ]7ffit 
Drihten  hete  tuwa  awurpan  net  on  fixnoSe  ;  tene  wr  his  <Srow- 
mige,  and  o^re  siJSe  aefter  his  aeriste.  He  het  ter  his  ^row- 
unge  wurpan,  nc  he  ne  scyrde  on  hw^eSere  healfe  hi  ])aet  net 
wurpan  sceoldon.  yEftcr  his  {eriste  he  het  wurpan  ]?aet  net 
on  ^a  swiSran  healfe  ]y,es  rewetes,  for  tSaere  getacimnge.  Seo 
swiSre  healf  getacnaS  Sa  godan,  and  seo  wynstre  ba  yfclan. 
Se  aerra  fixnoS  ^r  Cristes  Srowunge  getacnode  |>as  andwerdan 
gelacSunge  ^e  we  on  sindon;  and  se  teftra  fixnoS,  {efter 
Drihtncs  leriste,  getacnode  \>d  towerdan  gclaSunge  gecorenra 
manna  to  5;im  ecan  life.  On  Sam  a^rran  fixnoSe  wurdon 
swa  fela  geliehte  |>a^t  paet  net  tobaerst ;  and  SMa  fela  manna 
gebugaS  to  gelcafan  on  iSissere  andwerdan  gelaSunge,  |)aet 
hi  sume  oft  ut-l)erstaS  JSurh  wiJSercorennysse  and  leahtrum 
heora  ^wyran  lifes.  On  Sam  ccftran  fixnoSe  wurdon  gclaehte 
mict'lc  and  mancga  fixas,  and  ])iet  net  swa-^eah  aSolode,  for- 
San Se  nan  man  ne  aetbcrst  ut  of  Saere  toweardan  gelaSunge, 
siSSan  he  to  Godes  rice  becymS ;  ac  hi  wunaS  a^fre  siSSan 
ealle  on  singalrc  sibl)e,  on  ecere  staSolfaestnysse. 

Petrus  teah  ]?aet  net  to  lande,  forSan  "Se  him  is  sinderlice 
betaeht  hyrdraeden  ofer  eallum  cristenum  mannum,  swa  swa 
Drihten  him  to  cwaeS  "briwa  aet  ^isum  ylcan  gereorde  :  he 
cwae^,  "  Petrus,  lufast  ^u  me  ?  He  cwffi^,  Driliten,  ^u  wast 
ealle  "Sing,  and  ]>n  wast  |7aBt  ic  ^e  lufige.  Drihten  cwae^  him 
to,  Gif  Su  me  lufige,  laeswa  mine  seep."  Drihtnes  seep 
sindon  cristene  men;  swilce  he  cwade,  ^Gif  ^u  me  lufige, 
cyS  |?a  lufe  "Se  "Su  to  me  haefst  minum  folce,  mid  ^inre  gy- 
mene.'  Witodlice  Petrus  tih"S  ^a  geleaffullan  of  ySigendre 
sffi  |?yssere  worulde,  and  fram  fla?sclicum  lustum  to  ^aere  ecan 


WEDNESDAY  IN  EASTER  WEEK.  291 

liad  cast  off  all  mortalities,  as  if  he  in  reality  said  to  them, 
'  I  will  not  appear  to  you  on  the  sea,  because  I  am  not  with 
you  in  the  toilsome  waves  of  the  present  mortality.' 

Great  vexation  attended  their  fit^hing,  that  a  great  glory 
might  attend  Christ's  miracle.  We  read  in  the  book  of 
Christ,  that  the  Lord  twice  commanded  the  net  to  be  cast  in 
fishing;  once  before  his  passion,  and  the  second  time  after 
his  resurrection.  Before  his  passion  he  commanded  it  to  be 
cast,  but  he  did  not  distinguisii  on  wliich  side  they  should 
cast  the  net.  After  his  resurrection  he  commanded  them  to 
cast  the  net  on  the  right  side  of  the  ship,  for  a  tokening. 
The  right  side  betokens  the  good,  and  the  lift  the  evil.  The 
former  fisiiing,  before  Christ's  passion,  betokened  this  pre- 
sent church  in  which  we  arc  ;  and  the  second  fishing,  after 
the  Lord's  resurrection,  betokened  the  future  church  of  men 
chosen  to  everlasting  life.  In  the  former  fishing  so  many 
were  caught  that  the  net  burst  ;  and  so  many  men  turn  to 
belief  in  this  present  church,  that  some  of  them  again  burst 
out  through  reprobation  and  the  sins  of  their  perverse  life. 
In  the  second  fishing  great  and  many  fishes  were  caught,  and 
the  net,  nevertheless,  continued  sound,  because  no  man  will 
escape  from  the  future  church,  after  he  comes  to  the  kingdom 
of  God  ;  but  they  will  dwell  ever  after  in  constant  peace,  in 
everlasting  steadfastness. 

Peter  drew  the  net  to  land,  because  to  him  is  especially 
committed  the  guardianship  over  all  christian  men,  as  the 
Lord  thrice  said  to  him  at  this  same  refection  :  he  said, 
"  Peter,  lovest  thou  me  ?  He  said.  Lord,  thou  knowest  all 
things,  and  thou  knowest  that  I  love  thee.  The  Lord  said  to 
him,  If  thou  lovest  me,  feed  my  sheep."  The  Lord's  sheep 
are  christian  men  ;  as  if  he  had  said,  '  If  thou  lovest  me, 
show  the  love  that  thou  hast  for  me  to  my  people  by  thy 
care.'  Verily  Peter  draws  the  faithful  from  the  billowy  sea 
of  this  world,  and  from  fleshly  lusts  to  the  eternal  steadfast- 

u  2 


292  FERIA  IV.  IN  HF.BDOMADE  PASCAE. 

sta^olfestnyssf,  'Surli  his  liire,  JSiirh  taciia,  Surh  -^ingrifidene, 
"Surh  miltsunge  him  forgyfcure  mihte. 

pset  getel  Siera  fixa  hsef^  maran  getaciiunge  ^onne  ge 
understaiidan  magon.  Hi  gemetton  fyr,  and  fisc  on  uppon, 
and  hlaf  on  em,  <Sa5a  hi  to  hmde  comon.  Se  gebrfedda  fisc 
and  se  hhlf  h^efdon  ane  getacnunge.  Se  fisc  getacnode  J)one 
Haelend,  ]>e  Wfes  on  ^sere  earfoSnysse  his  Srowunge  gebra^d ; 
and  he  is  se  liflica  hlaf,  "Se  afett  segSer  ge  englas  ge  menn. 
paet  fyr  getacnode  bone  Halgan  Gast,  Surh  ^one  wc  bco5 
gehalgode,  and  calle  synna  beo5  ^urh  hine  forgyfene.  We 
raedai)  on  oSre  stowe,  ]?a?t  Crist  tete  a^fter  his  feriste  gebrfedne 
fisc  and  hunies  beobread.  Hwast  getacnode  se  gebrfpdda  fisc, 
buton  Sone  geSrowodan  Crist  ?  Hwffit  Stes  hunies  beobread, 
buton  his  Godcunihiysse  swetnysse  ?  Beobread  is  on  twam 
"Singuni,  on  weaxe  and  on  hunie.  Crist  is  on  twam  edwistum, 
on  unagunncnrc  Godcundnysse  and  on  ongunnenre  niennisc- 
nysse.  He  \v<es  us  geworden  on  his  Srouunge  gebrted  fisc, 
and  on  aeriste  hunies  beobread.  He  gercordode  hine  aefter 
his  teristc  mid  seofon  leorning-cnihtum,  for  San  be  he  ge- 
swutelode  mid  }>aere  da;de,  )><et  5a  men  becumaS  to  his  ecan 
gereorde,  j;e  on  anwerdum  life  burh  geearnungum  becumaS 
to  seofonfealdre  gifc  ]ves  Halgan  Gastcs  :  \>a.  sind  wisdom 
and  andgit,  raed  and  strengS,  ingehyd  and  arffestnys  :  Godes 
ege  is  se  scofoba.  purh  bas  seofon  ma?genu  bib  J;a:*t  ece  lif 
geearnod.  Witodlice  se  be  Cristes  Gast  on  him  na?fb,  nis  se 
his. 

Eow  is  to  witenne  paet  ^eos  wucu  is  geteald  to  anum  daege, 
aefter  gastlicere  gerynu.  Be  "bam  daege  cwaeb  se  witega, 
"  Haec  est  dies  quam  fecit  Dominus  ;  exultemus  et  laetenmr 
in  ea:"  "  Des  is  se  daeg  |?e  Drihten  worhte ;  uton  blissian 
and  faegnian  on  "bam  daege."  We  sceolon  blissian  on  urum 
Drihtne  and  on  ure  alysednysse,  na  on  higleaste  obbe  on 
woruldlicuni  gedwyldum.  Uton  beon  swa  swa  we  singa^, 
*'  daeg,  and  na  "beostru."  Forwel  fela  sind  ]>e  wylla^  on 
"Sisuin  dagum  drincan  o^  speow^an,  and  fracodlice  him  be- 


WEDNESDAY   IN  EASTER  WEEK.  293 

ness,  through  his  doctrine,  through  miracles,  tlirough  media- 
tion, through  merciful  use  of  the  power  given  to  him. 

The  number  of  the  fisiies'has  a  greater  tokening  than  ye 
can  understand.  They  found  tire,  and  fish  upon  it,  and  bread 
close  by,  when  they  came  to  land.  The  broiled  fish  and  the 
bread  had  one  tokening.  The  fish  betokened  Jesus,  who  was 
broiled  in  the  anguish  of  his  passion  ;  and  he  is  the  bread  of 
life,  which  feeds  both  angels  and  men.  The  fire  betokened 
the  Holy  Ghost,  through  \\  hom  \^e  are  hallowed,  and  all  sins 
will  through  him  be  forgiven.  We  read  in  anotiier  place,  that 
Clirist  ate  after  his  resurrection  broiled  fish  and  honey-comb. 
What  betokened  the  broiled  fish  but  the  suftering  Christ  ? 
What  the  honey-comb,  but  the  sweetness  of  his  Divinity  ? 
A  honey-comb  consists  of  two  things,  of  wax  and  of  honey. 
Christ  is  of  two  substances,  of  Divinity  without  beginning, 
and  of  humanity  with  beginning.  For  us  at  his  passion  he 
became  a  broiled  fish,  and  at  his  resurrection  a  honey-comb. 
He  refected  himself  after  his  resurrection  with  seven  dis- 
ciples, because  he  would  l)y  that  deed  manifest,  that  those 
men  come  to  his  eternal  refection,  who  in  the  present  life 
through  merits  come  to  the  sevenfold  grace  of  the  Holy 
Ghost :  whicii  are  wisdom  and  understanding,  counsel  and 
strength,  knowledge  and  piety  :  awe  of  God  is  the  seventh. 
Through  these  seven  virtues  everlasting  life  is  earned.  But 
he  who  has  not  the  Spirit  of  Christ  within  iiim  is  not  his. 

Ye  are  to  know  tliat  this  week  is  accounted  as  one  day, 
according  to  a  ghostly  mystery.  Of  that  day  said  the  pro- 
phet, "  Hwc  est  dies  quam  fecit  Dominus  ;  exultemus  et^ 
IfEtemur  in  ea  :"  "This  is  the  day  which  the  Lord  hath 
made;  let  us  exult  and  rejoice  in  that  day."  We  should 
exult  in  our  Lord  and  in  our  redemption,  not  with  heed- 
lessness or  with  worldly  irregularities.  Let  us  be  as  we  sing, 
"  day,  and  not  darkness."  Very  many  there  are  who  on  this 
day   will   drink  to   vomiting,  and    shamefully    hranl   among 


294  APOSTOLORUM  PHILIPPI  ET  lACOBI. 

tvvynan  sacian  ;  ac  ^illice  ne  magon  singan  |)one  lofsang 
"  pes  is  se  daeg  Se  Drihten  worlite."  Him  andwyrt  }?aerrihte 
Drihten,  '  Ge  siiid  j^eostru,  and  iia  leolit.  Gif  ge  willaS  beon 
se  daeg  j)e  ic  worhte,  lybba^  ]7onne  rihtlice,  ]>eet  ge  habbon 
so'Sfijestnysbe  leoht  on  eowerum  licortuni,  and  ]';et  ne  beo 
naefre  ^urh  leahtras  acwenced.' 

paet  so^e  Leoht,  Hcelend  Crist,  iSe  onlihte  ealne  mid- 
daneard,  onlihte  ure  mod  mid  liis  godcundan  leohte ;  and  J?aet 
ne  beo  njefre  Surh  Sone  laban  dcofol  adwaesced,  J?;et  we  mid 
leohte  ures  geleafan  and  godum  geearnungum  to  5am  ecum 
life  becuman  moton.     Amen. 


KAL.  MAIL 
APOSTOLORUM  PHILIPPI  ET  lACOBI. 

PHILIPPUS,  se  Godes  Apostol,  5e  we  on  Sisum  dfege 
wurJSiaS,  bodade  godspel  annedlice  haiSenum  J?eodum  gcond 
twentig  geara  fa?ce  iefter  Cristes  brownnge,  on  Sam  lande 
J?e  is  gehaten  SciSbia.  Da  gehehton  hine  |>a  hceJScnan,  and 
geheddon  to  heora  dcofolgyldc,  ]r,ei'  (5;er  wws  an  ormaete 
draca,  se  ofsloh  bajrrihte  Stes  hsejjengyldan  snnu,  scbe  baer  ]7a 
stor-cyllan  to  ba^re  olTrunge.  Se  draca  ofsloh  eac  twegen 
gerefan  ba^re  ylcan  scire,  on  ]?fera  hfeftnedum  waes  se  apostol 
Philippus  gehfefd.  Witodlice  ^urh  "5aes  dracan  blaed  eal  seo 
menigu  micclnm  wearlS  geuntrumod.  pa  cwae^  se  apostol 
Philippus  to  5am  ymbstandendum  folce,  "  Hlysta^  mines 
riedes,  and  eower  htel  bi'5  ge-edniwod,  and  j?as  deadan  beo^ 
arserede,  and  se  draca,  ^e  eow  derigendlic  is,  bi^  aflyged  on 
mines  Godes  naman."  Hi  ealle  cwsedon,  "  Hw;et  tjccst  "Su 
us  to  rsede?"  Se  apostol  cwaeb,  ^' Towurp  ]?is  deofolgild, 
and  tocwysaS,  and  ariera^  Cristes  rode-tacn  on  Saere  stowe, 
and  gebidda^  eow  to  "Sjere."  Da  ongunnon  "Sa  hryman,  "pe 
^urh  j^aes  dracan  bla^de  alefode  waeron,  "  Wurde  ure  miht  ge- 


THE  APOSTLES  PHILIP  AND  JAMES.  295 

themselves  ;  but  such  may  not  sing  the  hymn,  "  This  is  the 
day  which  the  Lord  hath  made."  Tlic  Lord  would  straight- 
ways  answer  them,  '  Ye  are  darkness,  and  not  light.  If  ye 
will  be  the  day  that  I  made,  live  then  rightly,  that  ye  may 
have  the  light  of  truth  in  your  hearts,  and  that  that  be 
through  sins  never  quenched.' 

May  the  true  Light,  Jesus  Christ,  who  enlighteneth  all 
the  world,  enlighten  our  minds  with  his  divine  light  ;  and 
may  tliat  never,  through  the  hostile  devil,  be  extinguished, 
that  we  with  the  liglit  of  our  belief,  and  with  good  deserts 
may  come  to  the  evcrhisting  life.     Amen. 


MAY  I. 
THE  APOSTLES  PHILIP  AND  JAMES. 

PHILIP,  the  Apostle  of  God,  whom  we  on  this  day  honour, 
steadfastly  preached  the  gospel  to  the  heathen  nations 
during  a  period  of  twenty  years  after  Christ's  passion, 
in  the  land  which  is  called  Scythia.  Then  the  iieathen 
seized  liim,  and  led  iiim  to  their  idol,  where  there  was  an 
ijumense  dragon,  which  straightways  slew  tiic  son  of  the 
idohiter  who  bare  the  censer  to  the  offering.  The  dragon 
slew  al.so  two  counts  of  the  same  shire,  in  whose  custody  the 
apostle  Philip  was  held.  Verily  by  the  dragon's  breath  all 
the  multitude  was  greatly  sickened.  Then  said  the  apostle 
Philip  to  the  folk  standing  around,  "  Listen  to  my  counsel, 
and  your  health  shall  be  renewed,  and  these  dead  siiall  be 
raised,  and  the  dragon,  which  is  destructive  to  you,  shall  be 
put  to  Hight  in  the  name  of  my  God."  Tiiey  all  said, 
*'  WJKit  teachest  thou  us  for  counsel?"  The  apostle  said, 
"  Cast  down  this  idol,  and  crush  it,  and  raise  up  the  sign  of 
Christ's  rood  on  the  place,  and  pray  to  that."  Then  begun 
those   to   cry,   who    had    lieen   hurt  by  the  dragon's  breath. 


296  APOSTOLORUM  PHILIPPI  ET  lACOBI. 

ediiiwot],  )?onne  towurpe  we  "Sis  deofoli,nlc]."  Da  cwae-S  se 
apostol  to  ^am  dracan,  "  Ic  ^e  bebeode,  on  naman  ILelendes 
Cristes,  j^tet  ^u  gewite  of  ^yssere  stoue,  and  far  to  westene, 
■Sier  'Saer  manna  drohtnung  nis;  and  ]>u  nanum  men  on  Siiium 
fram-faere  ne  drece."  Da  ferde  se  reba  draca  ardlice  aweig, 
and  nahwar  sibSan  ne  aeteowode.  Se  apostol  Philippus 
anerde  5a  of  dea^e,  on  Godes  naman,  ba  )>ry  deadan  |?e  se 
draca  acwealde,  and  ealle  ^a  menigu  gchjelde,  j?e  ^urh  ])fes 
dracan  bleed  geuntrumod  waes. 

Ilwast  iSa  ongunnon  ealle  his  ehteras  mid  soSre  dredbote  to 
him  gebiddan,  Mcndon  jnet  he  wjere  witodlicc  God.  pa 
ongann  se  apostol  hi  ealle  la?ran  ofcr  twelf  monaJS  5a  dcopan 
lare  be  Drihtnes  to-cyme  to  bysserc  worulde  on  so5re  mcn- 
niscnysse,  and  hu  he  mid  his  dcaSe  mickhmcard  alysde,  and 
<efter  his  a.n*iste  bine  sylfne  teteowode  his  leorning-cnihtuni, 
and  him  ge-edniwode  ]>a  yican  lare  ]?e  he  jjer  hi  mid  la'rde, 
and  hu  he  to  heofonum  astah  on  heora  ealra  gesih'Se,  and  hijn 
sibban  sende  ]?one  so'San  frofer  ]>aes  Ilalgan  Gastes,  swa  svva 
he  him  ;er  behet :  "  Nu  com  ic  to  cow  j>urh  "Sffis  /Elmihtigan 
sande,  and  ic  dyde  eow  witan,  Surh  Drihtnes  mihte,  ];,'et  "bas 
deofolgild  eow  sind  derigendlico,  ^ba  ^e  ge  mid  ydelnyssc  o^ 
]7is  wurbodon."  Durh  )>as  bodunge  gdyfdon  fcla  biiscnd 
manna  on  bone  so^an  God  ]>e  se  apostol  bodadc,  and  wurd(ni 
gefullode  binnon  feawuin  dagum.  Da  gchadode  se  apostol 
on  ^am  earde  gehwaer  biscopas  and  nuessepreostas,  diaconas 
and  Godes  ^eowas,  and  Gode  cyrcan  araerde.  Gewende  "ba 
to  Asiam,  ^urh  onwrigenysse  Godes,  to  anre  byrig  seo  is 
Geropolis  gccTged,  and  he  "baer  adwaescte  "ba  deofellican  lare 
]?e  gedwolmen  araerdon  dyrstiglice  ongean  God. 

Se  apostol  haefde  twa  dohtra,  gestryned  aer^an  ^e  he  gecure 
Crist  to  lareowe.  pa  burhwunodon  on  maegShade,  maerlice 
(Irohtniende,  on  ^aere  ylcan  byrig  j^e  weaer  namodon,  ^aba  se 
faeder  Philippus  bider  feorran  com.    purh  ^a  maedenu  begeat 


THE  APOSTLES  PHILIP  AND  JAMES.  297 

"Let  our  strength  be  renewed,  then  will  we  cast  down  this 
idol."  Then  said  the  apostle  to  the  dragon,  "  I  command 
thee,  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  to  depart  from  this  place, 
and  go  to  the  wilderness,  where  intercourse  of  men  is  not ; 
and  to  afflict  no  jnan  on  the  way  hence."  Then  the  fierce 
dragon  went  hastily  away,  and  appeared  nowhere  afterwards. 
The  apostle  Philip  then  raised  from  death,  in  the  name  of 
God,  the  three  dead  whom  the  dragon  had  killed,  and  healed 
all  the  multitude,  w  Inch  had  been  sickened  by  the  dragon's 
breath. 

Hereupon  all  his  persecutors  begun  to  wor>hip  him  with 
true  repentance,  imagining  that  he  rc;illy  ^^  as  God.  Then 
the  apostle  undertook  to  teach  them  all,  for  more  than  twelve 
months,  the  deep  lore  of  the  Lord's  advent  to  this  world  in 
true  humanity,  and  how  by  his  death  he  redeemed  the  world, 
and  after  his  resurrection  appeared  to  his  disciples,  and  to 
them  renewed  the  same  lore  which  he  before  had  taught  with 
them,  and  how  he  ascended  to  heaven  in  the  sight  of  them 
all,  and  afterwards  sent  to  them  the  true  comfort  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  as  he  had  before  promised  to  them  :  "  Now  I  am  come 
to  you  by  the  sending  of  the  Almighty,  and  I  have  made  you 
to  know,  through  the  Lord's  might,  that  these  idols  are  de- 
structive to  you,  which  ye  vainl)'  have  until  now  honoured." 
Through  this  preaching  many  thousand  men  believed  in  the 
true  God  whom  the  apostle  preached,  and  were  baptized 
within  a  few  days.  The  apostle  then  ordained  everywhere  in 
the  country  bishops  and  mass-priests,  deacons  and  ministers 
of  God,  and  raised  churches  to  God.  He  went  then  to  Asia, 
through  a  revelation  of  God,  to  a  city  \\  hich  is  called  Gero- 
polis,  and  he  there  extinguished  tlie  devilish  doctrine  which 
heretics  had  daringly  raised  against  God. 

The  apostle  had  two  daughters,  begotten  before  he  had 
chosen  Christ  for  teacher.  These  continued  in  maidenhood, 
honourably  living,  in  the  same  city  which  we  before  named, 
when  their  father  Philip  came  thither  from  afur.     Through 


298  DE  S.  lACOBO  APOSTOLO. 

se  ^Iniihtiofa  Wealdend  fela  oSre  ma^denu  to  his  m^ran 
wuldre. 

Philippus  se  apostol  defter  Sisum  gecygde  his  gingran  him 
to,  and  ]>aere  leode  biscopas,  stede  jnet  he  sceolde  on  (Sam 
seofo^an  diBge  gewitan  of  worulde,  and  hierde  hi  gcorne,  ]>eet 
hi  on  geleafan  Surhwunedon ;  and  gewat  siSSan  seofon  and 
hund-eahtatig  geara  to  ^am  Lifigendan  Drihtne,  ]>c  he  on  life 
folgodc.  His  lie  w»s  bebyriged  on  Sa^,re  foresjedan  byrig ; 
and  his  twa  dohtra  sicJSan  gcwiton  jefter  feawum  gearum 
fcCgre  geendode.  Hi  waeron  gelede  on  twa  hcalfa  his  byrgene. 
Daer  geticSaS  Drihten,  'Surh  ^a  deorvvyrSan  halgan,  micele 
wel-da^da  and  wundra  gelomc,  gclcaffulhnn  mannuni,  seSe 
leofaS  a.     Amen. 


DE   SCO   lACOBO   APOSTOLO. 

WE  wurJSiaS  eac  on  Sissere  andwerdan  freolstide  ocScrne 
apostol,  Iacoh  ]?one  Rihtwisan,  se  wa'S  on  Sisum  da>ge  ge- 
martirod.  He  waes  haligcs  lifes  niann  fram  his  cildhade. 
Ne  dianc  he  Mines  drenc,  ne  nan  5wra  ujetena  )?e  druncen- 
nysse  styriaJS,  ne  nan  "Sing  ^e  a?fre  cucu  wees  ne  com  on  his 
nmSe  ;  ne  he  uxs  geefesod,  ne  eac  bescoren  o^^e  gebaSod, 
be  ^an  ^e  bee  secgaS.  He  feng  to  Cristes  setle  ;efter  his 
^rowungc,  and  gymde  j'fes  halgan  iii redes  "Se  5am  Haelende 
filigde,  and  Sfera  gelcaffulra  manna 'Se  on  hine  gelyfdon.  He 
geheold  Cristes  setl  geond  Srittig  geara  f»c,  and  gelome  Sing- 
ode  for  iSaes  folces  gyltum,  bigende  his  cneowu  on  gebedum 
symle,  swa  )?aet  him  vveoxon  wearrige  ylas,  on  olfendes  gelic- 
nysse,  on  his  liSegum  cneowum. 

J7a  ongunnon  pharisei  him  betwynan  ^wyrian  on  Hieru- 
salem  for  Cristes  geleafan.  Same  hi  gelyfdon  ^urh  lacobes 
lare,  sume  wi^socon  "Sone  so^an  Haelend.  pa  com  seo  burh- 
waru  samod  to  ^am  apostole,  cw«don  J^aet  hi  woldon  his  lare 
gehyran  :  "  Sege  ^isum  folce  soS  be  ^an  Hjelende.  Du  eart 
eal  rihtwis,  and  nanum  ne  onbihst  :  we  bidda^  j'aet  ]}\x  astige 


OF  SAINT  JAMES  THE  APOSTLE.  299 

these    maidens    the    Ahnighty    Ruler    gained    many    other 
maidens  to  his  great  glory. 

After  this  Philip  the  apostle  called  to  him  his  disciples  and 
the  bishops  of  tlie  people,  saying  that  on  the  seventh  day  he 
hhould  depart  from  the  world,  and  zealously  instructed  them 
that  they  should  persist  in  belief;  and  after  eighty-seven 
years  departed  to  the  Living  Lord,  wiiom  he  had  followed  in 
life.  His  corpse  was  buried  in  tlie  aforesaid  city,  and  his 
two  daughters  departed  a  few  years  after  by  a  happy  ind. 
They  were  laid  on  the  two  sides  of  his  grave.  Tiiere  the 
Lord  permits,  througli  those  precious  saints,  great  benefits 
and  frequent  miracles  to  beliex  ing  men,  who  livcth  eternally. 
Amen. 


OF  SAINT  JAMES  THE    AI'OSTLE. 

WE  honour  also,  at  this  present  festival,  another  apostle, 
James  the  Righteous,  who  was  on  this  day  martyred.  He 
was  a  man  of  holy  life  from  his  childhood.  He  drank  no 
wine  drink,  nor  any  of  those  liquors  wiiicii  cause  drunken- 
ness, nor  came  anytliing  that  ever  was  living  into  his  mouth  ; 
nor  was  he  shaven,  also  not  shorn  or  bathed,  according  to 
what  books  say.  He  succeeded  to  Christ's  seat  after  his 
passion,  and  had  charge  of  the  holy  family  which  had  fol- 
lowed Jesus,  and  of  the  faithful  men  who  believed  in  him. 
He  held  Christ's  seat  for  a  space  of  thirty  years,  and  fre- 
quently interceded  for  the  people's  sins,  bending  his  knees 
constantly  in  prayers,  so  that  there  grew  callous  substances, 
in  likeness  of  a  camel,  on  his  pliant  knees. 

Then  the  pharisees  begun  to  disagree  among  themselves  in 
Jerusalem,  on  account  of  belief  in  Christ.  Some  believed 
through  James's  instruction,  some  denied  the  true  Saviour. 
Then  came  the  citizens  together  to  the  apostle,  saying  that 
they  would  hear  his  instruction  :  "  Say  to  this  folk  the  sooth 
concerning  Jesus.     Thou  art  all  rigiiteous,  and  bendest  to  no 


300  DE  S.  lACOBO  APOSTOLO. 

to  -Sam  sticclan  scylfe,  |?aet  we  J^e  ealle  geseon,  and  'Sine 
stemne  gehyron,  hwilce  cy^nysse  ^ii  wilt  cySan  be  Criste." 
Hwaet  ^a  boceras  "Sa  bine  up-gebrohton  to  ]?c'es  temples  scylfe, 
and  him  si^San  to  clypodon,  "  Du  rihtwisosta  wcr,  ]>e  we 
wyllaS  gebyran,  cy^  us  nu  be  Criste,  "Se  acweald  wjes  on 
rode."  Da  andwyrde  se  apostol  mid  ornifetre  stemne,  "To 
hwi  axige  ge  me  be  "Sam  H.elende  ^us  ?  Efne  he  sitt  on 
heofenum  fet  his  Feeder  swiSran,  and  he  cymS  on  wolcnum, 
on  Sissere  worulde  gcendunge,  j^fet  he  gehwilcum  deme  be 
his  serran  deedum."  Da  wurdon  ba  geleaffnllan,  a^fter  ]>issere 
clypunge,  micclum  gegladode,  and  wuldrodon  God,  cweS- 
ende,  "  Osanna  Sam  soSan  Ilcclende." 

pa  cwffidon  ^a  gedwolmen  i5e  Drihtcn  wiSsocon,  "  Yfele 
we  dydon  mid  jnssere  axunge  ;  ac  uton  up-astigan,  and  hine 
under-bcEc  sceofan,  ]>ai{  oSre  forhtian,  and  fram  Criste  bu- 
gan."  Da  ongunnon  Sa  clypian,  ]'c  ))a^t  gedwyld  lufodon, 
]>aet  se  rihtwisa  dwclodc,  ]?e  swa  be  Drihtne  spr;ec.  Hf  ^a 
up-astigon,  and  hine  under-bc'ec  scufon,  and  mid  slannm  tor- 
fodon  j^one  soSffestan  lacob.  Ac  he  n£Bs  acweald  "Surh  ^am 
healican  fyllc,  iic  gcbTgde  his  cneowu  on  gebedum  sona,  and 
b.ed  ];one  yElniihtigan  for  Sam  arlcasum  cwellerum,  ptet  he 
him  forgeafe  ]>a  fyrnlican  synnc.  pa  ongunnon  Sa  ludei 
hine  eft  torfian  mid  hearckmi  stanum,  and  heora  an  hine  slob, 
mid  ormaetum  slrencge,  inn  o5  |>aet  bragen.  pus  wear^  ge- 
maitirod  se  mtera  apostol,  and  on  ^sere  stowe  bebyriged,  wi^ 
J?a^t  miccle  tempel,  binnon  liierusalem,  ludea  cyiie-stol. 

Se  mildheorta  God  wolde  Sa-gyt  gcbigan  "Sajra  ludeiscra 
mod,  mid  micclum  tacnum,  to  Sam  soSum  geleafan,  gif  hi 
sylfe  woldon,  j^fet  hi  mid  daedbote  adwgescton  heora  synna ; 
and  asende  him  to  syllice  tacna,  swa  paet  an  steorra  stod,  se 
wees  swurde  gelic,  bufon  Hierusalem,  beorhte  scynende.  Eac 
an  cometa  ofer  ealne  gear  scean  mid  egeslicum  lige,  aefre 
byrnende.  An  cu  wear^  gebroht  eft  to  Sam  temple,  ]>ist  man 
hi  geoffrode  on  Sa  ealdan  wisan  :  ^a  wolde  heo  cealfian  on 


OF  SAINT  JAMES  THE  APOSTLE.  301 

one  :  we  pray  thee  to  mount  on  the  steep  piiiuacle,  that  \^  e 
may  all  see  thee,  and  hear  thy  voice,  what  announcement 
thou   wilt   announce  concerning   Christ."     Whereupon   the 
scribes  brought  him  up  to  the  pinnacle  of  the  temple,  and 
then  cried  to  him,  "Thou  most  righteous  man,  whom  we 
desire  to  hear,  inform  us  now  concerning  Christ,  who  was 
killed  on  a  rood."     Then  answered  the  apostle  with  a  loud 
voice,  "  Why  ask  ye  me  thus  concerning  Jesus  ?      Lo  he  sits 
in   heaven   at  the  right  of  his   Father,  and   he  will  come  in 
clouds  at  the  ending  of  this  world,  that  he  may  doom  every 
one  according  to  his  former  deeds."     Then  were  the  belie- 
ving, after  this  announcement, greatly  gladdened,  and  glorified 
God,  saying,  "  Ilosannah  to  the  true  Saviour." 

Then  said  the  heretics  who  denied  the   Lord,  "  We  did 
badly  with  this  retpiest  ;    but   let  us  go  up  and  shove  him 
backwards,   that   others    may   fear,   atul    turn    fr>'m   Christ." 
They    begun    then   to  cry,  those  who  loved  error,  that  the 
righteous  man  erred,  who  of  the  Lord  so  spake.     They  then 
went  up,  and  shoved  him  backwards,  and  with  stones  stoned 
the  righteous  James.    But  he  was  not  killed  through  the  high 
fall,  but  immediately  bowed  his  knees  in  prayer,  and  prayed 
to  the  Almighty  for  the  impious  murderers,  that  he  would 
foririve  the  flai^itious  sin.     Then  begun  the  Jews  to  stone  him 
again  MJth  hard  stones,  and  one  of  them  struck  him  witli 
immense  force  into  the  brain.     Thus  was  martyred  the  great 
apostle,  and  buried  in    the  place,  against  the  great  temple, 
within  Jerusalem,  the  royal  seat  of  Judea. 

The  merciful  God  would  vet  incline  the  minds  of  the  Jews, 
with  great  signs,  to  the  true  belief,  if  they  themselves  would, 
that  they  with  penance  might  extinguish  their  sins  ;  and 
sent  to  them  wondrous  signs,  so  that  a  star  stood  above  Jeru- 
salem, which  was  like  to  a  sword  brightly  shining.  Also  a 
comet  shone  over  all  the  country  with  awful  flame,  ever 
burning.  A  cow  was  afterwards  brought  to  the  temple  to  be 
sacrificed  after  the  old  custom  :  then  she  would  calve  in  sight 


302  INUENTIO  S.  CRUCIS. 

gesihSe  |?aes  folces,  ac  heo  eanode  lamb  ongean  hire  gecynde. 
Eft  si^San  wearS  gesevven,  vviS  sunnau  sctlunge,  geoiul  ealne 
"Sone  eard,  yrnende  here  up  on  ^am  wolcmim,  mid  ormtetre 
wwpnunge.  Eft  on  ^aere  byrig  begann  sum  uplendisc  mam) 
egeslice  hryman  to  ^am  arlcasum  burhwarum,  "  Fram  east- 
daele  stenin,  fram  west-daele  stemn,  fram  feowcr  windiim 
stemn,  Wa  Sissere  burliware."  pa  arn  se  ceorl  geond  ealle 
•Sa  straet,  dfjeges  and  nihtes  dreorig  hrymende,  oSjJiet  '5a  liea- 
fod-men  hine  hctelice  swungon  aine  and  o5re  si^e,  obj^aet  "Sa 
ban  scinon  ;  ac  he  nolde  biddan  nanre  miltsungc,  ne  nfefre 
mid  wope  his  wunda  bema?nan,  ac  symle  clypode  mid 
swiSlicere  ]?oterunge,  svva  svva  we  aer  sjnedon,  "  And  wa  Sissere 
burhwarc."  Fcla  o5re  tacna  wurdon  eac  gesewene  on  lude- 
iscrc  It'ode,  ]>c  mi  sind  lange  to  reccenne.  Hwa?t  Sa,  sc 
yEhnihtiga,  "Se  ealle  'Sing  wat,  geseah  |wt  ht  nohlon  heora 
synna  behreowsian,  )>;rt  hi  ;pfre  dorston  heora  Drihten  ahon, 
and  siMSan  his  apostohis  sume  eac  adyddon  ;  '5a  ascnde  he 
him  to  5one  scearpan  here  of  Ilomana  rice,  mid  reSum  waep- 
num.  pa  wearS  ]>iet  earme  mennisc,  for  heora  mand;edum, 
sum  mid  hungre  acweald,  sum  mid  heardum  isene,  and  seo 
burh  toworpen,  swa  swa  gewritu  secgaS,  and  j^a^t  micele 
tempi  mid  eallum  his  mter^um. 

Uton  nu,  gebro5ru,  biddan  geornlice  ^as  halgan  apostolas, 
■5e  we  to-d»g  wurSiaS,  l^jet  hi  us  bingian  to  urum  Scyppcnde, 
se^e  ana  rixaiS  on  ecnysse  God.     Amen. 


V.  NON.  MAIL 
INUENTIO  SCAB  CRUCIS. 


MEN  -Sa  leofostan,  nu  to-d?eg  we  wurSiaS  ]>iBre  Halgan 
Rode  gemynd,  ^e  ure  Drihten  on  "Srowode;  forSan  iSe  heo 
w<ES  geswutelod  on  ^isum  daege  mannum. 


THE  INVENTION  OF  THE  HOLY  CROSS.  303 

of  the  people,  but  she  yeaned  a  lamb  against  her  nature. 
Afterwards  was  seen  towards  sunset,  over  all  the  country,  an 
army  running  upon  the   clouds,  with   an  immense   arming. 
Afterwards  in  the  city  a  man  from  up  the  country  began  to 
cry  terrifically  to  the  impious  citizens,  "  From  the  east  part 
a  voice,  from  the  west  part  a  voice,  from  the  four  winds  a 
voice.   Wo  to  these  citizens."   Then  the  churl  ran  through  all 
the  street,  day  and  night,  dismally  crying,  until  the  chief  men 
severely  scourged  him,  once  and  a  second  time,  until  the  bones 
appeared  ;  but  he  would  not  pray  for  any  mercy,  nor  ever 
with  weeping  his  wounds  bemoan,  but  constantly  cried,  with 
powerful  howling,  as  we  before  have  said,  "  And  wo  to  these 
citizens."     Many  other  sijjns    were    also    seen    among    the 
Jewish  people,  which  are  now  long  to  relate.     Whereupon 
the  Almighty,  who  knows  all  things,  saw  that  they  would 
not  repent  of  their  sins,  that  they  had  ever  dared  to  crucify 
their    Lord,    and    afterwards    also    destroyed    some    of   his 
apostles  ;  he  then  sent  to  them  the  keen  army  of  the  Roman 
empire,  with  cruel  weapons.   Then  were  the  miserable  people, 
for  their  evil  deeds,  killed,  some  by  hunger,  some  by  hard 
iron,  and  the  city  was  overthrown,  as  writings  say,  and  the 
great  temple  with  all  its  glories. 

Let  us  now,  brothers,  earnestly  pray  to  the  holy  apostles, 
whom  we  to-day  honour,  that  they  intercede  for  us  to  our 
Creator,  who  alone  rcigneth  God  to  eternity.     Amen. 


MAY  III. 
THE  INVENTION  OF  THE  HOLY  CROSS. 

MEN  most  beloved,  now  to-day  we  honour  the  remembrance 
of  the  IIoLY  Rood  on  which  our  Lord  suffered ;  because  it 
was  on  this  day  manifested  to  men. 


304  INUENTIO  S.  CRUCIS. 

Hieroiiimus,  se  wisa  mtessepreost,  awrat  on  "Sare  bee  ^e 
we  hata^  '  Ecclesiastica  Historia/  pjet  sum  Romanise  casere 
waes  Constantinus  gehatcn,  se  waes  eawfest  on  ^eawum  and 
arfaest  on  daedum,  cristenra  manna  fultumigend,  and  naes 
"Seali  gyt  gefullod.  pa  wann  him  ongean  sum  waelhreow 
heretoga,  Maxentius  gehaten,  mid  micclum  ^rymme,  wolde 
him  benaeman  his  lifes  and  his  rices.  J)a  fcrde  se  casere 
swiSe  earful  mid  fyrde,  and  gelome  beheold  wi^  heofonas 
weard,  biddende  georne  godcundne  fultum.  Da  geseah  he  on 
svvefne,  on  bam  scinendan  east-daele,  Drihtncs  rode-tacn 
deorwurSlice  scinan  ;  and  him  sfiedon  ba  to  gesewenhce  en- 
glas,  "  pu  casere  Constantine,  mid  bisum  tacne  oferswiS  bine 
wiServvinnan."  And  he  awoc  ba  blibe  for  biere  gesihbc  and 
for  ban  beliatenan  sige,  and  mcarcodc  liim  on  hcafde  halig 
rode-tacn,  and  on  his  gubfanan,  Gode  to  wurbmynte.  He 
het  eae  smibian  of  snuetum  goldc  anc  lytle  rode,  ba  he  lacdde 
on  his  swibran,  biddende  georne  |>one  ^i^imilitigan  Wealdend, 
]?aet  seo  swibre  ne  wurde  ;efre  gewemmcd  burh  readum 
blode  Romaniscre  leode,  bam  be  he  geube  felcere  dugebe,  gif 
Maxentius  ana  him  wolde  abugan,  be  ba  burh  geheold  mid 
hetelum  gebancc.  pa  het  Maxentius  mid  micclum  swicdome 
oferbricgian  ^a  ea,  eal  mid  scipum,  and  sybban  ^ylian  swa 
swa  obre  bricge,  }?a^t  se  casere  sceolde  bter-on  becuman  ;  ac 
him  sylfum  getimode  swa  swa  he  ^am  otSrum  gemynte.  Se 
lirleasa  gewende  ana  of  baere  byrig,  and  het  ^one  here  him 
fefter  ridan  ;  he  ne  gemunde  "ba,  for  "bam  micclum  graman, 
"baere  leasan  bricge,  ]?e  he  alecgan  het,  ac  rad  him  ana  to 
ormaete  caflice.  pa  scipu  toscuton,  arid  he  ^one  grund  ge- 
sohte  mid  horse  mid  ealle,  and  se  here  aetstod  ahred  fram 
frecedrjysse  for  his  anes  dea^e.  Sua  wear^  gefyllcd  j^aes 
caseres  ben,  ]'iet  his  hand  naes  besmiten,  pe  ba  rode  hcold, 
mid  agotenum  blode  his  agenre  burhware.  Da  wear^  eal  pset 
folc  micclum  gegladod,  }>aet  hi  moston  gesunde  cyrran  to 
"baere  byrig  ;  and  underfengon  bone  casere,  swa  swa  him  ge- 


THE  INVENTION  OF  THE  HOLY  CROSS.  305 

Jerome,  the  ^vise  masis-priest,  wrote  in  the  book  which  we 
call  '  Ecclesiastica  Historia,'  that  there  was  a  Roman  empe- 
ror called  Constantine,  who  was  pious  in  morals  and  honour- 
able in  deeds,  a  supporter  of  christian  men,  and  was  yet  not 
baptized.     Then  a  bloodthirsty  general,  named   Maxentius, 
warred  against  him  with  a  great   host,  he  would  take  from 
him  his  life  and  his  empire.    Then  the  emperor  departed  very 
full   of  care  with  the  army,  and  frequently  looked  heaven- 
wards, fervently  praying  for  divine  support.      He  then  saw  in 
a  dream,  in  the  shining  east  region,  the  sign  of  the  Lord's 
rood    preciously   shining,   and   visible   angels    said    to    him, 
"  Thou  emperor  Constantine,  with  this  sign  overcome  thine 
adversaries."     And  he  awoke  then  blithe  on  account  of  the 
vision  and  tiie  promised  victory,  and  marked  on  his  liead  the 
lioly  sign  of  the  rood,  and  on  his  gonfanon,  in  honour  to  (iod. 
He  bade  then  be  forged  of  beaten  gold  a  little  rood,  which  he 
laid  on  his  right  hand,  fervently  praying  the  Almighty  Ruler 
that    his    right  hand   mi^ht   nc-\tr  be   polluted   with   tin*  red 
blood  of  the  Roman  |)eople,  to  whom  he  would  grant  every 
good,  if  Maxentius  only  would  submit  to  him,  who  held  the 
city  with  hostile  thought.     Then  Maxentius  with  great  fraud 
commanded  the  river  to  be  bridged  over,  all  with  ships,  and 
then  to   !)e  floored   as   any  other   bridge,  that   the   emperor 
might  come  thereon  ;  but  it  befell  himself  as  he  had  intended 
for  the  other.     The  impious  one  went  alone  to  the  bridge, 
and  conunanded  the  army  to  ride  after  him  ;  he  did  not  then, 
in  his  great  fury,  remember  the  false  bridge,  which   he   had 
ordered  to  be  laid,  but  rode  to  it  alone  with  boundless  speed. 
The  srhips  parted  asundt  r,  and  he  sought  the  ground  with 
horse  and  all,  and  the  army  stopt,  saved  from  peril  by  the 
death  of  him  alone.     So  was  fulfilled  the  emperor's  prayer, 
that  his  hand,  which  hud  held  the  rood,  was  not  sullied  with 
the  shed  blood  of  his  own  citizens.     Tnen  was  all  the  people 
greatly  gladdened,  that  they  might  return  whole  to  the  citv  ; 
and  they  received  the  emperor  as  it  was  con^^Miial  to  them  ; 

HOM.    VOL.  II.  X 


30G  IXUENTIO  S.  CRUCIS. 

cyndc  wfes  ;  and  he  mid  sige  gesset  si'S^an  his  cynestol,  ge- 
fullod  on  Criste,  )?e  his  folc  geheold. 

His  niodor  wips  cristen,  Elena  gehaten,  swiSe  gelyfed 
mann,  and  Searle  eawfaest.  pa  ferde  heo  to  Hierusalem,  mid 
fullum  geleafan,  wolde  ^Sa  rode  findan  "Se  Crist  on  'Srowade. 
Heo  becom  to  j^iere  stowe,  swa  hire  geswutelode  God,  ]mrh 
heofenlicerc  gebicnunge,  and  afunde  Sreo  roda,  an  waes  "(5a?s 
Haeleudcs,  and  5a  o^re  -Saera  ^eofa.  Da  nyste  heo  gewiss 
hwilc  ware  Cristes  rod,  aer^an  5e  he  mid  tacnum  hi  geswute- 
lode. pa  vvearS  seo  cwen  micclum  gegladod,  ))tEt  heo  moste 
"Sone  ma^m  on  nioldan  findan,  and  sicSJSan  (Surh  tacnum  swu- 
telungeoncnawan.  Araerde  ^a  cyrcan  on  ^fere  cwealm-stowe, 
J>,'er  seo  rod  on  laeg,  |?am  leofan  Drihtne,  and  bewand  fenne 
dael  ^ffire  halgan  rode  mid  hwTtum  seolfre,  and  hi  ^ter  gesette, 
and  ^one  oSerne  d{pl  la^dde  to  hire  suna,  and  ^a  isenan  nae- 
glas,  |>e  wseron  adrifene  jnirh  Cristes  folman,  5a5a  he  gefest- 
nod  vvaes. 

Dus  wrat  Hieroninms,  se  wisa  trahtnere,  be  ^iere  halgan 
rode,  hu  heo  vvearS  gefundcn.  Gif  hwa  elles  secgc,  we  sceo- 
ta^  to  him. 

Cristene  men  sceolon  so^lice  abugan  to  gehalgodre  rode, 
on  "Saes  Haplcndcs  naman,  for^an  5e  we  nabbaS  ^a  ^e  he  on 
^rowade,  ac  hire  anlicnys  biS  halig  swa-]>eah,  to  ^aere  we 
abugaS  on  gebedum  symle  to  'Sam  Mihtigan  Drihtne,  ]?e  for 
mannum  Srowade ;  and  seo  rod  is  gemynd  his  maeran  jn'ow- 
unge,  halig  ^urh  bine,  ^eah  "Se  heo  on  holte  weoxe.  We  hi 
wur^ia^  a  for  wurSmynte  Cristes,  se^e  us  alysde  mid  lufe 
"Surh  hi,  ]?aes  we  him  ^ancia^  symle  on  life. 


THE  INVENTION  OF  THE  HOLY  CROSS.  307 

and  he  victoriously  afterwards  possessed  his  throne,  baptized 
in  Christ,  nhoni  his  people  followed. 

His  mother  was  a  christian,  called  Helena,  a  very  faithful 
person,  and  very  j)ious.  She  went  to  Jerusalem,  with  full 
belief,  she  wished  to  find  the  rood  on  which  Christ  had  suf- 
fered. She  came  to  the  place,  as  God  had  manifested  to  her, 
through  a  heavenly  sign,  and  found  three  roods,  one  was 
that  of  Jesus,  and  the  others  those  of  the  thieves.  She  then 
knew  not  for  certain  which  was  Christ's  rood,  ere  that  he  by 
signs  manifested  it.  Then  was  the  queen  greatly  gladdened, 
that  she  was  permitted  to  find  the  treasure  in  tlie  earlli,  and 
afterwards  by  signs  to  know  its  manifestation.  She  raised 
then  a  church  to  the  dear  Lord,  on  the  place  of  execution,  in 
which  the  rood  lay,  and  encircled  a  part  of  the  holy  rood  with 
white  silver,  and  placed  it  there,  and  brought  the  other  part 
to  her  son,  and  the  iron  nails,  that  were  driven  through 
Christ's  palms,  when  he  was  fastened. 

Thus  wrote  Jerome,  the  wise  expositor,  concerning  the 
holy  rood,  how  it  was  found.  If  any  one  say  otherwise,  we 
refer  to  him. 

Christian  men  truly  should  bow  to  the  hallou  ed  rood  in  the 
name  of  Jesus,  for  although  we  have  not  that  on  which  he 
suffered,  its  likeness  is,  nevertheless,  holy,  to  which  we  ever 
bow  in  our  prayers  to  the  Mighty  Lord,  who  suffered  for 
men  ;  and  the  rood  is  a  memorial  of  his  great  passion,  holy 
through  him,  though  it  grow  in  a  wood.  We  ever  honour 
it  for  the  honour  of  Christ,  who  redeemed  us  with  love 
through  it,  for  which  we  thank  him  ever  in  life. 


X 


308 


EODKM  DIE. 
SCORUM  ALEXANDRI,  EUENTII  ET  THEODOLI. 

ON  ^isum  deet^e  ))ro\vode  sum  arwurSe  papa  Alexander 
gphuten,  mid  twain  msessepreostiim,  Euextius  and  Theo- 
DOLUS,  ffitforan  "Sam  casere,  Aurclianus  genamod,  \>e  hi  ge- 
martirode.  He  w«ps  vA-aelhreaw  cwcllcre  cristeiira  manna, 
and  fela  belifode  gelyfedra  manna,  pa  het  he  gelangian  );one 
halgan  lareow,  and  cwfeS  him  sona  to  mid  sjerwigendum 
mode,  "  Alexander  papa,  ic  scce  aerest  iet  ])e,  ]>cet  |?u  me  ard- 
lice  secge  hw{et  se  intinga  sy  ]?Het  ge  wyllaS  sueltan  sylf- 
willes  for  Criste,  ferSan  ^e  gc  aefre  his  geleafan  ^viSsacan." 
pa  andwyrde  se  papa  ^am  cwellere  ^us,  "  paet  j^fet  iSii  axast 
is  svviSe  halig  ^ing  ;  ac  Crist  us  forbcad  ]>apt  hundum  to 
syllaime."  Da  cwaeS  Aurelianus,  "  Eom  ic  hund  ge^uht?" 
Alexander  JSa  Miscte,  "  Eala  gif  Su  waere  hund!  Hund  is 
sawuUeas,  and  on  helle  ne  SrowaS.  Se  man  \>e  forsih^  his 
Scyppend  on  life,  sceal  aefre  Srowian  on  ecum  tintregum." 
p.i  iSywde  se  casere  hine  to  swingennc,  gif  he  him  ne  s«de 
swa  hwses  swa  he  axode.  Alexander  cwaeS,  )?rjet  he  ondrede 
God,  and  naenne  o^erne,  on  andwerdum  life.  "  pu  dwelast, 
casere,  )7urh  dyrstignysse,  gif  Su  buton  geleafan  a?t  us  leornian 
wylt  -Sa  halgan  gerynu,  Surh  heardum  swinglum."  Aurcli- 
anus andwyrde  orgelice  swiSe,  "  Ic  ana  gewealde  calles  mid- 
daneardcs,  and  Su  specst  ^us  dyrstiglice  swilce  to  sumum 
deman ;  ac  "Sin  sawul  sceal,  swiSe  getintregod,  gewitan  of 
^am  lichaman  aer  ic  ^e  forlaete."  Alexander  sfJede,  "  Hwaet 
dest  ^u  nivves  nu  ?  Da  ane  aetwundon  J^inum  waelhreawum 
handum,  ^e  for  ^inum  tintregum  heora  Drihten  wiSsocon. 
Ic  so^lice  sceal  aet  ^e  sweltan  dea^e,  for^an  "Se  ic  nelle  naefre 
Crist  wi^sacan." 

-^fter  "Sisum  wordum  het  se  wailhreowa  hine  hon  on 
heardre  hengene,  and  his  sidan  baernan  mid  hatum  ligum,  and 
mid  hengene  "Srawan  to  langere  hwtle  ;  ac  he  naht  ne  ge- 


309 


ON  THE  SAME  DAY. 
THE  SAINTS  ALEXANDER,  EVENTIUS  AND  THEODULUS. 

ON  this  (lay  suffered  a  venerable  pope  called  Alexander, 
with  two  mass-priests,  Eventius  and  Tiieodull's,  before 
the  emperor  named  Aureliaii,  who  martyred  them.  He  was 
a  bloodthirsty  slayer  of  christian  men,  and  many  belie- 
ving men  deprived  of  life.  Then  he  commanded  the  holy 
doctor  to  be  sent  for,  and  directly  said  to  him  with  insidious 
mind,  "Alexander  pope,  I  seek  fir^t  from  thee,  that  thou 
(juickly  tell  me  what  the  cause  is  that  ye  will  voluntarily 
die  for  Christ  rather  than  ever  deny  his  faith."  The  pope 
answered  the  murderer  thus,  "  That  which  thou  askest  is  a 
very  holy  thing  ;  but  Christ  forbade  us  to  give  that  to  the 
dogs."  Then  said  Aurelian,  "  Do  I  seem  a  dog  ?"  Alexaiuler 
then  wished,  *'  Ah,  if  thou  w  ere  a  dog  !  A  dog  is  soulless, 
and  suffers  not  in  hc-il.  The  man  who  despises  his  Creator  in 
life,  shall  for  ever  suffer  in  eternal  torments."  The  emperor 
then  threatened  to  scourge  him,  if  he  toUl  liim  not  whatso- 
ever he  asked  him.  Alexander  said,  that  he  feared  God,  and 
none  f)ther,  in  the  present  hfe.  "'Thou  errest,  emperor, 
through  temerity,  if,  without  belief,  thou  desirest  to  learn 
from  us  the  holy  mysteries  by  hard  stripes."  Aurelian 
answered  very  proudly,  "  I  alone  hold  sway  over  all  the 
world,  and  thou  speakest  thus  audaciously  as  to  some  judge  ; 
but  thy  soul  shall,  sorely  tortured,  depart  from  thy  body 
before  I  leave  thee."  Alexander  said,  "  What  new  \»iltthou 
do  now  ?  They  only  escaped  from  thy  cruel  hands,  who 
through  thy  torments  denied  their  Lord.  But  1  shall  perish 
by  death  from  thee,  for  I  will  never  deny  Christ." 

After  these  words  the  cruel  tyrant  commanded  him  to  be 
hanged  on  a  hard  gibbet,  and  his  sides  to  be  burnt  with  hot 
flames,  and  to  be  a  long  while  tormented  on  the  gibbet  ;   hut 


310  S.  ALEXANDRI,  EUENTII  ET  THEODOLI. 

cwseb.  pa  befran  se  arleasa  casere,  hvvi  he  suwade.  pa  stede 
se  halga,  j^aet  he  spriece  to  Criste.  Eft  hine  axode  se  arleasa 
casere,  Huineta  he  wolde  his  geogoSe  amyrran,  cwaeS  l^aet  he 
^a  waere  ge^uht  jn-ittig  geara.  pa  vviscte  se  biscop  }>aet  se 
wifilhreowa  ne  sceolde  his  sawle  amyrran  ^urh  his  mandaR- 
dum.  Da  sende  seo  cweri  ^is  aerende  him  to,  "  Beorh  ^e  ic 
biddc,  and  forlff't  'Sone  biscop,  elles  Su  earma  scealt  yfehim 
dea^e  sweltan,  and  ic  bco  forlfjeten  wudewe  on  life."  pa 
cwaeiS  sc  casere,  ]net  hi  waeron  gesibbe,  and  forcSi  spraece 
|>illice  word  him  fore.  He  het  swa-)'eah-h\vfe^ere  Sone 
halgan  forUetan,  and  gelangian  5a  preostas  to  his  la^an  and- 
werdnysse,  and  befran  Sone  papan  hwiet  hi  wa^ron  gehrefde. 
pa  stede  se  biscop,  ]>set  hi  soMice  wa^-on  iialige  nifessepreo- 
stas,  -bam  Hielende  Seowigende.  pa  axode  se  casere  }>one 
jenne  preost,  hu  his  nama  wfere,  oiiSe  hu  gef}rn  he  gclyfde. 
He  cwfeb  j^aet  he  hatte  Euentius  fram  ingc*Se,  and  waere  ge- 
fnllod  for  hund-scofontig  geara,  and  to  ma^sscpreoste  gchalgod 
for  manegum  gcarum.  pa  het  se  casere  hine  Crist  wiSsacan, 
and  he  moste  beon  maerlice  mid  him.  Euentius  him  saede  5a 
mid  soSre  lare,  j^aet  he  sceolde  behreowsian  his  rcban  daeda, 
and  gelyfan  on  Crist,  )7«et  he  his  niiltse  begeate.  pa  het  se 
waelhrcowa  him  gelangian  to  Sone  otScrne  preost,  and  him 
sona  to  cwfpJS,  ''  Eart  bu  peodolus,  "Se  mine  haese  forsihst  ?" 
Da  saede  Deodolus,  Jjaet  he  forsawe  his  haese,  and  eac  hine 
sylfne  for  nahte  tealde,  forSan  Se  he  Godes  halgan  hyndo  mid 
witum.  Aurelianus  cwae^  to  bam  arwurban  preoste,  "  Ne  bist 
bu  orhlyte  callunge  baera  witena."  peodolus  saede,  |?aet  he 
truwode  on  God  ]>aet  he  naere  ascyred  fram  sobum  martir- 
dome  ]7aes  halgan  weres,  his  holdan  papan.  Da  het  se  wael- 
hreowa  gewriban  ^one  papan,  and  ^one  oberne  preost  to  his 
hricge  hindan,  and  wurpan  lit  begen  into  byrnendum  ofne  ; 
and  het  Deodolum  standan  aet  'bam  mu^e,  |>aBt  he  for  "bam 
ogan  him  abiigan  sceolde.     Hi  vvurdon  ba  aworpene,  swa  se 


THE  c\L\TS  ALEXANDER,  EVENTIUS  AND  THEODULUS.   311 

he  said  nothing.     Then  the  impious  emperor  inquired  why 
he  was  silent.     Then  said  the  saint,  that  he  was  speaking  to 
Christ.     Again   the  impious  emperor   asked   him,   Wiiy  he 
woukl  sacrifice  his  youth,  saying,  that  he  then  appeared  to 
him  to  be  thirty  years  oUL     Then  the  bishop  wished  that  the 
bloodthirsty  emperor  might  not  sacrifice  his  soul  through  his 
wicked    deeds.     The    queen  then   sent  this   trrand   to   him, 
"Save  thyself,  I  pray,  and  leave  the  bishop,  else  thou,  mise- 
rable, shalt  die  an  evil  death,  and  I  shall  be  left  a  widow  for 
life."     Then  said  the  emperor  that  they  were  akin,  and  there- 
fore she  spake  such  v.ords  before  him.     lie,  nevertheless, 
commanded  the  saint  to  be  left,  and  the  priests  to  be  sent  for 
to  his  hateful  presence,  and  questioned   the   pope  who  the 
[)risoners  were.     Then  said  the  bishop,  that  they  were  truly 
h(jly    mass-priests,   servants   of   Jesus.     Then    the   em[)eror 
asked  one  of  the  priests  what  his  name  was,  or  how  long  he 
had  believed.     He  said,  that  he  was  called  Eventius  from  his 
youth,  and  had  been  baptized  seventy  years  ago,  and  hal- 
lowed a  mass-priest  for  many  years.   The  emperor  then  com- 
manded him  to  deny  Christ,  and  he  might  be  exalted  with 
him.     Eventius  then  said  to  him,  with  true  instruction,  that 
he  should  repent  of  his  cruel  deeds  and  believe  in  Christ,  that 
he  might  obtain   his  mercy.     Then   the   cruel    tyrant  com- 
manded the  other  priest  to  be  sent  for,  and  directly  said  to 
him,    "  Art   thou   Theodulus,    who    despisest    mv    Ijehest  ?" 
Then  said  Theodulus,  that  he  despised  his  behest,  and  him- 
self also  accounted  as  naught,   because   he   afflicted   God's 
saints  with  torments.     Aurelian  said  to  the  venerable  priest, 
"Thou  shalt  not  be  wholly  exempt  from  those  torments." 
Theodulus  said,  that  he  trusted  in  God  that  he  should  not  be 
excluded  from  the  true  martyrdom  of  the  holy  man,  his  be- 
nign pope.     Then  the  cruel  tyrant  ordered  the  pope  to  be 
bound,  and  the  other  priest  behind  his  back,  and  both  to  be 
cast  into  a  burning   oven  ;    aud  commanded   Theodulus   to 
stand  at  the  mouth,  that  from  fear  he  might  submit  to  him. 


312  S.  ALEXANDRI,  EUENTII  ET  THEODOLI. 

woilhreowahetjinto  ^am  byrnendum  ofne,gebuiidene  Swyres- 
ac  se  lig  him  ne  niihte  nateshwon  derian.  Da  clypode  se  pap;» 
to  bam  oSrum  preoste,  "  Bro^or  Deodole,  gang  hider  in  to 
us  :  se  ylca  is  herinne  "Se  giu  aer  ahredde  Sa  gelyfcdan  cnihtas 
vviiS  Nabocliodonosor,  ^e  hi  gebundene  wearp  into  byrn- 
endum ofne."  pa  sceat  Deodolus  sona  to  Sam  papati,  unforht 
on  ^am  fyre,  fegnigende  mid  sange,  "  Drihten,  Su  afandodest 
us  on  ^isum  fyre,  and  nis  on  us  gemctt  jienig  unrihtwisnys." 
pis  wear^  -Sa  gecyd  |7am  casere  sona,  and  he  wcarS  gcang- 
sumod  mid  ormjetum  graman,  and  het  boheafdian  Sa  halgan 
preostas,  and  "Sfes  papan  limagelome  prician,  ocSj^aet  he  swulte 
"Surh  swylcum  pinungum.  .-Eftcr  Sisum  wearS  gehyred  of 
hcofonum  clypung  to  Sam  casere,  Sa^a  he  heora  dea^es  ffeg- 
node,  "  pu  Aureliane,  5e  is  hell  gcopenod,  and  Sisum  marty- 
rum  is  myrcS  gegearcod."  Da  cwacode  he  sona,  and  cwaet 
to  his  M  ife,  "  Sum  nifere  iungling  com  mid  gyrde  to  me,  sec 
wtes  eal  isen,  and  eac  byrnende,  and  wearp  hi  ^a  to  me,  iSas 
word  cweSende,  Ilnfa  Se,  Aureliane,  swa  Su  sylf  gecure  ;  and 
ic  siSSan  cwacode  eal  on  fcfore.  Gebide  nu  for  me  ]7one 
God  ^e  Su  w  ur^ast."  pa  andwyrde  J'a^t  wif,  Seueriana  ge- 
haten,  *'  Ic  wille  Sa  halgan  bebyrian,  |?y-lies  ^e  me  swa  ge- 
timige."  And  heo  sona  swa  dyde  mid  so^um  geleafan,  and 
mid  arwur^ny!-se  hi  calle  bebyrigde ;  efste  ham  siSSan  to 
Sam  earman  casere.  Da  laeg  se  earming,  his  yrmSe  bemae- 
nende,  and  bat  his  tungan  |?a?t  heo  on  blode  fleow.  He  ge- 
wat  Sa  of  worulde  to  \^  {elhreawum  cwic-suslum  ;  and  Seue- 
riana gecom  to  Sa^ra  halgeiia  byrgenum,  mid  hfieran  gescrydd, 
and  ]>heT  wunadc  swa,  oSj^aet  Sixtus  biscop  com  fram  East- 
dffile,  and  |?;er  be  hire  bene  biscop  gehadode,  "Se  mihte  be- 
hwyrfan  Sa  halgan  martiras  mid  gastlicum  sangum,  and  Codes 
gerihtum.  Seo  stow  hsefde  siSSan  symle  hire  biscop,  oS 
l^isne  andweardan  dteg.  Sy  Sam  ^Imihtigan  lof,  seSe  ana 
ricsaS  on  ecnysse  God.     Amen. 


THE  SAINTS  ALEXAXDILU,  EVENTIUS  AND  TIIEODULUS.  313 

They  were  then  cast,  as  the  tyrant  commanded,  into  the 
burning  oven,  bound  crosswise  ;  but  the  flame  might  not  at 
all  hurt  them.  Then  cried  the  pope  to  the  other  priest, 
"Brother  Thcoduhis,  come  in  hither  to  us:  the  same  is 
herein  who  of  yore  delivered  the  believing  youths  from  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who  had  cast  them  bound  into  a  burning  oven." 
Then  Thcoduhis  instantly  darted  to  the  pope  fearless  into  the 
fire,  rejoicing  with  song,  "  Lord,  thou  hast  tried  us  in  this 
fire,  and  there  is  not  found  in  us  any  unrigiiteousness."  This 
was  then  immediately  announced  to  the  emperor,  and  he  be- 
came troubled  with  bomuUess  anger,  and  commanded  the 
holy  priests  to  be  beheaded,  and  the  limbs  of  the  pope  to  be 
repeatedly  pricked,  until  he  died  through  such  tortures. 
After  tliis  was  heard  a  calling  from  heaven  t«>  the  emperor, 
while  he  was  rejoicing  at  their  deatii,  "Thou  Aurelian,  for 
thee  hell  is  opened,  and  for  these  martyrs  joy  is  prepared." 
Then  he  instantly  quaked,  and  said  to  his  wife,  "  An  illus- 
trious youth  came  to  me  with  a  rod,  which  was  all  iron,  and 
also  burning,  and  cast  it  U)  me,  saying  these  words,  Have, 
Aurelian,  that  which  thou  thyself  hast  chosen  ;  and  I  after- 
wards quaked  all  in  a  fever.  Pray  now  for  me  to  the  God 
whom  thou  worshipst."  Then  answered  the  wife,  called 
Severiana,  "  I  will  bury  the  saints,  les't  it  so  befall  me."  And 
she  forthwith  did  so  with  true  belief,  and  buried  them  all  with 
reverence  ;  she  then  hastened  home  to  the  miserable  emperor. 
There  lay  the  wretch  bemoaning  his  misery,  and  bit  his  tongue 
so  that  it  flowed  with  blood.  He  then  departed  from  the 
world  to  cruel  torments  ;  and  Severiana  came  to  the  graves 
of  the  saints,  clad  in  hair-cloth,  and  there  so  continued,  until 
bishop  Sixtus  came  from  the  East,  and  there,  at  her  prayer, 
ordained  a  bishop,  who  might  minister  to  the  holy  martyrs 
with  ghostly  songs  and  divine  rites.  The  place  had  con- 
stantly ever  since  its  own  bishop  until  this  present  day. 
Praise  be  to  the  Almighty,  who  alone  reigncth  (iod  to  ctcr- 
nitv.     Amen. 


314 

FERIA  SECUNDA. 
LETANIA  MAIORE. 

L.EWEDE  MENN  behofiaS  jjaet  him  lareowas  secgon  Sa 
godspellican  lare,  )Se  hi  on  bocum  leornodoii,  ]><st  men  for  ny- 
tcnnysse  misfaran  nc  sceolon.  Ure  Drihten  St'ede  to  sumum 
Irireowe,  'Sa'Sa  he  bine  axode  be  ^ani  hehstan  bebode,  "  Lufa 
iSinne  Drihten  mid  eah-e  Sinre  heortan,  and  mid  eallum  mode  : 
y\s  is  ]>aet  m«ste  bebod.  Is  eft  oSer  bcbod  Sisum  swiSe  gelic, 
Lufa  ^inne  nextan  swa  swa  ^e  sylfne  :  )'as  twa  bebodu  behi- 
ca5  ealle  bee."  Nis  us  nan  gemet  on  ^am  lerran  bebode, 
forSan  ^e  we  sceolon  urne  Scyppend  hifian  ofer  ealle  magas 
mid  unametenre  lufc.  On  5am  oSrum  bebode  we  habbaS 
gcmet,  ]i;pt  wc  oScrne  lufian  sua  swa  us  sylfe,  \>a  Se  |?urh 
gelcafan  us  gelenge  beo5,  and  5urh  cristendom  us  cy^Se  to 
habbaS.  Se  Se  ha^fS  Sa  so^an  lufe,  he  hylt  ealle  gewritu  5e 
sind  gelogode  on  langsumum  cwydum.  lie  hylt  ])fet  |^a>t  him 
cuS  is  on  Cristes  gewritum,  and  |'a>t  Jjfet  him  digelc  is  on 
heora  deopnysse,  gif  he  "ba  soban  lufe  hylt  on  his  Seawum. 
Ne  fremaS  cristeinun  menn,  j^eah  he  fela  god  wyrce,  buton  be 
symle  haebbe  Sa  soSan  lufe  on  him.  Manega  sind  beboda 
mannum  gesette,  ac  hi  ealle  hangia^  on  ^isuni  twam  wordum. 
Swa  swa  of  anum  treowe  springab  manega  bogas,  swa  gaS  of 
anre  lufe  manega  obre  uiihta. 


Eft  cwte^  se  Ha^lend  to  his  leorning-enihtum,  "  Se  ^e  me 
lufa^,  he  hylt  min  bebod,  and  min  Ficder  hine  lufaS  for  ^aere 
hvrsumnysse ;  and  wit  cuma^  him  to,  and  him  mid  wuniab." 
Gehyra^,  mine  gebrobra,  hwaet  se  Haelend  cwae^,  "  Se  "Se 
me  lufa^,  he  hylt  min  bebod."  pare  lufe  fandung  is  }?a?s 
weorces  fremming.  lohannes  se  apostol  eac  be  ^isum  cwse^, 
"  Gif  hwa  cwy^  j^aet  he  lufige  |?one  Lifigendan  God,  and  his 
beboda  ne  hvlt,  he  bib  leas  bonne."     Soblicc  we  lufia^  ^one 


315 

MONDAY. 
ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY. 

LAYMEX  require  tliat  teacliers  should  impart  to  them  the 
evangelical  lore,  which  they  have  learned  in  books,  that  men 
should  not  err  through  ignorance.  Our  Lord  said  to  a 
teacher,  when  he  asked  him  concerning  the  highest  com- 
mandment, "  Love  thy  Lord  with  all  thine  heart,  and  with 
all  thy  mind  :  this  is  the  greatest  commandment.  There  is 
again  another  commandment  very  like  unto  this.  Love  thy 
neighbour  as  thyself:  these  two  commandments  comprise  all 
the  books."  AVe  have  no  limit  in  the  former  commandment, 
because  we  should  love  our  Creator  above  all  relations  with 
unbounded  love.  In  the  other  commandment  we  have  a 
limit,  that  we  slu)uld  love  another  as  ourselves,  those  who 
through  belief  are  related  to  us,  and  through  Christianity  are 
allied  to  us.  He  who  has  true  love  holds  all  the  written  pre- 
cepts that  are  contained  in  long  discourses.  He  holds  that 
which  is  known  to  him  in  Christ's  scriptures,  and  that 
which  is  dark  to  him  in  their  depth,  if  he  holds  true  love  in 
his  morals.  It  profits  not  a  christian  man,  though  he  do 
much  good,  unless  he  constantly  have  true  love  in  him. 
Many  are  the  commandments  appointed  for  men,  but  they  all 
hang  on  these  two  sentences.  As  from  one  tree  there  spring 
many  boughs,  so  from  one  love  there  proceed  many  other 
virtues. 

Again  said  Jesus  to  his  disciples,  *'  He  who  lovclh  me 
holds  my  commandment,  and  my  Father  loveth  him  for  the 
obedience;  and  we  will  come  to  hini,  and  dwell  with  him." 
Hear,  my  brothers,  what  Jesus  said,  "  He  who  loveth  me 
holds  my  commandment."  The  proof  of  love  is  the  perform- 
ance of  work.  John  the  apostle  also  said  of  this,  "  If  any 
one  say  that  he  loveth  the  Living  God,  and  holdclh  not  his 
commandnx  nt>,  he   will  then  be  a  liar."      But  wc  love  the 


316  LETANIA  MAIORE. 

leofan  Driliten,  gif  we  are  uiiSeawas  gcciniiettat5  be  his 
hissum,  and  ure  wohi)ysse  be  his  wordum  gerihtaS,  and  ))urh 
unlustum  his  lufe  ne  wi^cwe^aS.  Seo  Haiige  Drynnys,  ^e 
is  |jrym\vealdend  God,  cymb  ungesewenlice  to  gcswaesre 
heortan,  j^e  gehyrsum  bi^  his  haesum  mid  weorcc,  and  hoo 
biS  geglenced  Jjurh  Godes  neosunge,  and  mid  his  on-wunungc 
vvi?^innan  onliht.  Menn  dseftaS  heora  bus,  and  wel  gedreog- 
leecaS,  gif  hi  sumne  freond  onfon  wilhvS  to  him,  |wt  nan  un- 
Sseslicnys  him  ne  ^urfe  derian  ;  and  we  sceolon  us  cla^nsian 
fram  unclwnum  daedum,  ])iet  se  Militiga  God  on  urum  mode 
wunige,  se"Se  aenne  gchwilcne  |>urh  his  Gast  geneosaS,  and 
^a  fidan  forla?t  fur  heora  fracodnysse,  leohtes  bcdadede;  for- 
San  "Se  hi  ne  lufiaS  bine. 

Ure  Drihten  tjede  on  Sisum  soSum  spclU',  ''  Se  5e  me  ne 
lufaS,  ne  hylt  he  mine  word."  Godcs  lufu  geswutelaS  hi 
sylfe  mid  weorcum,  and  gif  hco  ydcl  bi^,  nis  beo  Sonne  lufu. 
Se  5e  God  ne  bifaci,  ne  iufaJS  lie  bine  sylfnc  ;  forcJan  "Se  he 
ne  geJSybS  na^fre  biiton  Gode.  Drihten  soblice  saedc  on  his 
bodunge,  "  Ge  beoS  mine  frynd,  gif  ge  wyrcende  bcoS  Sa 
Sincir  5e  ic  bebeode  eow  to  ijebealdenne."  Micel  mildheort- 
nys  ]><ES  Metodan  Drihtnes,  \)iei  we  beon  gecigedc  swa  gesae- 
liglice  ures  Scyppendes  frynd,  gif  we  his  haese  gefyllaiS,  we 
(Se  naeron  wurlSe  beon  his  wealas  gecigde,  and  we  babbaS 
swilce  geSincbe  jmrh  5a  gehyrsumnysse.  We  blissiab  on 
mode  for  <Saere  micclan  gebincSe,  ac  we  sceolon  hogian  hu  we 
hi  begyton.  Ne  ortruwige  nan  man  for  ormaetum  synnum, 
]?8et  he  geearnian  ne  maege  |?one  micclan  wurbmynt,  and  beon 
Godes  freond,  }»urh  godum  geearnungum,  gif  he  ne  ge-edlaeb-g 
his  aerran  misdaeda.  For  synfuUum  mannum  sealde  Crist  his 
ITf.  Ortruwige  se  ana  Se  endeleaslice  syngaS,  and  aer  his 
endenextan  daege  dtedbote  ne  gewyrcS.  Uton  lufian  God 
mid  godum  ingehyde,  and  eac  ure  nextan  swa  swa  us  sylfe. 
God  wunaS  on  us,  gif  we  us  betwynan  lufiaS,  and  his  soSe 
lufu  bi^  swa  on  us  gcfylled,  and  we  magon  bis  iv  mid  Sam 
anum  gefyllan. 


ON  THi:  GRKATER  LITANY.  317 

beloved  Lord,  if  we  lovel  our  \ices  by  his  commands,  and 
rectify  our  depravity  by  his  words,  and  through  evil  desires 
thwart  not  his  love.  The  Holy  Trinity,  which  is  God  power- 
ful in  majesty,  comes  unseen  to  the  pious  heart,  which  is 
obedient  to  his  behests  in  deed,  and  it  shall  be  adorned 
through  God's  visitation,  and  enlightened  by  his  sojourn 
within.  Men  put  their  houses  in  order,  and  are  well  cont^mt, 
if  they  desire  to  receive  a  friend  to  them,  that  no  impropriety 
may  offend  him  ;  and  we  should  cleanse  ourselves  from  un- 
clean deeds,  that  the  Mighty  God  may  dwell  in  our  mind, 
who  visits  every  one  through  his  Spirit,  and  forsakes  the  foul 
for  their  depravity,  deprived  of  light ;  because  they  love  him 
not. 

Our  Lord  said  in  this  true  discourse,  "  lie  v»ho  lovcth  me 
not  holdeth  not  my  words."  Love  of  God  manifests  itself  by 
works,  and  if  it  is  idle,  then  is  it  not  love.  He  who  loves  not 
God  loves  not  himself;  because  he  will  never  thri\e  without 
God.  But  the  Lord  s;iid  in  his  preaching,  "  Ye  are  my 
friends,  if  ye  do  the  things  which  I  commanded  you  to  ob- 
serve." It  is  a  great  mercy  of  the  Lord  Creator,  that  we  are 
so  benigidy  called  our  Creator's  friends,  if  we  fulfil  his  behest, 
we  who  were  not  worthy  of  being  called  his  thralls,  and  that 
we  have  such  honour  through  obedience.  We  rejoice  in  mind 
for  the  great  honovw,  but  we  should  meditate  how  to  obtain  it. 
Let  no  man,  on  account  of  enormous  sins,  despair  of  merit- 
ing that  great  dignity,  and  of  being  the  friend  of  God,  through 
good  deserts,  if  he  repeats  not  his  former  misdeeds.  For 
sinful  men  Christ  gave  his  life.  Let  him  only  despair  who 
endlessly  sins,  and  before  his  last  day  makes  no  repentance. 
Let  us  love  God  with  good  knowledge,  and  also  our  neigh- 
bour as  ourselves.  God  will  dwell  in  us,  if  we  love  each 
other,  and  his  true  love  will  thus  be  completed  in  us,  and  we 
may  by  that  alone  fulfil  his  law. 


■lis  LETANIA  MAIORE. 

Hwa   is    lire   nexta  ?     Uton   nxian    Crist.     Witodlice    he 

cwae^  be  eallum  cristenum,  "  Ge  ealle  sind  gebro^ra,  and 

aenne  Faeder  habba^,  se^e  on  heofonum  is  healice  sittende." 

Nu  is  eow  gesied,  ]?urh  ^one  so  ban  Crist,  piet  ge  sind  gebro- 

^ra,  gif  ge  ^one  bend  healda^  so^re  broberraedene  untobro- 

cenne.     Hwa  is  me  nu  near  bonne  inin  brobor  ?     Ic  bine  eac 

1  ^  .        . 

'ufige,  and  he  is  min  nexta.     lohannes  se  apostol  awrat  on 

his  pistole,  and  cwae^,  jjaet  we  oncneowon  Cristes  hifc  on  us 

]?urh  J^aet,  ]?{et  he  sealde  hine  sylfne  for  us,  and  we  sceolon 

syllan  us  sylfe  for  gebrobruin.     Se  ^e  speda  hjef^,  and  ^a 

aspendan  nclc  bafenleasum  breSer,  luefb  he  soSe  lufe.     Gif 

•Su  gyt  swa  inicel  ne  mibt  burhtcon,  |>fet   bii  sylf  swelte  for 

sumes  broker  life,  syle  j^ine  jehta  liim  to  fnltiune.     Gif  bu 

sua  ne  dest  on  sibbe  for  Gode,  hwwnne  wylt  bu  syllan  be 

sylfne  for  hine  on  earfobrc  ehtnysse  arleasra  cwcllcra  ?     Us 

gedafenab  to  doMiie  dugcbc  on   sibbo,  mid  estfiilhnn    mode 

menniscuni  gesceafte,  and  eft  on  chtnysse  ure  ITf  syllan  for 

^one  soban  God,  or  for  sumne  broker,  swa  swa  se  Hielend 

sealde  hine  sylfne  for  us.     Ac  se  swicola  feond  Ffew^  unge- 

^Wffirnysse  botwux  maneynne  jnirh  mislicc  intingan,  and  tyht 

oberne  niann  to  uruni  fehtuin,  and  ure  mod  ontent  mid  mic- 

clum  graman  ongean  Saene  oberne  be  ure  ehtan  uilc.     ponne 

forleose  we  burh  -ba  lytlan  aehta  ba  soban  lufe,  j^e  is  selost 

aehta.     Ac  we  sceoldon  gescyldan  jja  soban  lufe  a  seo^e  us 

gehet  to   bam  Lifigendan  Gode,  swibor  ]>onne  "ba  sehta  ^be  us 

ateoriab.    Soblice  ne  maeg  ure  sawul  gefleon  to  heofonan  rice, 

buton   heo  hffibbc  libera  |?8ere  so"ban   lufe  Scyppendes  and 

manna,  'be  ma  ^e  aenig  fugel  his  flyhtes  gewylt,  gif  his  o-ber 

fi^ere  forod  bib  on  isr. 

Smeage    nu    gehwa  hwaet   his   hade  gedafnige,  forbari   Se 

menu  magon,  purh  modes  gecnyrdnysse,  on  aelcere  endebyrd- 

nysse   "bam  ^Imihtigan    gecwenian.     Cyninge   gerist   riht- 

M'isnys  and  wisdom  ;   him  is  nama  gesett  of  soSum  reccen- 

dome,  ]>fet  he  hine  sylfne,  and  siSSan  his  leode  mid  wisdome 

wissige,  and  wel   gerihtlffice.     pa?t   folc    bib    gesjeiig    J?urh 


ox  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  319 

Who  is  our  neighbour  r  Let  us  ask  Christ.  Verily  he 
says  of  all  christians,  "  Ye  are  all  brothers,  and  have  one 
Father,  who  is  high-sitting  in  heaven."  Now  it  is  said  to 
you  by  the  true  Christ,  that  ye  are  brothers,  if  ye  hold  the 
botid  of  true  brotherhood  unbroken.  But  who  is  nearer  to 
me  than  my  brother  ?  I  also  love  him,  and  he  is  my  neigh- 
bour. John  the  apostle  wrote  in  his  epistle,  and  said,  that 
we  know  Christ's  love  for  us,  because  he  gave  himself  for  us, 
and  we  should  give  ourselves  for  our  brothers.  He  who  has 
riches,  and  will  not  spend  them  for  an  indigent  brother,  has 
not  true  love.  If  thou  yet  canst  not  accomplish  so  much  as  to 
die  thyself  for  a  brother's  life,  give  thy  riches  for  his  siipport. 
If  thou  doest  not  so  in  peace  for  God,  when  wilt  thou  give 
thyself  for  him  in  the  calamitous  persecution  of  impious  mur- 
derers ?  It  is  incumbent  on  us  to  do  good  in  peace,  with 
bounteous  mind  to  the  human  creation,  and  again  in  perse- 
cution to  give  our  life  for  the  true  God,  or  for  a  brother,  as 
Jesus  gave  himself  for  us.  But  the  guilefid  fiend  sows  dis- 
cord among  mankind  through  divers  causes,  and  instigates 
one  man  to  our  possessions,  and  inflames  our  minds  with 
great  anger  against  another  who  will  persecute  us.  Then 
we  lose,  through  a  little  wealth,  true  love,  which  is  the  best 
of  wealth.  But  we  should  ever  shield  that  true  love  which 
leads  us  to  the  Living  God,  rather  than  the  possessions  which 
will  perish  from  us.  Verily  our  soul  may  not  fly  to  the  king- 
dom of  heaven,  unless  it  have  the  wings  of  true  love  of  the 
Creator  and  of  men,  more  than  any  bird  has  power  of  fliglit, 
if  one  of  its  wings  have  been  previously  broken. 

Let  every  one  now  consider  what  befits  his  state,  for  mm 
may,  through  diligence  of  mind,  in  every  stage,  propitiate  the 
Almighty.  In  a  king  arc  becoming  righteousness  and  wis- 
dom ;  on  him  a  name  is  set  of  true  governorship,  that  he  may 
direct  himself,  and  afterwards  his  people  with  wisdom,  and 
well  correct  them.     The   people   are   happy   in   a  sagacious 


320  LETANIA  MAIORE. 

snotenie  cyiiiiig,  sigefest  and  gesundful  Siirh  gesceadwisne 
reccend.     And  hi  beo5  geyrmede  ^urh  unvvisne  cyning,  on 
mancgum  ungclimpnm,  for  his  misraede.     Biscop  sceul  Iteran 
his  leoda  symle,  mid  boclicere  lare,  and  him  bysnian  wel, 
'^reagan  "Su  "Swyran,  and  ^a  "Seawfaestan  hifian,  beon  heora 
hyrde  hold  under  Criste,  ealle  ofcrsccawigendc,  swa  svva  his 
nama  swcg^,  and  yfel  ne  forsuwige,  ne  unriht  no  geSafige. 
Biscopas  and  maesscpreostas  sind  to  bydclum  gesettc,  |?fet  hi 
laewedum  folce  geleafan  bodion,  and  him  eac  ge<Singion  to  JSam 
^hiiihtigum  Godc ;  forcSi  him  gedafena'S  ]>iet  hi  dugeSe  hab- 
bon,  and  mid  fa?gerum  ^eawum  gefrjptewode  beon.    Hu  maeg 
se  ungcljereda  larcowdom  bealdan,  and  laewedum  folce  faegre 
bodian  ?     Be  Sam  cwa^iS  se  Haelend  to  his  discipuluni,  "  Gif 
se  blinda  man  bib  obres  bliiidan  latteow,  jjonnc  bofcallat!)  lii 
begen  on  sumum  blindum  seabe."   Lange  sceal  leornian  se  "Se 
laeran  sceal,  and  habban  geSincSe  and  ]»('a\vf}estnysse,  ]?y-lj«s 
be  he  forhi^de   ba  laewcdan  mid  him.     Se  liireow  luefb  lytic 
gebincbe,  ]>c   mid  yfelre   gebisnunge  his    bodunge  towyrpb. 
Se  bi^  maere  Ifireow,  "be  mammm  bodab,  and  eac  mid  weorcum 
him  wel  gebysnab.     Ne  maeg  se  prcost  mannum  iSingian,  ne 
eac   him   sylfum,  gif  he   synnum    underlib,  and   mid   fulum 
daedum  bine  fracodnc  gedc^,  buton  he  aerest  arise  of  -bam 
reocendum  meoxe,  and  mid  sobre  dfedbotc  hint-  sylfnc  abwea, 
]?aet  he  clypunge  hiebbe  cublice  to  Drihtne.     God  cwa-b  be 
lareowum  on  his  larspclle,  "  Se  ^e  eow  gehyr^  he  gehyr<S  me, 
and  se  ^e  eow  forsihb  be  forr«il)^  me."     For^i  gedafena^  eow 
]>i£t  ge  Drihten  gehyron  burh  halige  lareowas,  ]>e  his  gespelian 
sind.     Hi  beob  orsorge,  beah  ^e  hi  man  forseo,  and  cwe'SaiS 
mid    |?am    witegan    to    weroda    Gode,    "  Ic    ne    forsuwade, 
Drihten,  |>iiie  sobfaestnysse,  ne  ic  on  heortan  behydde  -bine 
rihtwisnysse  ;  ac  hi  me  forsawon  forb  mid  ]?aere  segene." 

Sum  witega  clypode  to  eallum  demum,  "  Lufiab  rihtwis- 
nysse,  ge  ^e  on  eorban  denial ;  oncnawab  eowerne  God  mid 
godnysse   symle,  and  mid  heortan   anfealdnysse   seca^   hine 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  321 

king,  victorious  and  prosperous  through  a  discreet  ruler. 
And  they  are  made  miserable  through  an  unwise  king,  by 
many  mischances,  from  his  misguidance.  A  bishop  should 
constantly  instruct  his  people  with  book-learning,  and  set 
them  a  good  example,  reprove  the  perverse,  and  love  the 
virtuous,  be  to  them  a  faithful  shepherd  under  Christ,  over- 
seeing all,  as  his  name  indicates  ;  and  not  conceal  evil,  ncr 
consent  to  injustice.  Bishops  and  mass-priests  are  set  as 
criers,  to  announce  the  faith  to  lay  people,  and  also  to  inter- 
cede for  them  to  Almighty  God  ;  it,  therefore,  befits  them  to 
have  goodness,  and  to  be  adorned  with  fair  morals.  How 
can  the  unlearned  hold  a  teacher's  authority,  and  aptly  preach 
to  the  lay-folk  ?  Of  these  Jesus  said  to  his  disciples,  "  If  a 
blind  man  be  another  blind  one's  guide,  then  will  they  both 
fall  into  a  blind  pit."  Long  shall  he  learn  who  is  to  teach, 
and  have  authority  and  obedience,  lest  he  misguide  the  lay- 
folk  with  himself.  That  teacher  has  little  authority,  who  with 
evil  example  makes  void  his  preaching.  He  is  a  great  teacher 
who  preaches  to  men  and  also  sets  them  a  good  example  by 
works.  The  priest  may  not  intercede  for  men,  nor  even  for 
himself,  if  he  lie  under  sins,  and  by  foul  deeds  make  himself 
criminal,  unless  he  first  arise  from  the  recking  dunghill,  and 
with  true  penitence  wash  himself,  that  he  may  with  certainty 
have  calling  to  the  Lord.  God  said  of  teachers  in  his  ser- 
mon, "  He  who  hearcth  you  heareth  me,  and  he  who  de- 
spiseth  you  despiseth  me."  It  is,  therefore,  incumbent  on 
you  that  ye  hear  the  Lord  through  holy  teachers,  who  are  his 
deputies.  They  will  be  fearless,  though  men  despise  them, 
and  will  say  with  the  prophet  to  the  God  of  hosts,  "  I  have 
not  held  silence.  Lord,  concerning  thy  truth,  nor  in  my  heart 
have  I  hidden  thy  righteousness  j  but  they  ever  despised  me 
with  that  saying." 

A  certain  prophet  cried  to  all  judges,  "  Love  righteous- 
ness, ye  who  judge  on  earth  ;  know  your  God  with  goodness 
ever,  and  with  simplicity  of  heart  seek  him  earnestly."  Again, 

HOM.  VOL.   II.  V 


322  LKTANIA  MAIORE. 

georne."  Eft,  o-Ser  M'itega  be  ^am  ylcan  cwee^,  "  Ge  manna 
beam,  dema-S  rihtlice."  Eac  lire  Drihtcn  on  his  godspelle 
cwse^,  "  Bee's  miklheorte,  swa  swa  eower  Fteder  is.  Eovv 
bi^  anieten  swa  swa  ge  amjeton,  on  ■Sam  ylcan  gemete  ^e  ge 
mannum  do^."  lacobus  se  apostol  be  ^an  ylcan  saede,  "  Se 
•Se  dom  geset  buton  niildiieortnysse,  him  biS  eft  gedemed 
buton  mildheortnysse."  Isaias  manaS  eac  manna  deman, 
*'  HelpaS  ofsettum,  and  steop-cildnm  demaS  ;  beweria^  wy- 
dewan  wi"5  wselhreawum  eliterum,  and  SreagaS  me  siSiSan. 
pis  stiede  Diihten,  and  gif  eowere  synna  wseron  wolcn-rcade 
aer  "San,  hi  beoS  scincnde  on  snawesh  wTtnysse.  Gif  ge  me 
gehyraS,  ge  etaS  ]>apre  eorSan  gnd  ;  gif  ge  me  geyrsia'S,  eow 
fornim^  min  s\\urd.  W;i  Sam  "Se  talaS,  mid  treowlcasum 
mode,  yfel  to  godc,  and  god  to  yfele  ;  ]>eostru  to  leohte,  and 
leoht  to  •Seostrum.  Wd  San  Se  Strang  bi^  to  swiSlicum 
drencum  and  to  gemencgenne  Sa  micclan  drunccnnysse. 
Swilce  gerihtwisiaS  j'one  arlcasan  for  sceattum,  and  J>am  riht- 
wisum  fetbrcdaS  his  rihtwisnysse  swa.  ForSi  hi  fornimS 
helle  fyr  swa  swa  ceaf,  and  heora  wyrtruma  biS  swa  swa 
windige  ysla."  Eft  cwfeS  Salomon  be  swilcum  gedwolum, 
"  III  blissiaS  on  yfelnysse  and  on  arleasum  da^dum,  and  In 
slaep  ne  iindcrfoS,  buton  lit  yfel  gefremmon.  And  rihtwisra 
siSftet  is  swilce  scinende  leoht,  and  weaxende  symle  oS  soSre 
fulfremednysse." 

Se  apostol  awrat  be  eawfaestum  werum,  "  LufiaS,  ge  weras, 
eowere  wif  on  eewe  ;  ne  beo  ge  bitcre  him  ungebeorhlice,  and 
healdaS  eowere  aewe,  swa  swa  eow  licaS  }>cet  eowere  m  if  heald- 
on  hi  wis  forligre  :  paet  j^aet  se  wer  gewTtnaS  on  eawbraccum 
wife,  j?8et  gewitnaS  Drihten  on  eawbraecum  were.  Wif  sceo- 
lon  gehyrsumian  heora  werum  gedafenlice,  and  hi  symle 
arwur^ian  swa  swa  agene  hlafordas."  Ure  Drihten  forbead 
mid  his  agenum  muSe  ^a  yfelan  twaeinincge  betwux  twam 
sewum  ^us  :  "  Swa  hwa  swa  his  aewe  forlset,  and  o"Ser  genim"S, 
he  bi^  jjonne  eawbrfBce  and  eac  forligr."  Eac  se  "Se  wifa^  on 
■Sam  forlsetenum  wife,  bi^  unriht-haemeregehaten  fram  Gode. 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  323 

another  prophet  said  on  the  same  subject,  "  Ye  children  of 
men,  judge  rightly."  Our  Lord  also  in  his  gospel  said,  "  Be 
merciful  as  your  Father  is.  To  you  shall  be  measured  as  ye 
have  measured,  by  the  same  measure  which  ye  give  to  men." 
James  the  apostle  said  on  the  same,  "  He  who  passeth  judge- 
ment without  mercy  shall  afterwards  be  judged  without 
mercy."  Isaiah  also  exhorts  the  judges  of  men,  '*  Help  the 
oppressed,  and  judge  step-children  ;  defend  the  widow  against 
cruel  persecutors,  and  rebuke  me  afterwards.  This  said  the 
Lord,  and  if  your  sins  before  were  scarlet,  they  shall  be 
shining  with  the  whiteness  of  snow.  If  ye  obey  me,  ye  shall 
eat  the  good  of  the  earth  ;  if  ye  anger  me,  my  sword  shall 
consume  you.  Wo  to  them  that  with  truthless  mind  account 
evil  as  good,  and  good  as  evil  ;  darkness  as  light,  and  light 
as  darkness.  Wo  to  those  that  are  strong  to  powerful  drinks 
and  to  mingle  great  drunkenness.  Such  justify  the  impious 
for  treasures,  and  from  the  righteous  so  take  away  his  righte- 
ousness. Therefore  shall  the  fire  of  hell  consume  them  as 
chatT,  and  their  root  shall  be  as  windy  ashes."  Again,  Solo- 
mon said  of  such  heretics,  "  They  rejoice  in  evil  and  in 
wicked  deeds,  and  they  take  not  sleep,  unless  they  have  per- 
petrated evil.  And  the  way  of  the  righteous  is  as  it  were  a 
shining  light,  and  ev.r  waxing  unto  true  perfection." 

The  apostle  wrote  of  married  men,  "  Ye  husbands,  love  your 
lawful  wives  ;  be  not  bitter  towards  them  unreasonably,  and 
hold  to  your  marriage,  as  it  is  pleasing  to  you  that  your 
wives  hold  themselves  against  adultery  :  that  which  the  hus- 
band punisheth  in  an  adulterous  wife,  that  the  Lord  punisheth 
in  an  adulterous  husband.  W^ives  should  fittingly  obey  their 
husbands,  and  always  honour  them  as  their  own  lords."  Our 
Lord  with  his  own  mouth  forbade  evil  separation  between  two 
married  persons,  thus :  "  Whosoever  forsaketh  his  lawful 
wife  and  taketh  another,  committcth  adultery  and  also  forni- 
cation."    Also  he  who  marries  the  forsaken  wife  is  called  an 

Y  2 


324  LETANIA  MAI  ORE. 

Eft,  gif  uTf  awyrpS  hire  agenne  wer,  and  o"Serne  gecyst,  heo 
bi^  so^  eawbrpece ;  ac  gif  hi  sene  togaS,  hi  sceolon  eft  ge- 
gadrian,  oS^e  si^San  wunian  symle  buton  hsemede.  Tw^e- 
ming  is  alyfed  )?ani  "Se  lufia"5  swi^or  "Sa  healican  claennysse 
|)onne  ^a  liohfullan  gahiysse.  Eac  hi  magon  on  sinscipe  hi 
sylfe  bedyglian,  and  heemed  forgan,  gif  him  swa  God  ge- 
wissa^.  God  so^lice  fordem^  pa  dyrnan  forlTras,  and  ^a  un- 
riht-hfeineras  on  helle  fordeS,  buton  hi  eer  geendunge  heora 
yfel  gebcton. 

Ne  gesceop  se  ^hiiihtiga  God  men  for  galnysse,  ac  )?apt  hi 
gestrynon  mid  gesceade  hcora  team,  and  eft  on  heora  ylde 
mid  ealle  p«t  forlteton,  Sonne  ^ass  vvifes  inno^  unwfestmbaere 
bi^  gehtefd.  God  forgcaf  gescead  menniscum  gesceafte,  and 
ungesceadwisum  nytcnum  asetne  timan,  jnet  men  sceoldon 
lybban  hcora  lif  mid  gesceade,  swa  swa  ^a  claenan  nytenu 
cepaS  lieora  timan.  Se  mann  is  gesceapen  to  his  Scyppendes 
anlicnysse,  and  soMice  Sa  nytenu  sindon  sawullcase.  Nu 
bi^  mannum  sceamu  jj^t  hi  mislybban  sceolon,  and  Sa  nytenu 
healdaS  heora  gesctnysse.  Ne  sfew^  nan  yrSling  ^enne  wcer 
ttiwa,  ne  nan  wer  ne  sceal  his  wife  gcneahecan  siSSan  heo 
mid  bcarnc  sw.'prlice  gcbunden  gceS,  "Se-lfes  <Se  hi  amyrron 
heora  gemaene  cild.  pis  is  swiSe  hefigtyme  eow  to  gehy- 
renne ;  gif  we  hit  forsuwian  dorston.  ne  stede  we  hit  eow. 

Se  "Seoda  lareow  la'rde  manna  beam,  J>tet  hi  gehyrsume 
beon  heora  ffederum  a  ;  and  5am  faederum  behead,  ]?iet  hi 
heora  beam  ne  gewbiligdon,  ]>iet  hi  ne  wurdon  gewaehte  ^urh 
wacmodnysse.  Eft,  is  awriten  on  oc>re  stowe,  "  Arwur^a 
•Sinne  faeder  and  eac  "Sine  moder ;  and  se  "Se  faeder  o^Se  modor 
manlice  wyrig^,  he  sceal  deabe  sweltan.  pis  saede  Drihten." 
Godes  wisdom  Siede,  )?urh  Salomones  mu5,  "  Styr  binum 
cilde,  and  sleh  hit  mid  gyrde,  and  ^u  swa  alyst  his  savvle  frara 
deaSe.  Se  "Se  spara^  his  gyrde,  he  hata^  his  cild ;  and  se  ^e 
hit  lufa^,  he  laer^  hit  anraedlice."  Cildru  behofia^  swiSlicere 
steore  and  godre  gymene  to  godum  beawum,  ]?8et  se  wisdom 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  326 

adulterer  by  God.  Again,  if  a  wife  casts  off  her  own  husband, 
and  chooses  another,  she  is  a  true  adultress  ;  but  if  they  part 
jointly,  they  shall  come  together  again,  or  afterwards  ever 
continue  without  intercourse.  Separation  is  allowed  to  tiiose 
who  love  exalted  chastity  more  than  anxious  lust.  They  may 
also  conceal  themselves  by  wedlock,  and  forgo  intercourse,  if 
God  so  direct  them.  But  God  condemns  secret  fornicators, 
and  fordoes  adulterers  in  hell,  unless,  before  their  end,  tliey 
atone  for  their  evil. 

The  Almiglity  God  created  not  men  for  lust,  but  that  tliey 
migiit  with  discretion  beget  their  family,  and  afterwards,  in 
their  age,  wholly  cease  therefrom,  wlien  the  woman's  womb 
is  considered  unfruitful.  God  gave  reason  to  the  human 
creation,  and  to  the  irrational  aninuils  a  fixed  time,  that  men 
might  live  their  life  with  reason,  as  the  pure  animals  ob- 
serve their  times.  Man  is  created  in  his  Creator's  likenes.s, 
and  verily  the  beasts  are  soulless.  Now  it  is  a  shame  to  men 
that  they  should  mislive,  and  the  beasts  observe  their  esta- 
blished law.  No  husbandman  sows  one  field  twice,  nor 
sliould  any  man  approach  his  wife,  after  she  goes  heavily 
bound  with  child,  lest  they  destroy  their  common  offspring. 
This  is  very  wearisome  for  you  to  hear  ;  if  we  had  dared  to 
pass  it  silently,  we  should  not  have  said  it  to  you. 

The  teacher  of  the  gentiles  taught  the  children  of  men,  that 
they  should  ever  be  obedient  to  their  fathers  ;  and  enjoined 
fathers  not  to  provoke  their  children,  that  they  might  not  be 
excited  through  wcakmindcdncss.  Again,  it  is  written  in 
another  place,  "  Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mother;  and  he 
who  wickedly  curselh  father  or  mother  shall  perish  by  death. 
This  said  the  Lord."  God's  wisdom  said,  through  the  mouth 
of  Solomon,  "  Correct  thy  child  and  strike  it  with  the  rod, 
and  thou  so  shalt  redeem  his  soul  from  death.  He  who 
spareth  his  rod  hateth  his  child ;  and  he  who  loveth  it,  teach- 
cth  it  soundly."  Children  require  vigorous  correction  and 
good  heed  to  good  morals,  that  wisdom  may  be  dwelling  in 


326  LETAxNIA  MAIORE. 

mage  on  him  wunigende  beon,  se^e  nele  wunian  on  yfel-wyl- 
lende  sawle,  ne  eac  on  "Sam  lichaman  ^e  liS  under  synnum. 
Se  wisdom  is  halig,  and  hine  sylfne  aetbret  fram  modes  hiw- 
unge  and  myndleasum  ge^ohtum.  Rilitwis  vvaes  Eli,  and 
he  forwearS  swa-^eah  for  his  bearna  synnum,  ba  begen  svvul- 
ton  under  svveordes  ecge  for  hcora  synlicum  daHhmi,  and 
heora  feeder  feoll,  foredum  swyran,  on  <5am  ylcan  dffige, 
]?urh  Drihtnes  wrace,  forSan  ^e  he  ne  stj'rde  heora  stunt- 
nysse  fler.  Be  sumum  cilde  we  raeda^,  J?e  w;es  rcceleaslice 
afedd.  Hit  wolde  M'yrian  wa^lhrcawlice  Drihten  ;  and  se 
fiedcr  ne  roiite  his  rcceleasnysse.  pa  set  nextan  comon 
cwehiibjere  deoflu  swutcUicc  geseweno,  on  sweartum  hiwe, 
in  to  <Sam  ciUle,  and  iiit  sona  hrynide,  "  Fteder  niin,  fiedcr 
min,  me  niniaS  Jias  deoflu;"  and  behydde  his  heafod  on  his 
fffider  bosnie,  and  wyrigde  Drihten,  and  svva  gewat  sona  mid 
Jnim  sweartum  deoflum,  forscyldgod  to  hclle.  Dacild  I5e  bcoJS 
syfcrlice  afeddc,  and  wie>  unJSeawum  caUunge  gestyrede,  hi 
geJSeo^  Gode,  swa  swa  God  sylf  gecwaeb,  SaSa  he  bletsodc 
"Sa  gcbrohtan  cild,  and  siede  his  gyngruni,  "  S\^■ilcra  is  Godes 
rice. 

peowemen  manode  eac  se  maera  apostol,  )?us  to-clypigcnde, 
"  Eala  ge  Seowan,  beob  geliyrsume  eowerum  hlafordum  ; 
swa  hwjet  swa  ge  wyrcaS,  wyrcaJS  mid  mode,  swa  swa  Gode 
sylfum,  and  he  syl<S  eow  mede.  Ne  Seowigc  ge  to  ansyne,  ac 
mid  liufealdrc  heortan,  ne  swilce  beforan  mannum,  ac  mid 
Godes  ogan."  pa  hlafordas  he  manode  J»aet  hi  milde  waeron 
heora  "Scowum  mannum  mid  j^aeslicnyssc.  Se  hlaford  and  se 
■(Seowa  gelTce  clypiaS  to  Sam  Heofonlican  Feeder  on  lieora  Pat. 
nre.  Begen  hi  sind  men  on  middanearde  acennede,  and  hi 
habbaS  set  Gode  swa  hu  swa  hi  geearnia^.  JE\c  Seowt  bi^ 
geendod  on  ^isum  andwcardan  life,  butoii  ^aera  anra  ]>e  syn- 
num "SeowiaS,  hi  habbaS  ecne  ^eowt,  and  "Sa  oSre  beoS  frige, 
Seah  "Se  hi  on  life  lange  ler  ^eowdon. 

Eft,  se  Seoda  lareow  laerde  ^a  rican,  }>jet  hi  hi  ne  onhebbon 
on  healicere  modignysse,  ne  hcora  hiht  ne  beset  ton  on  ^am 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  327 

them,  which  will  not  dwell  in  a  soul  desirous  of  evil,  nor  also 
in  the  body  which  lieth  under  sins.  Wisdom  is  holy,  and 
withdraws  itself  from  simulation  of  mind,  and  from  senseless 
thoughts.  Eli  was  righteous,  and  he,  nevertheless,  perished 
for  his  children's  sins,  who  both  died  under  tlie  edge  of  the 
sword  for  their  sinful  deeds,  and  their  father  fell,  and  brake 
his  neck  on  the  same  day,  through  the  Lord's  vengeance, 
because  he  had  not  before  corrected  tlieir  foolishness.  We 
read  of  a  child  that  was  recklessly  nurtured.  It  would  cruelly 
curse  the  Lord  ;  and  the  father  recked  not  of  its  recklessness. 
At  last  came  deadly  devils  manifestly  seen,  of  black  aspect, 
in  to  the  child,  and  it  forthwith  cried,  "  My  father,  my  father, 
these  devils  are  taking  me;"  and  hid  its  head  in  its  father's 
bosom,  and  cursed  the  Lord,  and  so  forthwith  departed  with 
the  swart  devils,  condemned  to  hell.  Those  children  that  are 
prudently  nurtured,  and  thoroughly  corrected  against  vices, 
thrive  to  God,  as  God  himself  said,  when  he  blessed  the  chil- 
dren brought  to  him,  and  said  to  his  disciples,  "  Of  such  is 
the  kingdom  of  God." 

The  great  apostle  also  exhorted  serving-men,  thus  address- 
ing them,  "  O  ye  servants,  be  obedient  to  your  nuisters  ; 
whatsoever  ye  do,  do  with  heart,  as  for  God  himself,  and  he 
will  give  you  meed.  Serve  not  for  appearance,  but  with 
simple  heart,  not  as  it  were  before  men,  but  with  awe  of 
God."  Masters  he  exhorted  to  be  mild  to  their  serving- men 
with  reasonableness.  The  master  and  the  servant  call  alike 
to  the  Heavenly  Father  in  their  Pater  noster.  They  are  both 
men  born  in  the  world,  and  they  will  have  from  God  MJiatso- 
ever  they  shall  have  merited.  Every  servitude  will  be  ended 
in  this  present  life,  save  of  those  only  who  minister  to  sins, 
they  will  have  everlasting  servitude,  and  the  others  will  be 
/ree,  although  they  in  life  long  before  had  served. 

Again,  the  teacher  of  the  gentiles  taught  the  rick  not  to 
exalt  themselves  with  lofty  pride,  nor  to  set  their  hope  in 


328  LETANIA  MAIORE. 

swicelum  welum,  ac  hihton  on  God,  |?fera  goda  Syllend.  Fela 
sprsec  se  H.-plend,  and  hefiglice  be  ricum  ;  ac  he  hi  eft  gefre- 
frode,  ^us  f;egre  tihtende  :  "  Sylla^  ^one  ofereacan  eow  to 
sehiies-daedum,  and  efne  ealle  ^ing  eow  beo5  geclaensode. 
Hvvast  frema^  aenigum  men,  ^eah  ^e  he  eahie  middaneard  to 
his  anwealdum  gebige,  gif  he  ana  losa^  ?  " 

Cypmannum  gedafenaS  ]>xt  hi  soSfjestnysse  healdon,  and 
heora  sawla  ne  syllon  5urh  swicole  aSas,  ac  h)fian  heora  Sing 
buton  laSre  forsworcnnysse.  God  soblicc  fordeS  Sa  swicolan 
and  leasan. 

Ealle  we  sceolon  standan  eefter  ^isuni  life  setforan  Cristes 
dom-setle,  J^aet  aelc  ^aer  underfo  swa  hwaet  swa  he  on  licha- 
man  adrcali,  oiSSe  god  oj^J^e  yfel.  Se  ylca  apostol  inanode 
eac  '5a  medenian,  ]uet  hi  beon  gchcaldene  on  heora  bigleofan 
and  scrude.  pearfan  he  Iferde  J^aet  hi  on  lifes  waedlunge  ge- 
"Syidigc  beon,  and  symlc  blissian.  Hi  beo5  ges^elige,  gif  hi 
so5  lufiac),  and  buton  hiwunge  iiini  aiidlyfan  hiddatS.  Gif 
hwa  "(Soarfan  forsihb,  he  tfelS  his  Scyppend.  Be  untrumuni 
mannum  se  iElinihtiga  cwseS,  "  Ic  ^reage  and  swinge  )'a  ^e 
ic  lufige."  Paiilus  se  apostol  eac  be  Sisum  cwse^,  "  Ne 
forgym  Su,  inin  beam,  l^ines  Drihtnes  stcore,  ne  "Su  beo 
gewfeht  |>onne  he  Se  ]?i-ea(S  :  "Sone  ^e  Drihten  lufaS,  }>one  he 
■5rea"5,  and  soSlice  beswingS  aelcne  sunn  "Se  he  underfehS." 
Gif  we  untrunie  beoS,  uton  beon  geSyldige,  swa  swa  se 
eadiga  lob  lis  eallum  bysnode,  be  Sam  is  nu  langsum  on 
"Sisum  lytlum  cwyde  eow  to  gereccenne ;  ac  we  raedaS  |)is  eft. 
Gif  us  ungclimpas  on  aihtum  getimiaS,  p>onne  sceole  we 
niman  geSyld  fefter  lobe,  seSe  ealle  his  a?hta  anes  d<jeges  for- 
leas  ;  ac  he  hsefde  geSyld,  J?us  cweSende  sona,  "  God  forgeaf 
"Sa  sehta,  and  God  hi  eft  setbraed :  sy  his  nama  gebletsod." 
And  forbser  |?us  eaSelice. 

Menigfealde  beoS  |7?es  Metodan  Drihtnes  egsan  and  swingla 
ofer  scyldigum  mannum,  j^aet  Sa  sceortan  witu  Sises  geswinc- 
fullan  lifes  forscyttan  Sa  toweardan,  j'e  naefre  ne  ateoriaS. 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  329 

treacherous  riches,  but  to  hope  in  God,  the  Giver  of  good 
things.  Much  spake  Jesus  and  grievously  concerning  the 
rich  ;  but  he  again  comforted  them,  thus  kindly  inciting  : 
''  Give  your  overplus  in  alms-deeds,  and  lo,  all  things  shall 
be  purified  for  you.  What  doth  it  profit  any  man,  though  he 
bead  all  the  world  to  his  power,  if  he  alone  perish  ?  " 

To  merchants  it  is  fitting  that  they  hold  truth,  and  give 
not  their  souls  through  deceptive  oaths,  but  praise  their 
things  without  hateful  perjury.  Verily  God  will  fordo  the 
cheats  atid  liars. 

We  shall  all  stand  after  this  life  before  the  judgement-seat 
of  Christ,  that  each  nuiy  there  receive  whatsoever  he  may 
have  transacted  in  the  body,  either  good  or  evil.  The  same 
apostle  exhorted  also  those  of  middling  condition  to  be  frugal 
in  their  diet  and  clothing.  The  poor  he  taught  to  be  patient 
in  the  indigence  of  life,  and  ever  to  rejoice.  They  will  be 
happy,  if  they  love  truth,  and  without  hypocrisy  pray  to  liiin 
for  sustenance.  If  any  one  despises  the  poor,  he  calumniates 
his  Creator.  Of  bick  men  the  Almighty  said,  "  I  chastise 
and  scourge  those  whom  I  love."  Paid  the  apostle  said  also 
of  these,  "  Be  not  heedless,  my  child,  of  thy  Lord's  correc- 
tion, nor  be  thou  vexed  when  he  chastiseth  thee  :  whom  the 
Lord  loveth,  him  he  chastiseth,  and  verily  scourgeth  every 
son  that  he  receiveth."  If  we  are  sick,  let  us  be  patient,  as 
the  blessed  Job  has  given  an  example  to  us  all,  of  which  it  is 
now  longsome  in  this  little  discourse  to  recount  to  you  ;  but 
Me  will  read  this  afterwards.  If  misfortunes  betide  us  in  our 
possessions,  then  should  we  take  patience  after  Job,  who  lost 
all  his  possessions  in  one  day  ;  but  he  had  patience,  thus  say- 
ing forthwith,  "  God  gave  the  possessions,  and  God  hath 
taken  them  away:  be  his  name  blessed."  And  thus  suffered 
easily. 

Manifold  are  the  Lord  Creator's  terrors  and  scourges  over 
guilty  men,  that  the  short  punishments  of  this  painful  life 
may  prevent    those  to   come,   which    will   never  fail.     The 


330  LETANIA  MAIORE. 

Se  ^Imihtiga  God  cyS  his  godnysse  us,  and  hwiloii  us  ge- 
olaeh^,  and  hwilon  eac  beswing^.  Naere  nan  tihting,  gif  he  us 
ne  olaehte ;  naere  nan  rihting,  gif  he  us  ne  Sreade.  Se  "Se  God 
lierian  wille  on  his  healicum  wcl-df-eduui,  herige  eac  hine  on 
edleane  and  on  egesUcum  swinghini.  Manega  tacna  and 
niicele  yrmSa  becuma^  on  middanearde  ofer  manna  bearnum, 
maran  and  maran  oS  J>am  gemaenan  ende.  Se  be  aefre  ^urh- 
vvimaS  on  anrajdum  geleafan,  se  bilS  geheaklcn,  swa  swa  se 
Ilwlend  sfpde.  He  het  us  eac  beon  on  gebedum  \vacole, 
gelomlice  us  biddendc  mid  bcaldum  geleafan,  j^aet  we  moton 
forfleon  ^a  toweardan  frecednyssc,  and  stiindan  on  gesihSe 
his  soSan  menniscnysse.  Micel  magon  gebcdu  mamium 
fremian,  be  Sam  spraec  se  pistol  tet  Syssere  niHRssan  :  past  we 
sceolon  andcttan  ure  syima  gelome,  and  aelc  for  oSerne  ge- 
biddan,  ]>iBt  we  beon  gcheahlcnc.  Ilclias  se  witega  waes  us 
mannuni  gelic,  "iSrowicndHc  swa  swa  we,  and  he  swa-5eah 
abwd  jjffit  ren  wfes  forwyrned  5am  wiSerwcardum  folcc  to 
Sreora  gcara  fyrste,  and  syx  monSa  fiece.  He  abad  eft  si5- 
'ban  set  Sam  so  San  Gode,  pa^t  he  renas  forgeaf,  and  eor  Slice 
vvaestmas.  Gif  hwilc  man  gcbigS  oSerne  frani  gedwylde,  he 
alyst  his  sawle  soSlice  fram  deaSe,  and  fela  synna  adylcgaS 
purh  ^ffis  gcdwolan  rihtinge.  pis  is  sceortlice  gescJed  :  uton 
secgan  word  gyt. 

Se  ^eoda  lareovv  s;ede  mancynne,  )'wt  dyrne  forligcras  o^Se 
deofolgyldan,  scea^an  and  reaferas,  oSSe  reSe  manslagan,  gyt- 
seras  and  drinceras,  J?e  dollice  lybbaS,  nabbaS  Godes  rice  on 
rodorlicere  heofonan.  Eac  swylce  drymen,  )/e  mid  dydrunge 
faraS,  and  feondlice  wiccan  and  o<Sre  wigeleras,  beo^  to  helle 
bescofene  for  heora  scincreeftum.  Oft  us  men  secga^  J'set  hi 
unsynnige  beon,  "Seah  ^e  hi  leohtlice  mettas  him  on  mti^ 
bestingon,  on  swilcum  fjesten-dagum  mid  friecere  gyfernysse, 
and  nellaS  understandan  hu  Adam  us  forpaerde  "Surh  anes 
{epples  Sigene  ]>e  he  set  forboden.  Nis  nan  man  fsestende  }?e 
underfeh^  mid  niu^e  feniges  gesceaftes  sffi  oS^e  eorSan,  ac 
Sa  beoS  scyldige  ^e  5a  gesetnysse  tobrecaS  ]>iere  halgan  gela- 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.  331 

Almighty  God  manifests  his  goodness  to  us,  and  sometimes 
caresses  us,  and  sometimes  also  scourges.  There  would  be 
no  excitement,  if  he  caressed  us  not ;  tlierc  would  be  no  cor- 
rection, if  he  chastised  us  not.  He  who  will  praise  God  for 
his  noble  benefits,  let  him  also  praise  him  in  retribution  and 
in  terrific  chastisements.  Many  sii^ns  and  many  miseries  will 
come  in  the  world  over  the  children  of  men,  greater  and 
greater  until  the  general  em].  He  who  ever  continues  in 
steadfast  belief  shall  be  saved,  as  Jesus  said.  He  conunanded 
us  also  to  be  watchful  in  prayers,  fretpiently  praying  with 
bold  faith,  that  we  may  escape  from  future  peril,  and  stand  in 
sight  of  liis  true  humanity.  Much  can  prayers  profit  men,  of 
which  the  epistle  at  this  nuiss  spake  :  That  we  should  fre- 
(juently  confess  our  sins,  and  each  pray  for  other,  that  we 
may  be  saved.  Elijah  tlie  prophet  was  like  to  us  men,  pas- 
sible as  we,  and  he,  nevertheless,  obtained  by  prayer  that  rain 
was  denied  to  the  perverse  people  for  a  space  of  three  years 
and  six  months.  He  obtained  afterwards  b\-  prayer  from  the 
true  God,  that  he  gave  rains  and  earthly  fruits.  If  any  man 
turn  another  from  error,  he  truly  redeems  his  soul  from 
death,  and  blots  out  many  sins  by  the  correction  i)i  the 
heretic.     This  is  shortly  said  :  let  us  say  a  word  yet. 

The  teacher  of  the  gentiles  said  to  mankind,  tiuit  adulterers 
or  idolaters,  thieves  and  robbers,  or  cruel  murderers,  covetous 
men  and  drunkards,  who  foolishly  live,  shall  not  possess 
God's  kingdom  in  the  ethereal  heaven.  In  like  manner 
wizards,  who  go  about  with  illusion,  and  odious  witcncs  and 
other  sorcerers,  sliall  be  thrust  into  hell  for  their  magic  arts. 
Men  often  say  to  us  that  they  are  sinless,  though  the\-  lightly 
put  meats  into  their  mouth  on  such  fast-days  with  shameless 
greediness,  and  will  not  understand  how  Adam  ruined  us  by 
the  eating  of  one  apple,  which  he  ate  forbidden.  No  man  is 
fasting  who  receives  in  his  n)outh  any  creature  of  sea  or  of 
earth,  but  they  are  guilty  who  break  the  institute  of  the  holy 


332  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

"Suiige  mid  unalyfedre  "Sigenej  and  fyllaS  heora  wambe  fra- 
codlice  ^r  timan. 

Uton  we  geearnian  ]?jet  ece  lif  mid  Gode,  Surh  geswicen- 
ysse  yfeles,  and  ^urh  fremminge  godes :  jjaes  us  getiSige  se 
^Imihtiga  Wealdend,  seSe  a  rixaS  on  ecnysse.     Amen. 


ITEM. 
IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

MEN  "Sa  leofostan,  Paulus  se  Apostol,  ealra  "Seoda  lareow, 
awrat  be  him  sylfuni  j^set  he  wfere  gola?dd  up  to  heofonum, 
o^jJa?t  he  becom  to  Saere  JSriddan  heofoiian  ;  and  lie  waes 
geh'ed  to  ncorxiia-wangc,  and  ])ier  '5a  gastlican  dygehiysse 
gchyrdc  and  gcseah  ;  ac  he  ne  cydde  na  eorcilicum  mauiuun, 
"Sa^a  he  ongcan  com,  h\v?et  he  gehyrde  o5Se  gesawe,  ISisuni 
wordum  writende  be  him  sylfum  :  "  Scio  hominem  in  Christo, 
ante  annos  (luatuordcccm,  raptum  usque  ad  tertium  ccelum  ; 
et  iterum  quomodo  raptus  est  in  paradisum,  et  audiuit  archana 
uerba,  qufe  non  licet  homini  loqui."  past  is  on  Englisc,  "  Ic 
wat  "Sone  mann  on  Criste,  pe  waes  gegripen  nu  for  feowertyne 
gcarum,  and  gehed  oS  «Sa  ])riddan  heofenan  ;  and  eft  he  wfes 
gelffid  to  neorxna-wange,  and  Saer  gehyrde  ^a  digehm  word 
]?e  nan  eorSlic  mann  sprecan  ne  mot." 

Humeta  rfeda^  sume  men  'Sa  Icasan  gesetnysse,  "Se  hi  hatacS 
Paulus  gesihSe,  nu  he  sylfe  saede  |?aet  he  ^a  digelan  word  ge- 
hyrde, ]>e  nan  eor^lic  mann  sprecan  ne  mot  ? 

We  w}dla^  nu  eow  gereccan  oSres  mannes  gesihSe,  ^e 
unleas  is,  nu  se  apostol  Paulus  his  gesih^e  mannum  ameldian 
ne  moste. 

Sum  Scyttisc  preost  wjes,  gehaten  Furseus,  ae^elboren  for 
worulde,  arwur^es  lifes,  and  gelyfed  swi^e.  He  wees  fram 
cildhade  gelsered,  on  claeimysse  wunigende,  estful  on  mode, 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  333 

church  by  unallowed  eating,  and  wickedly  fill  their  belly  be- 
fore the  time. 

Let  us  merit  the  everlasting  life  with  God,  by  cessation 
from  evil  and  by  performance  of  good  :  may  the  Almighty 
Ruler  grant  us  this  who  ever  reigncth  to  eternity.     Amen. 


ITEM. 
ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY. 

MEN  most  beloved,  Paul  the  Apostle,  the  teacher  of  all  the 
gentiles,  wrote  concerning  himself  tiiat  he  was  led  up  to  the 
heavens,  until  he  came  to  the  third  heaven  ;  and  he  was  led 
to  paradise,  and  there  heard  and  saw  the  ghostly  secrets  ;  but 
he  did  not  make  known  to  earthly  men,  when  he  came  back, 
what  he  had  heard  or  seen,  writing  of  himself  in  these  words  : 
"  Scio  homincm  in  Christo,  ante  annos  (juatuordccim,  raptum 
usque  ad  tertium  Cd'lum  ;  et  itcrum  quomodo  raptus  est  in 
paradisuin,  et  audivit  arcana  verba,  qu.e  non  licet  homini 
locjui."  That  is  in  English,  "  I  know  a  man  in  Ciirist,  who 
was  snatched  fourteen  years  since,  and  led  unto  the  third 
heaven  ;  and  again  he  was  led  to  paradise,  and  there  heard 
the  secret  words,  which  no  earthly  man  may  speak." 

How  do  some  men  read  the  false  composition,  which  they 
call  the  vision  of  Paul,  when  he  himself  said,  that  he  heard 
Hhe  secret  words,  which  no  earthly  man  may  speak  ? 

We  M  ill  now  recount  to  you  the  vision  of  another  man, 
which  is  true,  since  the  apostle  Paul  might  not  announce  his 
vision  to  men. 

There  was  a  Scottish  priest  named  Furseus,  noble-born  in 
the  world's  estimation,  of  honourable  life,  and  great  faith. 
He  was  learned  from  childhood,  living  in  chastity,  devout  in 


334  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

lufigendlic  on  gesihSe,  and  on  halgum  maegnum  diegluromlice 
^Seonde.  pa  forlet  he  faeder,  and  modor,  and  magas,  and  on 
o^rum  earde  eel^eodig  leornode.  ^"Efter  Sisuni  aenerde  niyn- 
ster,  and  |78et  mid  eawfestum  mannum  gesette.  Eft,  aefter 
fyrste,  getimode  him  untrumnys,  swa  paet  he  wear^  to  forb- 
siSe  gebroht.  pa  genamon  twegen  englas  his  sawle,  and, 
fleogende  mid  hwitum  fySerhanian,  betwux  him  ferodon.  An 
^ridda  engel  fleah  him  tetforan,  gewaepnod  mid  huitum 
scylde  and  sctnendum  swurde.  Da  ^ry  enghis  gelicere 
beorhtnysse  scinende  waeron,  and  Snere  sawle  Munderlice 
wynsumnysse  mid  heora  fitSera  swege  on  belauldon,  and  mid 
heora  sanges  dreame  micclum  geghidodoii.  Hi  sungon, 
"  Ibunt  sancti  de  uirtute  in  uirtutem  ;  uidebitur  Deus  deo- 
I'uni  in  Sion  :"  ));Et  is  on  Englisc,  "  Da  halgan  faraS  fram 
mihte  to  mihtc  ;  caha  goda  God  biS  gesewen  on  Sion."  Da 
gehyrde  he  eft  oSerne  sang  swilce  uncuJSnc,  mancga  cJusenda 
enghi,  (Sus  cwe^ende,  "  Exierunt  obuiam  Christo,"  pa;t  is, 
"  Hi  eodon  togeanes  Cristc." 

Hwiet  '5a,  an  engel  of  ISam  upplicum  wercdum  behead  (Sam 
gewaepnodum  engle  5e  (Sa  sawle  gelaedde,  J^aet  hi  eft  ongean 
hi"  gelaedan  sceoldon  to  San  lichaman  )?e  heo  of-gehed  waes. 
pa  cwae^  se  engel  him  to,  Se  him  on  tia  swiSran  hand  fleah, 
Du  scealt  eft  Sinne  lichaman  underfon,  and  agyfan  Gode  |;inre 
carfulnysse  weorc  and  fremmincge.  Da  cwaeS  se  halga 
Furseus,  ]>spX  he  nolde  his  willes  heora  gefcrraedene  forleetan. 
Se  engel  him  andwyrde,  ^Efter  binre  carfulnysse  godre  frem- 
mincge, we  cumaS  eft  to  "Se,  and  "Se  genimaS  to  us.  Hi  ^a 
sungon,  and  seo  sawul  ne  mihte  undergitan  hu  heo  on  iSone 
lichaman  eft  becom,  for  ^fes  dreames  wynsumnysse.  Da 
betwux  hancrede  laeg  se  halga  wer  ge-edcucod,  mid  roseum 
hiwe  ofergoten,  and  "Sa  licmen  his  neb  j^serrihte  unwrugon. 
Da  befran  Furseus,  hwT  heora  gehlyd  swa  micel  waere,  o^Se 
hwaes  hi  swa  micclum  wnndrodon  ?  Hi  ^a  him  andwyrdon, 
and  saedon,  ]>iet  he  on  aefnunge  gewite,  and  jjset  his  lie  laege 
on  flora  ealle  5a  niht  o^  hancred.     He  ^a  up  gesset,  smea- 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  335 

spirit,  amiable  of  aspect,  and  in  holy  virtues  dailj^  thriving. 
Then  he  forsook  father,  and  mother,  and  relations,  and 
learned,  a  stranger,  in  another  country.  After  this  he  raised 
a  mynster,  and  planted  it  witli  pious  men.  After  a  time 
sickness  befell  him,  so  that  he  was  brought  to  death.  Then 
two  angels  took  his  soul,  and,  flying  with  white  wings,  bore 
him  between  them.  A  third  angel  flew  before  him,  armed 
with  a  white  shield  and  a  shining  sword.  The  three  angels 
were  shining  with  like  brightness,  and  conveyed  to  the  soul 
wondrous  pleasantness  with  the  sound  of  their  wings,  and 
with  the  melody  of  their  song  greatly  gladdened  it.  They 
sung,  "  Ibunt  sancti  de  virtute  in  virtutem  ;  vidchitur  Dens 
dcorum  in  Sion  :"  tliat  is  in  English,  "The  saints  go  from 
virtue  to  virtue;  the  God  of  all  gods  shall  be  seen  in  Sion." 
Then  he  iieard  afterwards  another,  as  it  were,  unknown  song, 
many  thousand  angels  tiius  saying,  *'  Exierunt  obviani 
Christo  :"  tiiat  is,  "  They  went  to  meet  Christ." 

Whereupon  an  angel  of  the  celestial  hosts  commanded  the 
angel  wiio  was  leading  the  soul,  to  lead  it  back  again  to  the 
body  from  which  it  had  been  led.  Then  said  the  angel  to 
him,  wiio  flew  on  his  right  hand,  Thou  shalt  receive  thy  body 
again,  and  give  to  God  the  work  and  efficacy  of  tliy  solicitude. 
Then  said  the  holy  Furseus,  tiiat  he  would  not  voluntarily 
leave  tiieir  society.  The  angel  answered  him,  After  the  good 
efficacy  of  thy  solicitude,  we  will  come  again  to  thee,  and  will 
take  thee  to  us.  They  then  sung,  and  the  soul  could  not 
understand  how  it  again  came  into  the  body,  by  reason  of  the 
pleasantness  of  the  melody.  Then  about  cockcrowing  the 
holy  man  lay  requickened,  suff"used  with  a  rosy  hue,  and  the 
corpse-bearers  straightways  uncovered  his  face.  Furseus 
then  asked,  wiiy  their  noise  was  so  great,  or  at  wiiat  they  so 
greatly  wondered  ?  They  answered  him,  and  said,  that  he 
had  died  in  the  evening,  and  that  his  corpse  had  lain  on  the 
floor  all  night  till  cockcrowing.     He  then  bat  up,  reflecting 


336  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

gende  his  gesih^e,  and  het  hine  huslian,  and  swa  untrum 
leofode  twegen  dagas.  Eft  Sa  on  ^sere  jn-iddan  nihte  middan, 
astrehte  his  handa  on  gebedum,  and  bliSe  gewat  of  'Sisura 
gesvvincfullum  life,  pa  comon  eft  "ba  "Sry  foresc^dan  englas, 
and  hine  geleeddon.  Ilwjet  iSa  comon  iSa  avvirigedan  deoflii 
on  atelicum  hiwe  ^aere  sawle  togeanes,  and  heora  an  cvvaeS, 
Uton  forstandan  hi  foran  mid  gefeohte.  pa  deoflu  feohtende 
scuton  heora  fyrenan  flan  ongean  ^a  sawle,  ac  ^a  deofellican 
flan  wurdon  )7£Errihte  ealle  adwaescte  ]?urh  baes  gewaepnodan 
engles  scyldungc.  pa  englas  cwaedon  to  (Sam  awirigcdum 
gastum,  Hwi  wille  ge  Icttan  ure  siKftet  ?  Nis  ]>es  man  dael- 
inmcnd  coweres  forwyrdes.  Da  wiberwimian  cwsedon,  ])vet 
hit  unrihtlic  w  fere,  J>{fit  se  man  Se  yfel  geSafodc  sceolde  baton 
wite  to  reste  faran,  Sonne  hit  awriten  is,  jjiet  ba  beo^  ealswa 
scyldigc  ]'e  unriht  geJSafiab,  swa  swa  "5a  be  hit  gewyrcaS.  Se 
engel  ^a  feaht  ongean  5am  awyrigdum  gastum  to  5an  swiSe, 
]>8et  ]'am halgan  Mere  wfes ge5uht  ]>;et  ]>ies  gefeohtes  hream  and 
•Sfera  deofla  geiilyd  mihte  beon  gehyred  geond  ealle  eor^an. 

pa  deofla  eft  cwjedon,  Yfele  spelluiige  he  beeode  :  ne  sccal 
he  ungederod  ])aes  ecan  lifes  brucan.  Se  halga  engel  cwaecS, 
Buton  ge  iSa  hcafod-lealitras  him  on  bef;estnian,  ne  sccal  he 
for  bam  laessan  losiaii.  Sc  calda  wregere  cwfeS,  Buton  ge 
forgifoM  mannum  heora  gyltas,  ne  forgif5  se  Heofonlica  Feeder 
eow  eowere  gyltas.  Se  engel  andnyrde,  On  hwam  awrsec 
J7es  man  his  teonan  ?  Se  deofol  cweeS,  Nis  na  awriten  piet  hi 
wrecan  ne  sceolon,  ac,  Buton  ge  forg5'fon  of  eowerum  heortum 
wi"5  eow  agyltendum.  Se  engel  cwae^.  Us  bib  gedemed  aet- 
foran  Gode.  Se  ealda  sceocca  eft  cwsb.  Hit  is  awriten, 
Buton  ge  beon  swa  bilewite  on  unscaebbignysse  swa  swa  cild, 
naebbe  ge  infaer  to  heofenan  rice,  pis  bebod  he  natcshwon 
ne  gefylde.  Se  Godes  engel  hine  beladode,  and  cwae^,  Milt- 
sunge  he  haefde  on  his  heortan,  beah  be  he  manna  gewunan 
heolde.  Se  deofol  andwyrde,  Swa  swa  he  j?8et  yfel  of  ^am 
menniscum  gewunan  underfeng,  underfo  he  eac  swa  J^aet  wite 
fram  "bam  upplican  Deman.     Se  halga  engel  cwseb.  We  beob 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  39/ 

on  his  vision,  and  bade  them  housel  him,  and  thus  sick  lived 
two  days.  Then  again,  on  the  third  midnight,  he  stretched 
forth  his  hands  in  prayer,  and  blithely  departed  from  this  toil- 
some life.  Then  came  again  the  three  aforesaid  angels,  and 
led  him.  Whereupon  came  the  accursed  devils  with  horrid 
aspect  towards  the  soul,  and  one  of  them  said.  Let  us  obstruct 
them  with  battle.  The  devils  then  fighting  shot  their  fiery 
darts  against  the  soul,  but  the  devilish  darts  were  straight- 
ways  all  extinguished  by  the  shielding  of  the  armed  angel. 
The  angels  said  to  the  accursed  spirits,  Why  will  ye  hinder 
our  journey  ?  Tiiis  man  is  not  a  party  to  your  ruin.  The 
adversaries  said  that  it  was  unjust,  that  a  man  who  had  con- 
sented to  evil  should  go  to  rest  without  punishment,  when  it 
is  written,  that  they  are  as  guilty  who  consent  to  wrong  as 
they  who  perpetrate  it.  The  angel  then  fought  against  the 
accursed  spirits  so  vigorously,  that  it  seemed  to  the  holy  man 
that  the  cry  of  the  battle  and  the  noise  of  the  devils  might 
be  heard  over  all  the  earth. 

The  devils  again  said,  Evil  discourse  he  practised :  he  shall 
not  unhurt  enjoy  the  everlasting  life.  The  holy  angel  said, 
Unless  ye  can  fix  on  him  the  deadly  sins,  he  shall  not  perish 
for  the  less.  The  old  accuser  said,  Unless  ye  forgive  men 
their  sins,  the  Heavenly  Father  will  not  forgive  you  your 
sins.  Tiie  angel  answered,  On  whom  has  this  man  avenged 
his  injuries  ?  The  devil  said,  It  is  not  written  that  they  shall 
not  take  vengeance,  but,  Unless  ye  forgive  from  your  hearts 
those  sinning  against  you.  The  angel  said,  We  shall  be 
judged  before  God.  The  old  devil  again  said.  It  is  written, 
Unless  ye  be  as  meek  in  innocence  as  a  child,  ye  will  not 
have  entrance  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  This  command- 
ment he  has  in  no  wise  fulfilled.  The  angel  of  God  absolved 
him,  and  said,  Mercy  he  had  in  his  heart,  though  he  observed 
the  usage  of  men.  The  devil  answered,  As  he  received  that 
evil  from  human  usage,  lot  him  also  so  receive  the  punishment 
from  the  Judge  above.     The   holy  angel  said,  AVe  shall  be 

HOM.  VOL.  II.  Z 


338  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

sRtforan  Gode  gesemde.     pa  wi^erwinnan  wurdoii  "Sa  ofor- 
swiSde,  ]7urh  ^ses  engles  gewinne  and  ware. 

Da  het  se  halga  eiigel  jjone  eadigan  wer  beseon  to  m'ul- 
danearde.  He  "Sa  beheold  uTidcrbfec,  and  geseah  swilce  an 
"Seostorful  dene,  swiSe  ni^erlic ;  and  geseah  (Sier  feower 
orm^te  fyr  atende  :  and  se  engel  cwfeS  him  to,  pas  feower 
fyr  ontenda^  eahic  middaneard,  and  ona^hitS  }>jera  manna  sawla 
\>c  heora  fulluhtes  andctnysse  and  behat  "Surh  forga^gednysse 
awsegdon.  paet  an  fyr  ontent  ]>ffira  manna  sawla  tie  leasungc 
lufedon  ;  ]>xt  oSer  ^ara  'Se  gytsunge  filigdon  ;  paet  Sriddc 
|?fera  ]>e  ceaste  and  twyraednysse  styredon  ;  ]>PRt  feorlSe  fyr 
forb;ern5  |>aera  manna  sawhi  ))e  facn  and  arlcasnysse  beeodon. 
Da  geneahehte  J^jet  fyr  Sam  halgan  were,  and  lie  sona  afyrht 
to  ^an  engle  cwae^,  paet  fyr  gcncahphS  wi5  nun.  Se  engel 
andwyrde,  Ne  byrnS  on  ^e  ))urh  wite,  )»iet  j'fet  "Su  on  life  nc 
onffldest  ^urh  leahtras.  peah  ^e  ]>is  fyr  egeslic  sy  and  micel, 
]>eah-hwa3^ere  hit  onaelS  felcne  be  his  gewyrhtnm.  Swa  swa 
se  lichama  biS  ontend  ^urh  unalyfede  lustas,  swa  eac  byrnS 
aeo  sawul  5urh  neadwis  wite.  Se  gewiJepnode  engel  ^a  flcah 
him  jetforan,  tod;elende  "Sone  lig,  and  ^a  o^re  twegcn  him 
flngon  on  twa  healfa,  and  hine  Mi5  \yvcii  fyres  frecednysse  ge- 
scyldon.  pa  deoflu  'Sa  mid  gefeohte  ongean  ^a  sawle  seuton, 
and  heora  an  to  ^am  englum  cWc'eS,  Se  ^eowa  "Se  wat  his 
hlafordes  willan,  and  ncle  hine  gefrcmman,  sceal  beon  gewit- 
nod  mid  micclum  witum.  Se  halga  engel  befran,  Hwa^t  ne 
gefyldc  |;es  man  his  Ilhifordes  Millan  ?  Se  sceocca  andwyrde, 
Hit  is  awriten,  |?a^t  se  healica  God  hata^  unrihtwisra  gife. 
He  haifde  genumcn  ^lytle  ser  sumne  claS  tet  anum  swyltendum 
men.  pa  cwaeS  se  engel,  He  gelyfde  )>tet  gehwilc  ^e  him 
aenige  gife  sealde,  behreowsunge  on  life  gedyde.  Se  deofol 
andwyrde,  ^rest  he  seeolde  heora  daedbote  afandian,  and 
si^San  heora  sylene  undcrfon.  Se  engel  andwyrde,  Uton 
sceotan  to  Godes  dome.  Se  awyrigeda  gast  andwyrde,  God 
gecwae^,  J^aet  aelc  synn  "Se  neere  ofer  eorSan  gebet,  seeolde 
beon  on  ^issere  wornlde  gedemed.     pes  mann  ne  geelaensode 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  339 

reconciled  before  God.     The  adversaries  were  then  overcome, 
through  the  angel's  fighting  and  caution. 

The  holy  angel  then  bade  the  blessed  man  look  on  the 
world.  He  then  looked  back,  and  saw,  as  it  were,  a  dark 
dell,  very  low  ;  and  saw  there  four  immense  fires  kindled  : 
and  the  angel  said  to  him,  Tiicse  four  fires  will  consume  all 
the  world,  and  burn  the  souls  of  those  men  who  througli 
transgression  have  made  void  the  confession  and  promise  of 
their  baptism.  That  one  fire  will  burn  the  souls  of  those 
men  that  loved  leasing  ;  the  second,  of  those  that  followed 
covetousness  ;  the  third,  of  those  that  stirred  up  strife  and 
discord  ;  the  fourtii  fire  will  burn  the  souls  of  those  men  who 
have  practised  fraud  and  improbity.  The  fire  then  approached 
the  holy  man,  and  he  forthwith  terrified,  said  to  the  angel, 
The  fire  approaclies  me.  The  angel  answered,  That  will  not 
burn  thee  for  a  punishment  which  thou  hast  not  in  life  kindled 
by  sins.  Though  this  fire  is  terrible  and  great,  nevertheless, 
it  burns  every  one  according  to  his  works.  As  the  body  is 
inflamed  by  unallowed  lusts,  so  cilso  burns  the  soul  in  inevi- 
table punishment.  The  armed  angel  then  flew  before  him, 
parting  the  flame,  and  the  other  two  flew  at  his  two  sides,  and 
shielded  him  from  the  peril  of  the  fire.  The  devils  then  in 
fight  shot  towards  the  soul,  and  one  of  them  said  to  the 
angels.  The  servant  who  knows  his  master's  will,  and  will  not 
execute  it,  shall  be  punished  with  great  punishments.  The 
holy  angel  asked,  In  what  has  this  man  not  fulfilled  his 
Master's  will  ?  The  devil  answered,  It  is  written,  that  the 
God  on  high  hateth  the  gift  of  the  unrighteous.  He  had 
taken  a  little  before  a  garment  of  a  dying  man.  Then  said 
the  angel.  He  believed  that  every  one  that  had  given  him  any 
gift,  had  shown  penitence  in  life.  The  devil  answered,  First 
he  should  have  proved  their  repentance,  and  then  received 
their  gift.  The  angel  answered.  Let  us  refer  to  the  judgement 
of  God.  The  accursed  spirit  answered,  God  said,  that  every 
sin  that  was  not  atoned  for  on  earth,  should  be  judged  in  this 

z  2 


340  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

his  synna  on  eorSan,  ne  her  nan  wite  ne  underfeht? :  hwfler  is 
nu  Godes  rihtwisnys  ?  Se  engel  hi  Sreade,  and  cwfeS,  Ne 
taele  ge  to  dyrstelice,  for^an  ^e  ge  nyton  Godes  digelan  domas. 
Se  deofol  andwyrde,  Hwfet  is  her  bedigclod  ?  Se  engel  cvvae^, 
JEire  bib  Godes  mildheortnys  mid  J?ani  men,  |?a  hwile  "Se  "Saer 
bi^  gevvened  genig  behreowsung.  Se  deofol  andwyrde,  Nis 
nu  his  tima  to  behreowsienne,  on  ^yssere  stowe.  Se  engel 
andwyrde,  Nyte  ge  Sa  micclan  deopnysse  Godes  gerynu  ? 
Weald  ]?eah  him  beo  alyfed  gyt  behreowsung.  pa  cw;eS  sum 
oiSer  deofol,  Hit  is  awriten,  Lufa  'Sinne  nextan  swa  swa  Se 
sylfne.  Se  engel  andwyrde,  pes  wer  dydc  god  his  nextan. 
Se  wiSerwinna  andwyrde,  Nis  na  genoh  ]>i&t  man  his  nextan 
god  do,  buton  he  bine  lufige  swa  swa  bine  sylfne.  Se  halga 
engel  andwyrde,  pa  godan  d;eda  sind  geswutchuiga  Saire 
soSan  lufe,  and  God  forgylt  alcum  men  be  his  da^dum. 
Hwaet  se  deofol  t»a  mid  hospe  cw;c5,  pes  mann  behet  )?aet 
he  wolde  eallc  woruld-Sing  forlaetan,  and  he  siSSan  lufode 
woruld-  Sing  ongean  his  agen  behiit,  and  ongean  \hbs  apostoles 
bebode,  j^e  cwaeS,  Ne  lufige  ge  ^isne  middancard,  ne  ^a  Sing 
•Se  on  middanearde  sind.  Se  halga  engel  andwyrde,  Ne  lufode 
he  woruldliee  iehta  for  his  neode  ana,  ac  toda^lenne  eallum 
waidliendum.  Se  ealda  wregere  eft  cwaeS,  Hit  is  awriten, 
Buton  pu  gcstande  Sone  unrihtwisan,  and  him  his  unrihtwis- 
nysse  secgc,  ic  ofga  his  blodes  gyte  iet  Sinum  handum.  pes 
mann  nolde  cy  San  -Sam  syngigendum  heora  synna.  Se  engel 
cwae^.  Hit  is  awriten  be  ^am  yfelum  timan,  }?aet  se  snotera 
sceal  suwian,  ^onne  he  gesihS  J78et  seo  bodung  naefS  najnne 
forSgang. 

On  eallum  ^isum  geflitum  waes  -Stera  deofla  gefeoht  swiSe 
sti^lic  ongean  -Sa  sawle  and  "Sa  halgan  englas,  oS)?ret  ^urh 
Godes  dom  Sa  wi^erwinnan  wurdon  gescynde,  and  se  halga 
wer  •<Sa  wearS  mid  ormaetum  leohte  befangen.  pa  beseah  he 
up,  and  geseah  fela  engla  werod  on  micelre  beorhtnysse  sei- 
nende,  and  "Seera  halgena  sawla  wiS  his  fleogende  mid  unasec- 
gendlicum  leohte,  and  afligdon  ^a  deoflu  him  fram,  and  j^aes 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  341 

world.  This  man  cleansed  not  his  sins  on  earth,  nor  here 
receives  he  any  piiiiishmpnt  :  where  now  is  God's  justice  ? 
The  angel  rebuked  them,  and  said,  Blame  not  too  presumptu- 
ously, for  ye  know  not  God's  secret  judgements.  The  devil 
answered,  What  is  here  secret  ?  The  angel  said.  Ever  will 
God's  mercy  be  with  a  man,  while  there  is  any  penitence 
hoped  for.  The  devil  answered,  It  is  not  now  his  time  1o 
repent,  in  this  place.  The  angel  answered.  Know  ye  not  the 
great  deepness  of  God's  mysteries  ?  Repentance  may  yet  be 
allowed  him.  Tlien  said  another  devil,  It  is  written.  Love 
thy  neiglibour  as  thyself.  The  angel  answered.  This  man  did 
good  to  his  neighbour.  The  adversary  answered.  It  is  not 
enough  that  a  man  do  good  to  his  neighbour,  unless  he  love 
him  as  himself.  The  holy  angel  answered.  Good  deeds  are  a 
manifestation  of  true  love,  and  God  requites  every  man  ac- 
cording to  his  deeds.  Whereupon  the  devil  said  tauntingly, 
This  man  promised  that  he  would  forsake  all  worldly  things, 
and  he  afterwards  loved  worldly  things  against  his  own  pro- 
mise, and  against  the  apostle's  command,  who  said,  Love  not 
this  world,  nor  the  things  which  are  in  the  world.  The  holy 
angel  answered,  lie  loved  not  worldly  possessions  for  his 
need  alone,  but  to  distribute  to  all  the  poor.  The  old  accuser 
again  said.  It  is  MTitten,  Unless  thou  correct  the  unrighteous, 
and  say  unto  him  his  unrighteousness,  I  will  rccpiirc  his 
bloodshed  at  thy  hands.  This  man  would  not  make  known 
to  the  sinning  their  sins.  The  angel  said,  It  is  written  of  the 
evil  time,  that  the  wise  shall  be  silent,  when  he  sees  that 
his  preaching  hath  no  success. 

In  all  these  disputes  the  fighting  of  the  devils  was  very 
obstinate  against  the  soul  and  the  holy  angels,  until,  through 
God's  doom,  the  adversaries  were  confounded,  and  the  holy 
man  was  then  invested  with  an  immense  light.  lie  then 
looked  up,  and  saw  a  host  of  many  angels  shining  with 
great  brightness,  and  the  souls  of  the  holy  flying  towards  him 
with  indescribable  light,  and  put  the  devils  to  flight  from 


■\ 


342  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

fyres  ogan  him  fram  adydon.  pa  gecneow  he  betwux  'Sam 
halgum  twegen  arwur^e  sacerdas,  ]>e  ffir  on  life  waeron  his 
landes  menu  swi^e  namcu^e.  Hi  ^a  genealffihton,  and  him 
cuSlice  to  sprjecon.  An  ^aera  hatte  Beanus,  o^er  Meldanus. 
pa  wear^  "Sa  geworden  micel  smyltnys  'Ssere  heofenan,  and 
twegen  englas  flugon  swilce  ^urh  anre  duna  in  to  "Saere  heo- 
fenan, and  ^a  sloh  ISaer  micel  leoht  utaefter^am  englum,  and 
Wfes  gehyred  feower  engla  weroda  sang,  ^us  cweSende, 
"  Sanctus,  sanctus,  sanctus  Dominus  Deus  sabaoth."  Da 
Bffide  se  engel  ^am  eadigan  were,  j^aet  se  dream  Wc-ere  of  ^am 
uppllcum  werode,  and  hct  hine  geornej'ws  hcofonlican  sanges 
hlystan,  and  cwieb,  SoSiice  on  Sisum  heofenlicum  rice  nc 
becymS  ntefre  unrotnys  buton  for  manna  lyre. 

Eft  ■Sa  conion  fleogende  of  "Saerc  hcofcnlican  digelnysse 

englas,  and  cyddon  |>a>t  he  sceolde  eft  to  worulde  gecyrran. 

Fnrscus  5a  wearS,  purh  "Sas  bodunge  ablicged,  and  5a  twegen 

forcs;edan  sacerdas  ab.-edon  set  'Sam  englum  ])set  hi  moston 

hine  gcsprecan,  and  cwaedon  him  to,  Hwaes  ondrtetst  "Su  ^e  ? 

Anes  daeges  f^ereld  ]f\i  hieht  to  si5igenne.     Furseus  ^a  befran 

be  gecndunge  |>ises  middaneardes.     Hi  cwaedon,  Ne  biS  seo 

geendung  )?yssere  worulde  na  gyt,  ^eah  "Se  heo  gehcnde  sy, 

ac  mancynn   bi5   geswenct  mid   hungrc  and  mid  cwcalme. 

purh  feower  Sing  losiaS  manna  savvla,  J'iet  is,  "Surh  leahtras, 

and  5urh  deoflcs  tihtinge,  and  ^urh  lareowa  gymelcaste,  and 

■5urh  yfele  gebysnunge  unrihtwisra  heafod-manna.     Ofer  ^am 

lareowum  is  Godes  yrre  swy5ost  astyred,  for5an  "Se  hi  for- 

gymeleasia5  ]>a  godcundan  bee,  and  ymbe  "Sa  woruld-^ing 

eallunge  hogiaS.     Biscopum  and  sacerdum  gedafena^  ]78et  hi 

heora  lare  gymon,  and  iSam  folce  heora  5earfe  sccgon.     Myn- 

ster-manimm  gedafenab  ]?aet  hi  on  stilnysse  heora  ITf  adreo- 

gon.     pu  so51ice  cy5  j^ine  gesih^e  on  middai'<^arde,  and  beo 

hwiltidum   on  digelnysse   and  hwiltidum  betwux  mannum. 

Donne  ^u  on  digelnysse  beo,  heald  ]?onne  geornlice  Godes 

bcboda  ;   and  eft,  ^onne  ])U  ut-faerst,  betwux  mannum,  far  for 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  313 

liim,  and  turned  away  from  him  the  terror  of  the  fire.  Then 
he  knew  among  the  holy  two  venerable  priests,  who  before  in 
life  had  been  his  countrymen,  very  celebrated.  They  ap- 
proached, and  spoke  to  him  familiarly.  One  of  them  was 
called  Bean  us,  the  other  Meldanus.  Then  was  there  a  great 
serenity  in  the  heaven,  and  two  angels  flew,  as  it  were,  through 
a  hill  into  heaven,  and  then  a  great  light  darted  out  there 
after  the  angels,  and  the  song  of  four  hosts  of  angels  was 
heard,  thus  saying,  "  Sanctus,  sanctus,  sanctus  Dominus 
Deus  sabaoth."  Then  said  the  angel  to  tlie  blessed  man, 
that  the  melody  was  from  the  celestial  host,  and  bade  liim 
listen  attentively  to  the  heavenly  song,  and  said.  Verily  into 
this  heaveidy  realm  sadness  never  comes  save  for  men's 
perdition. 

Again  there  came  angels  flying  from  the  heavenly  secrecy, 
and  declared  that  he  should  again  return  to  the  world.  Fur- 
seus  was  then,  through  this  announcement,  astoimded,  and 
the  two  aforesaid  priests  obtained  from  the  angels  that  they 
might  speak  to  him,  and  said  to  him.  What  dost  thou  dread  ? 
Thou  hast  one  day's  journey  to  travel.  Furseus  then  inquired 
concerning  the  ending  of  this  world.  They  said,  The  ending 
of  this  world  will  not  be  yet,  though  it  be  near,  but  mankind 
will  be  afllicted  with  famine  and  with  pestilence.  Through 
four  things  the  souls  of  men  perish,  that  is,  through  sins,  and 
through  the  instigation  of  the  devil,  and  through  the  heed- 
lessness of  teachers,  and  through  evil  examj)le  of  unrighteous 
chiefs.  Over  the  teachers  is  God's  ire  most  excited,  because 
they  neglect  the  divine  books,  and  are  wholly  solicitous  about 
worldly  things.  To  bishops  and  priests  it  is  fitting  that  they 
attend  to  their  doctrine,  and  say  to  the  people  their  need.  To 
monastic  men  it  is  fitting  that  they  lead  their  lives  in  still- 
ness. Do  thou  make  known  thy  vision  in  the  world,  and  be 
sometimes  in  privacy,  and  sometimes  among  men.  When 
thou  art  in  privacy,  hold  sedulously  the  commandments  of 
God  ;   and  again,  when  thou  goest  out  among  men,  go  for 


344  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

hcora  8awla  hfelu,  na  for  woruldlicum  gestreonum.  Ne  beo 
"Su  earful  ymbe  woruldlicuni  gestreonum,  ac  miltsa  eallum 
"Sinum  wiSerwinnum  mid  hluttre  heortan,  and  agyld  god  for 
yfele,  and  gebide  for  ^inum  feondum.  Beo  'Su  svva  swa  ge- 
treowe  dihtncre,  and  nan  ^ing  5e  negeabnige,  buton  bigleofan 
and  scrude.  Afed  "Sinne  licbanian  mid  alyfedum  niettum, 
and  {file  yfel  forseob.  /Efter  Sisuni  mynegungum  and  menig- 
fcaldum  oSrum  laruni,  gewende  eal  ]?«t  heofcnlice  werod  up 
to  bam  lieofonlieum  Srymme,  and  5a  twegen  saccrdas,  Beanus 
and  Mcldanus,  samod.  Furseus  soSlice  mid  ^am  "Srym  en- 
glum  gewende  to  eorSan. 

Hi  beeomon  ^a  eft  to  "Sam  •\vitnicndlieum  f}Te,  and  se  ge- 
waepnoda  cngel  rymdc  bim  vveg  J'urb  J>aet  fyr,  todselcnde^one 
lig  on  em-tvva.  Hwiet  "Sa  deoflu  ^a  scuton  of  ^am  fyre,  and 
awurpon  ane  unribtwise  sawle  byrnendc  uppon  5am  eadigan 
were  Furseum,  swa  )?a2t  bis  seuldor  and  bis  blcor  wurdon 
ontcndc  mid  5am  witniendlieum  fyre.  Furseus  oneneow 
Bona  5a  sawle ;  se  waes  his  tun-man  ^r  on  life,  and  be  genam 
tet  bis  lice  sumne  cla5,  swa  swa  we  lytle  ier  eow  Sciedon.  pa 
englas  5a  gchebton  5a  sawle,  and  wurpon  eft  into  ^am  fyre. 
Da  cvv^ai^  sum  '5cera  deofla,  Swa  swa  ^u  underfenge  {er  bis 
god,  swa  "Su  secalt  beon  bis  efcnblytta  on  bis  witum.  Godes 
engcl  audwyrde,  Ne  underfeng  be  bis  "Sing  for  nanre  gyt- 
sunge,  ac  for  bis  sawle  alysednysse  :  and  |?8et  fyr  sona  geswac. 
pa  cwajS  se  Godes  engel  to  5am  were  Furseum,  p?et  J^aet  "Su 
sylf  onfeldest,  ]?aet  barn  on  ^e.  Gif  "Su  ne  underfenge  ]?ises 
synfullan  mamies  reaf  let  bis  for^si^e,  ne  mibte  bis  wite  ^e 
derian.  Boda  nu  eallum  mannum  dffidbote  to  donne,  and 
andetnysse  to  sacerdum,  o^  <5a  endenextan  tide  heora  lifes  ; 
ac  swa-'5eab  nis  to  underfonne  nanes  synfulles  mannes  aebta 
on  bis  geendunge,  ne  bis  lie  ne  sy  on  baligre  stowe  bebyriged  ; 
ac  beo  him  gesfced,  eer  he  gewTte,  '5a  teartan  witu,  f'eet  his 
heorte  mid  ^sere  biternysse  beo  gebrepod,  ]?aet  he  eft  mage  set 
sumon  saele  beon  geclaensod,  gif  be  his  unribtwisnysse  huru 
on   his   fortisi5e  bebreowsa^,  and   genihtsumlice  eelmessan 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  345 

the  Balvation  of  their  souls,  not  for  worldly  gains.  Be  not 
solicitous  about  worldly  gains,  but  be  merciful  to  all  thy  ad- 
versaries with  pure  heart,  and  requite  good  for  evil,  and  pray 
for  thy  enemies.  Be  as  a  true  steward,  and  appropriate  no- 
thing to  thyself,  but  sustenance  and  raiment.  Feed  thy  body 
Mith  allowed  meats,  and  despise  every  evil.  After  these  ad- 
monitions and  other  manifold  instructions,  all  the  heavenly 
host  went  up  to  the  heavenly  company,  and  the  two  priests, 
Beanus  and  Mcldaims,  with  thcni.  But  Furseus  with  the 
three  angels  returned  to  earth. 

They  then  came  again  to  the  penal  fire,  and  the  armed 
angel  cleared  the  way  for  him  through  the  fire,  dividing  the 
flame  in  two.  The  devils  then  shot  from  the  fire,  and  cast 
an  unrighteous  soul  burning  upon  the  blessed  man  Furseus, 
so  that  his  shoulder  and  his  face  were  burnt  by  the  penal  fire. 
Furseus  instantly  knew  the  soul  ;  he  had  formerly  in  life 
been  his  townsman,  and  he  had  taken  a  garment  from  his 
corpse,  as  we  said  to  you  a  little  before.  The  angels  then 
seized  the  soul,  and  cast  it  again  into  the  fire.  Then  said 
one  of  the  devils.  As  thou  before  didst  receive  his  property, 
so  shalt  thou  be  his  associate  in  his  torments.  God's  angel 
answered,  lie  received  not  his  property  from  any  covetous- 
ness,  but  for  the  redemption  of  his  soul  :  and  the  fire  instantly 
ceased.  Then  said  God's  angel  to  the  man  Furseus,  That 
which  thou  thyself  hast  kindled,  that  burned  on  thee.  If 
thou  hadst  not  received  the  garment  of  this  sinful  man  at  his 
decease,  his  torment  could  not  have  injured  thee.  Preach 
now  to  all  men  to  repent  and  make  confession  to  priests, 
until  the  last  hour  of  their  lives  ;  but  yet  the  possessions  of 
no  sinful  man  are  to  be  received  at  his  end,  nor  let  his  corpse 
be  buried  in  a  holy  place ;  but  ere  he  departs  let  be  said  to 
him  the  sharp  torments,  that  his  heart  may  be  touched  with 
the  bitterness,  that  he  may  at  some  time  after  be  purified,  if 
he  at  least  at  his  departure  repent  of  his  unrighteousness,  and 
distribute  alms  abundantly.     But  let  not  the  priest  receive 


346  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  TERTIA. 

dael^.  Ne  underfo  se  sacerd  swa-'Seah  nan  ^ing  jja^s  synfullan 
niannes  ashta  ;  ac  hi  man  dsele  ^earfum  iet  his  byrsene. 

^fter  "Sissere  sprfece  conion  "Sa  englas  mid  ]?aere  sawle, 
and  gesseton  uppon  Saere  cyrcan  hrofe,  ])cev  )?aet  lie  l;pg  mid 
mannum  besett ;  and  ^a  englas  hine  heton  oncnawan  his 
agenne  lichaman,  and  hine  eft  undcrfun.  Furseus  ^a  beseah 
to  his  lichaman  swilce  to  uncuiSum  hreawe,  and  nolde  him 
genealaecan.  Se  halga  engel  cwajS,  Hwi  onscunast  Su  to 
iinderfonnc  }?isne  liciiaman,  pone  "Se  Su  miht  buton  leahtra 
gewinnc  hconon-forS  habban  ?  SoSlice  ]>u  oferswiSdest  on 
"Sissere  gedrefednysse  J^a  unalyfedlican  lustas,  paet  hi  heonon- 
for^  ongean  ]>e  naht  ne  magon.  pa  gcscah  he  geopenian  his 
lichaman  under  bam  breoste,  and  se  engel  him  cwffiS  to, 
Donne  t)u  ge-cdcucod  byst,  ofergcot  Sinne  lichaman  mid  fant- 
waetere,  and  ]>u  ne  gcfretst  nane  sarnysse  buton  Sam  bternette 
ye  ^u  on  ■Sam  fyre  gchehtest.  Do  well  on  eallum  Sinum  life, 
and  we  sibiSan  {efter  Sinum  weldredum  bliSne  ^e  eft  genimaS 
to  us. 

Se  halga  wcr  Furseus  aras  Sa  of  deaSe  oj^re  si^e,  and  geseah 
him  onbuton  micele  menigu  liewedra  manna  and  gehadodia, 
and  mid  micclre  geomcrunge  hcora  mennisce  anginn  and 
dysig  bcmsende.  He  gesiet  Sa,  and  Siiede  be  cndcbyrdnysse 
calle  his  gesihSe,  ]>c  him  Surh  Godcs  cnglum  on  Sffire  hwile 
gcswutdod  WfCs.  He  wearS  begoten  mid  fant-Wietere,  svva 
swa  se  engel  het,  waes  'Seah  ];aet  baernet,  ))e  he  gchehte  aet  <Sam 
unrihtwisum  were, on  his  sculdre  and  on  ansyne  (efre  gesewen. 
Micci  wundcr  |?jet  hit  wearS  gesyne  on  ^am  lichaman,  ])adt 
jjffit  SCO  sawul  ana  underfeng  !  He  ferde  ^Sa  geond  eal  Yrrland 
and  Scotland,  bodiende  ^a  Sing  }?e  he  geseah  and  gehyrde, 
and  waes  mid  Godcs  gife  wundcrlice  afylled,  nanes  eorSlices 
binges  wihiigende.  Eallum  goduni  mannum  he  waes  lufiend- 
lic,  unrihtwisum  and  synfullum  egcslic.  On  godcundum 
wundrum  he  sccan,  and  afligde  deoflu  fram  ofsettum  mannum, 
and  Searfan  gehyrtc.  Ferde  ^a  twelf  gear  swa  bodiende 
bctwux  Yrum  and  Scottum,  and  siS^an  ofer  eal  Angelcynn, 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     TUESDAY.  347 

anything  of  the  sinful  man's  possessions  j  but  let  them  be 
distributed  to  the  poor  at  his  grave. 

After  this  speech  the  angels  came  with  the  soul,  and  set  it 
on  the  roof  of  the  church,  where  the  corpse  lay  surrounded 
with  people  ;  and  the  angels  bade  him  recognise  his  own 
body,  and  again  assume  it.  Furseus  then  looked  on  his  body 
as  on  an  unknown  corpse,  and  would  not  approach  it.  The 
holy  angel  said,  Why  shunnest  thou  to  receive  this  body, 
wliich  thou  maycst  without  the  strife  of  sins  henceforth 
have?  Verily  thou  hast  in  this  tribulation  overcome  unallowed 
lusts,  so  that  they  henceforth  may  have  no  power  against 
thee.  He  then  saw  his  body  opened  under  the  breast,  and 
the  angel  said  to  him,  When  thou  shalt  be  rcquickcned, 
sprinkle  thy  body  with  font-water,  and  thou  wilt  feel  no  sore- 
ness, save  the  burn  that  thou  caughtest  in  the  fire.  Do  well 
in  all  thy  life,  and  we  then  after  thy  good  deeds  will  again 
take  thee  happy  to  us. 

The  holy  man  Furseus  arose  from  death  a  second  time,  and 
saw  about  him  a  great  multitude  of  men,  lay  and  ecclesias- 
tical, and  with  great  lamentation  bewailed  their  human  under- 
takings and  folly.  He  sat  then,  and  said  in  order  all  his 
vision,  which  to  him,  through  God's  angels,  in  that  while 
had  been  shown.  He  was  sprinkled  with  font-water,  as  the 
angel  had  ordered,  yet  was  the  burn,  that  he  had  caught  from 
the  unrighteous  man,  on  his  shmddor  and  on  his  face  ever 
visible.  A  great  wonder  that  that  was  seen  on  the  body 
wliich  the  soul  only  had  received  !  He  went  then  o.'er  all 
Ireland  and  Scotland,  declaring  the  things  that  he  had  seen 
and  heard,  and  with  God's  grace  was  wonderfully  filled, 
desiring  no  earthly  thing.  To  all  good  men  he  was  kind,  to 
the  unrighteous  and  sinful  terrible.  In  divine  miracles  he 
shone,  and  drove  out  devils  from  men  possessed,  and  cheered 
the  poor.  He  went  twelve  years  thus  preaching  between  the 
Irish  and  Scots,  and  afterwards  over  all  the  English  nation. 


348  ALIA  UISIO. 

and  eac  sum  mynster  on  'Sisum  iglande  arserde  ;  wende  si SSan 
su^  ofer  sae  to  Francena  rice,  and  ^aer  mid  micelre  arwurS- 
nysse  underfangen  wies,  and  mynster-lif  araerde.  pa  aefter 
lytlum  fyrste  wear^  he  geuntrumod,  and  gewat  to  heofenan 
rice,  to  ^tere  ecan  myrhSe,  ]>e  he  aer  geseah,  on  Stere  he  lyfa^ 
gesselig  simle  mid  Gode ;  and  his  lie  wearb  bebyrged  mid 
micelre  arwur^nysse,  and  eft  ymbe  feower  gear,  [ansund, 
buton  gewemmcdlicre  brosnunge,  on  o^re  stowe  bebyiiged ; 
]7aer  beo^  jeteowde  his  geearnunga  purh  wundrum,  )>am  JEA- 
mihtigum  to  lofc,  sctSe  is  calra  leoda  Wealdend.     Amen. 


ALIA  UISIO. 

BEDA,  lU'C  larcow,  awrat,  on  Sa^re  bee  j'e  is  gehuten  '  Hi- 
storia  Anglorum,'  be  sumcs  mannes  eeriste,  on  bisum  iglande, 
l^isum  [wordum  writende  : 

On  ^am  timan  w?es  sum  ]>egcn  Drihtclm  gehaten,  on 
Nor^hymbra  lande,  bilewite  on  andgyte,  gemetegod  on  "Seaw- 
uni,  arffESt  on  life,  and  his  hiu'ra^dcnc  to  ^am  ylcan  ge- 
wissode.  pa  wear^  he  geuntrumod  and  to  ende  gebroht :  he 
ba  gewat  on  iefnunge,  and  his  lie  Iteg  ealle  |?a  niiit  inne  beset; 
ac  he  aras  of  deaSe  on  aerne-merigen.  Da  licmenn  ^a  ealle 
mid  fyrhSe  fornumenc,  flugon  awcg,  buton  J>ain  wife  anum, 
|>e  hine  svvibost  lufode,  belaf  j^aer  afyrht.  He  ^a  hi  gefre- 
frode,  and  cwae^,  "  Ne  beo  ^u  afaered  for^an  "Se  ic  aras  of 
dea^e  ;  me  is  alyfed  eft  to  lybbenne  mid  mannum,  na  swa- 
J^eali  swilcuni  life  swa  ic  aer  leofode."  He  aras  ];a  );aerrihte, 
and  code  to  circan,  and  j^urhwunode  on  gebedum  ealne  pone 
merien.  Daelde  sySSan  his  aehta  on  ^reo,  aenne  dael  his  wife, 
o"Serne  dael  liis  cildum,  J^riddan  )?earfuni.  Forlet  sySSan  ealle 
woruld-j^ing,  and  beah  to  ^am  mynstre  pe  is  Magilros  ge- 
haten, and  wearb  bescoren,  and  "Sam  abbude  yEj^elwolde 
underj^eod ;  and  be  his  lare  his  lif  adreah  on  sumere  digel- 


ANOTHER  VISION.  349 

and  also  raised  a  mynster  in  this  island ;  went  then  south 
over  sea  to  the  realm  of  the  Franks,  and  was  there  received 
with  great  veneration,  and  erected  a  monastery.  Then  after 
a  little  interval  he  fell  sick,  and  departed  to  the  kingdom  of 
heaven,  to  the  eternal  joy,  which  he  before  had  seen,  in  which 
he  lives  happy  ever  with  God ;  and  his  body  was  buried  with 
great  veneration,  and  after  about  four  years,  sound,  without 
corruptible  decay,  was  buried  in  another  place ;  where  his 
merits  are  shown  by  miracles,  to  the  praise  of  the  Almighty, 
who  is  Ruler  of  all  nations.     Amen. 


ANOTHER  VISION. 


BEDA,  our  doctor,  has  written,  in  the  book  which  is  called 
'  Ilistoria  Anglorum,'  of  a  certain  man's  resurrection  in  this 
island,  in  these  [words  writing : 

At  that  time  there  was  a  thane  called  Drihthclin,  in  the 
Northumbrians'  land,  simple  of  mind,  temperate  in  habits,  of 
pious  life,  and  who  directed  his  family  to  the  same.  He  then 
was  sick  and  brought  to  his  end  :  he  departed  in  the  evening, 
and  his  body  lay  all  night  watched  in  his  house  ;  but  he  arose 
from  death  early  in  the  morning.  The  attendants  then,  all 
seized  with  fright,  fled  away,  save  his  wife  alone,  who  loved 
him  most,  who  remained  there  affrighted.  He  then  com- 
forted her,  and  said,  "  Be  not  afraid  because  I  have  risen 
from  death ;  it  is  allowed  me  again  to  live  with  men,  though 
not  such  a  life  as  I  lived  before."  He  then  straightways 
arose,  and  went  to  church,  and  continued  in  prayers  all  the 
morning.  He  afterwards  divided  his  property  into  three,  one 
part  for  his  wife,  the  second  for  his  children,  and  the  third 
for  the  poor.  He  then  left  all  worldly  things,  and  entered 
the  mynster  which  is  called  Melrose,  and  was  shorn,  and 
placed  under  the  abbot  yEthelwold  ;  and  by  his  precept  passed 


350  ALIA  UlSIO. 

nysse,  on  micelre  forhtefednysse  modes  and  lichaman,  oS  his 
lifes  ende.  He  sjJede  his  gesihbe  j'aere  leode  cyniiige,  ^Elfride, 
and  gehwilcum  eawfaestum  nuinnum,  |?us  reccende  : 

''  Me  com  to  an  scinende  engel  on  ^am  iefenne  j^e  ic  gewat, 
and  laedde  me  to  east-daele,  suwicnde.  Da  become  wit  to 
anre  dene,  seo  waes  ormaetlice  deop  and  wTd,  and  fornean  on 
lenge  ungccndod  ;  seo  wfes  weallende  mid  auSrwcum  ligum 
on  anre  sidan,  on  oSre  sidan  mid  hagole  and  grimlicum  cyle, 
bhivvende  buton  to-forlietennysse.  Seo  dene  w;ps  afylled  mid 
maima  sawlum,  )?a  scuton  hwiltidum  of  (Sam  weallendum  fyre 
into  ^am  anbra^cum  cyle,  and  eft  of  Sam  cyle  into  Kam  fyre, 
buton  aelcere  to-forla?tennysse.  pa  |?ohtc  ic  pa^t  paet  \va?re 
seo  hell,  ]>e  ic  oft  on  life  ynibe  secgan  gehyrde ;  ac  min  lat- 
teow  andwyrde  J>ferrihte  minuin  geSance,  and  cwaeS,  Nis  ]>[s 
wite  seo  hell  ]>e  ^u  wenst.  i  Se  engel  me  Icedde  ^a  furSor  to 
anre  |)eostorfulre  stowe,  seo  wees  to  "ban  swiSe  mid  piccum 
jjeostrum  ofer)>eht,  \)iet  ic  nan  ]'ing  geseon  ne  mihte  buton 
mines  latteowes  scinende  h'low  and  gewa^du.  Efne  ^a  fser- 
lice  aeteowdon  gelomhecende  ligas  sweartcs  fyres  up-asti- 
gende,  and  min  latteow  me  j^aer  ana  forlct  on  Sam  J>eostrum 
middum.  Ic  ba  beheold  |?one  onnfetan  lig  ]7e  of  -Saere  niwel- 
nysse  astah.  Se  lig  vvaes  mid  manna  sawlum  afylled,  and  hi 
asprungon  up  mid  tiam  fyre,  swa  swa  spearcan,  and  eft  ongean 
into  "Sffire  niwelnysse  ;  and  ]>iBr  sloh  ut  of  ^aere  niwelnysse 
ormaete  stenc  mid  5am  eebmum,  se  afylde  ealle  )?a  |?eostor- 
fullan  stowe*  paSa  ic  -Saer  lange  stod,  ormod  and  ungewis 
mines  ftereldes,  j^a  gehyrde  ic  j^set  "Sa  deoflu  gela?ddon  ftf 
manna  sawla,  hreowlice  gnorniende  and  grimetende,  into 
Sam  sweartan  fyre.  Sum  ]^a?ra  wtes  preost,  sum  laewede 
mann,  sum  wimman  j  and  "Sa  deoflu  sffigdon,  hlude  hlihhende, 
]?aet  hi  ^a  sawla  for  heora  synnum  habban  moston.  Betwux 
■Sam  ascuton  ]>a.  awerigcdan  gastas  sume  of  ^aere  niwelnysse 
wi^  mil),  mid  byrnendum  eagum,  and  of  heora  mu^e  and 
njfi!>-)>yrlum  stod  stincende  steam  ;  and  woldon  me  gelaeccan 


ANOTHER  VISION.  351 

his  life  in  some  priviicy,  in  great  continence  of  mind  and 
bodv,  to  his  life's  end.  He  related  his  vision  to  tlie  kins:  of 
that  nation,  Aldfrith,  and  to  certain  pious  men,  thus  nar- 
rating : 

"  On  the  evening  that  I  departed,  a  shining  angel  came  to 
me,  and  led  me  to  the  east  in  silence.  We  then  came  to  a 
valley  whicli  was  immensely  deep  and  wide,  and  in  length 
almost  endless  ;  it  was  l)urning  with  horrible  flames  on  one 
side,  on  the  other  side  blowing  without  cessation,  w  ith  hail 
and  fierce  cliill.  The  valley  was  filled  with  men's  souls, 
which  from  time  to  time  shot  from  the  burning  fire  into  the 
horrible  chill,  and  again  from  the  chill  into  the  fire,  without 
any  cessation.  Then  thought  I  that  that  was  the  hell  about 
which  I  had  in  life  often  heard  speak  ;  but  my  guide  straight- 
ways  answered  my  thought,  and  said,  This  punishment  is  not 
the  hell  that  thou  weenst.  fThe  angel  then  led  me  further  to  a 
darksome  place,  which  was  so  overspread  with  thick  dark- 
ness, that  I  could  see  nothing  save  my  guide's  shining  aspect 
and  raiment.  Behold  then  suddenly  appeared  frequent  flames 
of  swart  fire  ascending,  and  my  guide  left  me  there  alone  in 
the  midst  of  the  darkness.  I  then  beheld  the  immense  flame 
which  ascended  from  the  abyss.  The  flame  was  filled  with 
men's  souls,  and  they  sprung  up  with  the  fire  like  sparks,  and 
then  again  into  the  abyss ;  and  there  proceeded  out  of  the 
abyss  an  intolerable  stench  with  the  vapours,  w hich  filled  all 
the  darksome  place.  I  When  I  had  long  stood  there,  fearful 
and  uncertain  of  my  course,  I  heard  that  the  devils  were 
hading  the  souls  of  five  persons,  cruelly  bewailing  and  howl- 
ing, into  the  swart  fire.  One  of  tiiem  was  a  priest,  one  a 
layman,  one  a  woman  ;  and  the  devils  said,  loudly  laughing, 
that  they  must  have  those  souls  for  their  sins.  In  the  mean- 
w Idle  some  of  the  accursed  spirits  shot  up  towards  me  from 
the  abyss,  with  burning  eyes,  and  from  their  mouths  and 
nostrils  came  forth  a  stinking  steam  j  and  they  would  seize 


352  ALIA  UISIO. 

mid  hcora  byrnendum  tangum,  nc  M  ne  mihton  J>urh  Godes 
gescyldnysse  me  hreppan.  Efue  Sa  ffierlice  aeteowode  min 
latteow  svva  swa  scinende  steorra,  fcorran  fleogende,  and  wi^S 
min  onette.  pa  toscuton  ^a  deoflu  sona  ]>e  me  mid  heora 
tangum  geUeccan  woldon.  Se  engel  me  l»edde  Jjserrihte  to 
east-daele,  on  miccles  Icohtes  smyltnysse,  into  anrc  byrig, 
]>adr  biunan  waes  swiSe  sniebe  feld  and  brad,  mid  blowendum 
wyrtum  and  grennysse  eall  afyllcd,  and  mid  beorhtran  leohte 
)7onne  aenig  sunne  scinende  ;  binnon  "Sam  wealluni  wa^ron 
ungcrimc  mcniu  h^Tttra  manna,  on  micelre  blisse.  Ic  ]>a, 
betwux  5am  weorodum  )>am  cngle  fylgcnde,  pohte  j>a^t  hit 
wsere  heofonan  rice,  ac  min  latteow  cwaeS  J^aet  hit  swa  nrere. 
He  Iwdde  me  ]>a  gyt  furSor,  and  ic  geseah  j^fer  fftforan  us 
micclo  marc  leoht,  and  ic  jni-r  wynsumc  stomne  ormstes 
dreames  gehyrdc,  and  wundorlices  br^eiSes  swaec  of  "Saere 
stowe  ut  fleow.  Hw;pt  ])a  min  latteow  laedde  me  ongean  to 
"Saire  blostmb;eran  stowe,  and  me  bcfran,  hw.ecier  ic  wiste 
hw.et  Sa  I'ing  wseron  tSe  ic  gesewen  ha^fde  ?  Ic  cwae^  ]?aet  ic 
nvste.  He  me  andwyrde,  and  cwaeS,  Seo  miccle  byrnende 
dene,  J?e  ^u  aerest  gesawe,  is  witinmg-stow,  on  Sfere  beo^ 
manna  sawla  gewitnode  and  gccla^nsode,  ]'e  noldon  heora 
synna  gerihtbocan  on  gehalum  |>ingum,  luefdon  swa-^eah 
bchreowsunge  aet  heora  endenextan  di€ge,  and  swa  gewiton 
mid  J^ffire  bchreowsunge  of  worulde,  and  becumaS  on  domes 
daege  ealle  to  heofonan  rice.  Eac  hi  sume,  |jurh  freonda  ful- 
tum,  and  aelmes-dajdum,  and  swiSost  |jurh  halige  maessan 
beoS  alysede  of  Sam  witum  a^r  Sam  micclum  dome.  Witod- 
lice  seo  swearte  niwelnys  ^e  ]>u  gesawe  mid  |?am  ormaetum 
jjeostrum  and  fuium]  stence,  seo  is  helle  muS,  and  se  'Se  tene 
J)*ron  bcfylS,  ne  wyrS  he  naefre  on  ecnysse  Sanon  alysed. 
Peos  wynsume  and  Seos  blostmbaere  stow  is  ^sera  sawla 
wunung  "Se  on  goduni  weorcum  geendodon,  and  swa-^eah 
naeron  swa  fulfremede  J'aet  hi  Saerrihte  moston  into  heofenan 
rice,  ac  swa-]^cah  hi  ealle  becumaS  to  Cristes  gesih^e  and 
myrhSe  aefter  Sam  micclum  dome.     Witodlice  "Sa  "Se  fulfre- 


I 


ANOTHER  VISION.  353 

me  with  their  burning  toners,  but  through  God's  protection 
they  could  not  toucii  nic.  Behold  then  suddenly  appeared 
my  guide  like  a  shining  star,  flying  from  afar,  and  hastened 
towards  me.  The  devils  were  then  immediately  scattered,  who 
would  have  seized  me  with  their  tongs.  The  angel  straight- 
ways  led  me  to  the  east,  in  the  serenity  of  a  great  light,  into  a 
city,  wherein  was  a  very  smooth  and  l)road  field,  all  filled  w  ith 
blowing  plants  and  verdure,  and  shining  with  a  liglu  brighter 
than  any  sun  ;  within  the  walls  was  an  innumerable  multitude 
of  men  in  v\liite,  in  great  joy.  I  then,  among  the  multitudes 
following  the  angel,  thought  that  it  ^^■as  the  kingdom  of 
heaven,  but  my  guide  said  that  it  was  not  so.  lie  then  led 
me  yet  further,  and  1  there  saw  before  us  a  much  greater 
light,  and  I  there  heard  the  winsome  voice  of  a  great  melody, 
and  an  odour  of  wondrous  fragrance  flowed  out  of  the  place. 
Whereupon  my  guide  led  me  again  to  the  flower-bearing 
place,  and  asked  me,  whether  I  knew  what  tiie  things  were 
that  I  had  seen  ?  I  said  that  I  knew  not.  lie  answered  me 
and  said,  The  great  burning  valley  which  thou  first  sawest  is 
the  penal  place,  in  which  the  souls  of  men  are  punished  and 
cleansed,  who  would  not  correct  their  sins  in  life  and  health, 
but  yet  were  penitent  at  their  last  day,  and  so  departed  from 
tlie  world  with  repentance,  and  u  ill  on  doom's  day  all  come 
to  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  Some  of  them  also,  through  aid 
of  friends  and  alms-deeds,  and,  above  all,  through  holy 
masses,  will  be  delivered  from  those  torments  before  the  great 
doom.  But  the  swart  abyss  that  thou  sawest  with  the  bound- 
less darkness  and  foul]  stench  is  the  mouth  of  hell,  and  he 
who  once  falls  therein  will  never  to  eternity  be  thence  de- 
livered. This  winsome  and  this  flower-bearing  place  is  the 
dwelling  of  those  souls  that  ended  in  good  works,  but  yet 
were  not  so  perfect  that  they  might  straightways  enter  into 
the  kingdom  of  heaven,  though  they,  nevertheless,  will  all 
come  to  sight  of  Christ  and  joy  after  the  great  doom.     But 

HOXf.  VOL.  II.  2  A 


354  ALIA  UISIO. 

mcde  bcoS  on  geSohte,  on  worde,  on  weorce,  swa  hra^e  swa 
hi  of  vvorulde  gewita^,  swa  becuma^  hi  to  heofenan  rice ;  of 
"Sam  ^u  gesawe  ]><'et  micele  leoht  mid  iSani  wynsumum  brieSe, 
and  ]jonon  ^u  gehyrdest  Sone  feegeran  dream,  pa  soMice, 
nu  ^u  to  lichaman  gecyrst,  gif  '5u  wylt  Sine  da^da  and  Seawas 
gcrihtlfecan,  Sonne  underfchst  'Su  ffifter  forSsiSe  ]k\s  wyn- 
sumun  wununge,  ]?e  ^u  nu  gcsihst.  Da^a  ic  ^e  ana  forlet  on 
"Sam  "Seostrum,  to  'Sy  ic  dyde  swa,  ]>dit  ic  u  olde  witan  ymbe 
■Sin  ffer,  hti  se  .Eimihtiga  embe  Se  wolde.  DaSa  se  engel 
]>us  gereht  hjefdc,  ^a  oflicode  me  Scarle  pfet  ic  eft  to  Sam 
lichaman  sceolde  fram  S;ere  stowe  wynsumnysse  and  Sa^ra 
halgcna  gcfjerrfedene ;  nc  dorste  ic  swa-Seali  nan  Sing  wiS- 
cweSan.  /Eflcr  Sisum  ic  wcarS  gebrolit  and  ge-edciicod 
betwux  mammm." 

Drihtehn  w  unode  Sa  on  Sjes  mvnstres  diiichiysse  o^  his 
lifes  endc,  stiSlice  drohtnigcnde.  He  code  geh^me  on  winter- 
licum  cyle  lo  San*c  ca,  and  stud  on  his  gci)edimi  on  Sam 
waetcre  hwilon  lo  his  gyrdlc,  hwTlon  to  his  swuran.  Eode 
him  siSSan  mid  Sam  ylcum  claSum,  oS|>;etht  on  his  lichaman 
wearmodon  and  adriiwodon.  DaSa  bine  man  axode  hu  he 
mihte  Sone  micclan  cyle  forhcran,  he  andwyrdc,  "  Maran 
cyle  ic  gescah,  and  wyrsan."  Eft,  ^a^a  hi  axodon  hu  he 
mihte  swa  stearce  forh;efednysse  healdan,  he  andwyrde, 
"  StiSran  and  wyrsan  ic  gescaii."  Swa  he  hit  macode  on  his 
life,  and  manega  o^re  gerihtljehtc  mid  worde  and  gebysnnnge. 

We  rfedaS  gehwter  on  bocum,  ]}iet  oft  and  gelome  men 
wurdon  of  Sisum  life  geltedde,  and  eft  to  life  ara^rdc,  and  hi 
fela  witnung-stowa  and  eac  halgena  wununga  gesawon,  swa 
swa  Gregorius,  se  halga  papa,  awrat,  on  Ssere  bee  ]?e  is  ge- 
haten  '  Dialogorum,'  be  aimm  men,  Jjfet  his  sawul  wearS 
gelaedd  of  Sisum  life,  and  fela  Sing  geseah.  pa  betwux  Sam 
oSrum  geseah  he  hwaer  man  bytlode  ane  gebytlu,  eal  mid 
smsetum  golde,  and  ^a  wyrhtan  worhton  ^a  gebytlu  on  "Sam 
Saeternes-dffige,  and  wiBS  ^a  fornean  geendod.  He  befran  "Sa 
h\Aam  ^a  gebytlu  gemynte  weeron,  swa  mserlice  getimbrode  ? 


ANOTHER  VISION.  355 

those  who  are  perfect  in  thought,  in  word,  in  work,  as  soon 
as  they  depart  from  the  work!  they  come  into  the  kingdom  of 
heaven  ;  from  that  thou  sawest  the  great  Hght  witli  the  win- 
some fragrance,  and  thence  thou  heardest  tlie  sweet  melody. 
But  thou,  now  thou  returnest  to  tlie  hody,  if  thou  wilt  amend 
thy  deeds  and  morals,  then  wilt  thou  receive  after  death  this 
winsome  dwelling,  which  thou  now  seest.  Wlien  I  left  thee 
alone  in  the  darkness,  I  did  so  because  I  \\ould  know  con- 
cerning thy  destination,  how  the  Almighty  would  resolve 
concerning  thee.  When  the  angel  had  thus  related,  it  greatly 
displeased  me  that  I  again  should  return  to  the  body  from 
the  winsomencss  of  that  place  and  the  fellowship  of  saints  ; 
though  I  durst  not  say  anything  to  the  contrary.  After  this 
I  was  brought  and  rcquickened  among  men." 

Drihthelm  dwelt  in  a  secret  part  of  the  mynster  until  his 
life's  end,  rigidly  living.  He  went  frequently  in  the  wintry 
cold  to  the  river,  and  stood  at  his  prajers  in  the  water,  some- 
times to  his  girdle,  sometimes  to  his  neck.  He  then  went 
with  the  same  clothes,  until  they  became  warm  and  drv  on 
his  body.  When  any  one  asked  him  how  he  coidd  bear  that 
great  cold,  he  answered,  "  I  have  seen  a  greater  and  worse 
cold."  Again,  when  they  asked  him  how  he  could  observe 
such  rigid  abstinence,  he  answered,  "  I  have  seen  a  more 
rigid  and  worse."  Thus  did  he  in  liis  life,  and  corrected 
many  others  by  word  and  example. 

We  read  everywhere  in  books,  that  oft  and  frequently  men 
have  been  led  from  this  life,  and  again  raised  to  life,  and  they 
saw  many  places  of  punishment,  and  also  the  dwellings  of 
the  saints,  as  Gregory,  the  holy  pope,  has  written,  in  the 
book  which  is  called  '  Dialogi,'  of  a  man,  that  his  soul  was 
led  from  this  life,  and  saw  many  things.  Then  amongst 
others,  he  saw  where  they  were  building  a  building,  all  of 
beaten  gold,  and  the  workmen  were  making  the  building  on 
a  Saturday,  and  it  was  then  nearly  ended.  He  inquired  then 
for  whom   the   building  so  gloriously  constructed  was  de- 

2  A  2 


35G  SERMO  DE  EFFICACIA  S.  MISSAE. 

Him  waes  gesaed  )?aet  hi  waeron  gcmynte  aniini  sutere  on 
llomana-byrig,  and  hine  eac  namode.  /Efter  JSisnm  aras  se 
deada,  and  axode  geornlice  ymbe  ^one  sutere,  hu  he  geworht 
wsere  on  woruldhcere  drohtnunge,  and  man  afunde  5a  jjset 
his  gewuna  wajs,  j^aet  he  worhte  his  weorc  to  seofon  nilitinn, 
and  scalde  on  iSonc  Sfeternes-daeg;  nam  iSa  of  his  eneftehim 
bigleofan,  and  dfielde  5one  ofer-eacan  jjearfum  mid  estfuHum 
mode  ;  and  waeron  forbi  )?a  gebytlu  on  bam  diege  svvi«Sost 
geworhte,  ^e  he  ^a  ffihnessan  gewunelice  da^lde. 

Micel  is  Godes  mikllieortnys  ofer  mancynne,  ]>nm  "Se  vvel 
vviUae).  We  on  "Sisum  life  magon  hclpan  jnun  forbfarenum 
J7e  on  witnunge  beo5,  and  we  magon  us  sylfe  betwux  us  on 
life  aelc  oSrum  fultumian  to  ^am  upplican  life,  gif  we  ^cES 
cepacS :  and  |?a  "be  fulfremede  waM'on,  and  to  Godes  rice  be- 
comon,  magon  fultumian  trgSer  ge  us  ge  <Sam  forbfarenum  \>e 
on  witnungc  liind,  gif  hi  mid  ealle  forscyldgode  ne  beoS.  Sy 
wuldor  and  iof  6am  welwillendum  Gode  a  on  ecnysse.   Amen. 


HORTATORIUS  SERMO  DE  EFFICACIA  SCAE  MISSAE. 

WE  nedaS  gehwa^r  on  halguni  gewritum  )?aet  seo  halige 
maesse  micclum  fremige  {egber  ge  ^am  lybbcndum  ge  ^am 
forSfarenum,  swa  swa  Beda,  se  snotera  lareow,  awrat  on  Hi- 
storia  Anglorum  be  sumum  ^egene,  |^isuin  andgite  reccende  : 
On  "Sfere  tide  ]>c.  Ehfrid,  Nor^hymera  cyning,  and  -^iSel- 
red,  Myrcena  cyning,  wmmon  him  betwynan,  "Sa  set  sumon 
gefeohte  wear^  an  Segen  yE|?elredes  cyninges  mid  oSrum 
cempum  afylled,  se  wees  Ymma  gehaten.  Se  lieg  diPg  and 
niht  geswogen  betwux  ^am  ofslegenum.  He  wearS  Sa  gehyrt, 
and  his  wunda  gewraS,  and  wolde  him  sum  gener  secan. 
Hine  gela'hton  ^a  sume  ];aes  Norseman  folces,  and  to  heora 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  EFFICACY  OF  THE  H.  MASS.        357 

signed  ?  They  told  him  that  it  was  designed  for  a  shoemaker 
in  Rome,  and  also  named  him.  After  this  the  dead  man 
arose,  and  diligently  inquired  about  the  shoemaker,  how  he 
had  acted  in  worldly  life,  and  it  was  then  found  that  his 
practice  was,  that  he  wrought  his  work  for  seven  days,  and 
sold  on  the  Saturday ;  then  took  from  his  craft  his  suste- 
nance, and  with  bounteous  spirit  distributed  the  overplus  to 
the  j)oor  ;  and  therefore  was  the  building  chiefly  made  on  the 
day  on  wiiich  he  usually  distributed  alms. 

Great  is  God's  mercy  over  mankind,  to  those  who  are 
benevolent.  We  in  this  life  may  help  the  (lei)artcd  that  are 
in  torment,  and  we  may,  among  ourselves  in  life,  aid  each 
other  to  the  life  above,  if  we  observe  this  ;  and  those  who 
were  perfect,  and  have  attained  to  the  kingdom  of  God,  may 
aid  both  us  and  the  departed  that  arc  in  torment,  if  they 
are  not  totally  condemned.  Be  glory  and  praise  to  the  bene- 
volent God  ever  to  eternity.     Amen. 


A  HORTATORY  SERMON  ON  THE  EFFICACY  OF  THE 

HOLY  MASS, 

WE  read  in  many  places  in  holy  writings  that  the  holy  mass 
greatly  benefits  both  the  living  and  the  departed,  as  Beda, 
the  wise  doctor,  has  written  in  the  Historia  Anglorum  of  a 
certain  thane,  narrating  to  this  effect : 

At  the  time  that  Ecgfrith,  king  of  the  Northumbrians,  and 
^^thelred,  king  of  the  Mercians,  warred  against  each  other, 
in  a  certain  battle  a  thane  of  king  /Ethelred  named  Ymma 
was  with  olhicr  soldiers  stricken  down.  lie  lay  day  and 
night  senseless  among  the  slain.  He  then  revived,  and 
bound  up  his  wounds,  and  would  seek  some  asylum.  Some 
of  the  Northern  folk   then  seized  him,  and  brought  him  to 


358  SERMO  DE  EFFICACIA  S.  MISSAE. 

ealdorinen  broliton.  He  ^a  het  hine  lacnian,  and  'Sa^a  he 
hal  wiss,  het  hine  gebindan,  "Sy-laes  ^e  he  fleames  cepte.  Ac 
his  bcndas  toburston  swa  hraSe  swa  he  gebunden  wjes.  lie 
haefde  fenne  bro^or,  Tuna  gehaten,  msessepreost  and  abbud, 
and  ^aSa  he  his  broSor  siege  ofaxode,  J>a  ferde  he  to  ^ani 
vvaele  his  lie  secende,  and  gemette  tenne  o^erne  him  swi^e 
gelicne,  ferode  "Sone  to  his  mynstre  mid  arwurSnysse,  and 
gelomlicc  for  his  sawle  alysednysse  mtessan  sang,  and  J^urh 
^a  halgan  mjessan  toburston  J^aes  broSor  bendas. 

pa  axode  se  ealdorman  |7one  haeftling,  hwjecSer  he  ^urh 
drycra^ft  o^5e  Surh  ruiistafum  his  bendas  tobnece  ?  He  and- 
wyrde,  and  c\vae<S,  |;iet  lie  b.es  cr;pftes  nan  Sing  ne  cu^e  : 
"  ac  ic  htebbe  fenne  mtesscpreost  to  breScr  on  minum  eSele, 
and  ic  wat  }>aet  he  \ven5  piet  ic  ofslagen  sy,  and  gelome  for 
mine  savvle  mjessan  singS.  Witodlice  gif  ic  nu  on  oJSre 
worulde  Wcerc,  )'a  wurde  min  sa'.vul  frani  witum  alysed  ]^urh 
^a  halgan  nia^ssan." 

yEfter  Sisuni  scalde  se  ealdorman  hine  sumum  Frysan  of 
Lundene.  Se  Frysa  hine  gcwraS  eft  gelomlice,  ac  hine  ne 
mihte  nanes  cynnes  haeftnung  gehealdan.  Ymbe  undern-tid, 
|7a^a  se  broSor  Wies  gewunod  to  m;essigenne,  toburston  ^a 
bendas  oftost.  Se  Frysa  Sa,  |?a^a  he  hine  gehjcftan  ne  mihte, 
let  hine  faran  on  his  truwan  feftcr  5am  feo  ^e  he  him  fore 
gesealde,  and  he  swa  dyde.  He  "Sa  com  to  his  brewer,  and 
his  sib  be  endebyrdnysse  saede.  pa  tocneowon  hi  ]>iBt  his 
bendas  toburston  on  ^tere  tide  J^e  se  broSor  mid  esfullum 
mode,  for  his  sawle  alysednysse,  j^am  ^■Elmihtigum  Gode  \>a. 
liflican  lac  geoffrode.  Eac  se  halga  papa  Gregorius  awrat  on 
"Saere  bee  Dialogorum  hu  micclum  seo  halige  maesse  manegum 
fremode.  Seo  boc  is  on  Englisc  awend,  on  ^eere  mjeg  gehwa 
be  ^ison  genihtsumlice  gehyran,  seSe  hi  ofcrnjedan  wile. 


A  SERMON  ON  THE  EFFICACY  OF  THE  H.  MASS.       359 

tlu'ir  ealdorman.  He  caused  iiim  to  be  cured,  and  when  he 
was  well,  ordered  him  to  be  bound,  lest  he  should  take  to 
flight.  But  his  bonds  burst  asunder  as  quickly  as  he  was 
bound.  He  had  a  brother,  named  Tunna,  a  mass-priest  and 
abbot,  who,  when  he  heard  of  his  brother's  death,  went  to 
the  battle-field  seeking  his  body,  and  found  another  very  like 
him,  bare  it  to  his  mynster  with  honour,  and  frequently  sang 
masses  for  the  redemption  of  his  soul,  and  through  the  holy 
masses  the  bonds  of  his  brother  burst  asunder. 

The  ealdorman  then  asked  the  captive,  whether  through 
witchcraft  or  through  runes  he  brake  his  bonds  ?  He  an- 
swered that  he  knew  nothing  of  that  craft :  "  but  I  have  a 
brother  in  my  country,  a  mass -priest,  and  I  know  that  he 
imagines  that  I  am  slain,  and  frequently  sings  masses  for  my 
soul.  If,  therefore,  I  were  now  in  the  other  world,  then 
were  my  soul  released  from  torments  through  the  holy 
masses." 

After  this  the  ealdorman  sold  him  to  a  Frisian  of  London. 
The  Frisian  also  frequently  bound  him,  but  confinement  of 
no  kind  might  hold  him.  About  the  ninth  hour,  when  his 
brother  was  wont  to  celebrate  mass,  the  bonds  burst  oftenest. 
The  Frisian  then,  when  he  could  not  confine  him,  let  him  go 
on  his  faith  after  the  money  that  he  had  given  for  him,  and 
he  did  so.  He  then  came  to  his  brother,  and  related  to  him 
in  order  what  had  befallen  him.  They  then  found  that  his 
bonds  burst  asunder  at  the  hour  that  the  brother  with  pious 
spirit  olTered,  for  his  soul's  redemption,  tlie  living  offering  to 
Almighty  God.  The  holy  pope  Gregory  also  has  written  in 
the  book  of  Dialogues  how  greatly  the  holy  mass  has  benefited 
many.  The  book  is  turned  into  English,  in  which  every  one 
may  hear  abundantly  on  this  subject,  who  will  read  it  over. 


360 


IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  IIII. 

lOHANNES  se  Godspellere  awrat  on  "Sisum  daeg"5erlicum 
godspelle,  hti  se  Hielend,  fundigciule  of  Sissere  worulde  to 
his  Heofenlican  Fffider,  spraec  :  "  Subleuatis  lesus  oculis  in 
caelum,  dixit,  Pater,  uenit  hova ;  clarifica  Filium  tuum,  ut 
Filius  tuus  clarificet  te  :"  et  reliqua  :  ];aet  is  on  urum  gereorde, 
"  Se  Haeleiid  cwteS  to  his  Fieder,  up-ahafenum  caginn  to 
heofenum,  Fteder  nun,  se  tima  com ;  nifersa  Sinne  Sunn,  j^jet 
•<Sin  Sunu  ^e  ni;prsige,"  etc. 

pis  godspel  belimpS  swiSe  Jjearle  to  Sfere  niaeran  freols- 
tide  ]>e  to-merigen  bib  ;  forSan  Se  on  Sam  dsge  astah  se 
Hdelend  fefter  his  feriste  up  to  his  Heofenlican  Fffider.  Nu 
to-dfpg  is  se  uigilia  ])cvve  nia^ran  freols-tide  Se  to-merigen 
biS,  and  for^i  riedaS  Godes  ^eowas  Sis  godspel  nu  to-da»g, 
]>e  sprecS  ymbe  his  fundunge,  and  hu  he  betaehte  eallc  "Sa 
gcleaffullan  his  Fteder,  aerSan  Se  he  up-astige.  We  iiima^ 
nu  pone  wisan  Augustinum  to  Sissere  trahtnunge,  ^am  Se  we 
vvel  truwiaS  to  swa  micelre  deopnysse. 

Drihten  cu.eS,  "  Fjeder,  se  tima  com  ;  miersa  Siiine  Sunu, 
|>ffit  Sin  Sunu  Se  mjjersige."  He  wies  acenned  of  San  Ecan 
Feeder,  buton  ulcere  tide,  and  Surh  hine  sind  ealle  tida  ge- 
sette.  He  gcceas  him  timan  to  acennenne  on  menniscnysse, 
to  ■Srowigenne,  to  arisenne  of  deaSe,  to  astigenne  up  to  heo- 
fenan  mid  j^am  lichaman  Se  he  on  middanearde  gefette.  pa 
waes  his  nifjersinig-tima,  |>aet  se  Feeder  hine  maersode  swa  J^ait 
he  hine  sette  to  his  swiSran  on  heofenan  rice,  and  him  forgeaf 
andweald  on  heofenan  and  on  eor^an,  and  eac  ofer  helhvarum. 
Deos  is  Cristes  msersung  aefter  ^ajre  menniscnysse ;  witod- 
lice  aefter  Saere  Godcuudnysse  he  haefde  aefre  |?isne  andweald 
buton  anginne.     Nu  forgeaf  se  ^Elmihtiga  Feeder  his  ancen- 


nedan  Suna  ^onc  ylcan  andweald  aefter  S«re  menniscnysse 
and    hiiie   swa    maeisode,   |7cet    ealle    gesceafla,    heofonwara 


361 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITAXY.     WEDNESDAY. 

JOHN  the  Evangelist  has  written  in  the  gospel  for  this  day, 
how  Jesus,  hastening  from  this  world  to  his  Heavenly  Father, 
spake  :  "  Sublevatis  Jesus  oculis  in  cocluui,  dixit,  Pater,  venit 
hora;  clarifica  Filium  tuuni,  ut  Filius  tuus  clarificet  te  :"  et 
reliqua  :  that  is  in  our  tongue,  "  Jesus  said  to  his  Father, 
lifting  up  his  eyes  to  heaven,  My  Fatlicr,  the  hour  is  conic; 
glorify  thy  Son,  that  thy  Son  may  glorify  thoc,"  etc. 

This  gospel  bears  a  very  especial  relation  to  the  great 
festival  which  will  be  to-morrow  ;  because  on  that  day  Jesus, 
after  his  resurrection,  ascended  to  his  Heavenly  Father.  Now 
to-day  is  the  vigil  of  the  great  festival  which  will  be  to- 
morrow, and  therefore  God's  servants  read  this  gospid  now 
to-day,  which  speaks  of  his  departure,  and  how  he  committed 
all  the  believing  to  his  Father,  before  he  ascended.  We  will 
now  take  the  wise  Augustine  for  this  exposition,  in  whom  wc 
\vc\\  trust  for  so  great  deepness. 

The  Lord  said,  "Father,  the  time  is  come;  glorify  thy 
Son,  that  thy  Son  may  glorify  thee."  He  was  born  of  the 
Eternal  Father,  without  any  time,  and  through  him  are  all 
times  established.  He  chose  him  a  time  to  be  born  in  hu- 
manity, to  suffer,  to  arise  from  death,  to  ascend  to  heaven 
with  the  body  which  he  had  assumed  on  earth.  Then  was 
the  time  of  his  glorification,  that  the  Father  glorified  him  so 
that  he  set  him  at  his  right  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  and 
gave  him  power  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  and  also  over  the 
iimiates  of  hell.  This  is  the  glorification  of  Christ  according 
to  his  humanity  ;  but  according  to  his  divine  nature,  he  had 
ever  this  power  without  beginning.  Now  the  Almighty 
Father  gave  his  only-begotten  Son  the  same  power  according 
to  humanity,  and  so  glorified  him,  that  all  creatures,  inhabit- 
ants of  heaven,  inhabitants  of  earth,  inhabitants  of  hell,  bow 


362  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  IIII. 

eor^wara,  helwara,  onbugaS  gebigedum  cneowe  bam  Haelen- 
dum  Criste,  soSum  men  and  soSum  Gode  on  anum  hade. 

Hu  maersode  se  Sunn  ^one  Feeder,  ^onne  his  m^rsung  naes 
nsefre  gewanod  J?urh  menniscum  hiwe,  ne  eac  ne  mteg  beon 
geyht  on  his  godcundaji  fulfremednysse  ?  Soblice  Saes  Fteder 
msersung  waes  sefre  fulfremed  on  heofcnan  rice,  ac  hit  nyston 
eorblice  men  ter  Cristas  Srowunge.  Se  ^Ehnihtiga  God  wses 
cu5  be  sumon  dffile  on  Iiidea  folce,  "Surh  Moyses  # ;  ac  JSurh 
Cristes  menniscnysse  wearS  se  Feeder  cutS  calhim  iSeodum, 
fram  east-daele  middaneardes  o^  \vest-d*l.  i)us  maJrsode  se 
mennisca  Crist  his  Heofenlican  Feeder  on  eorblicum  mannum, 
■be  hine  aer  ne  cuSon.  pjet  godspcl  cwyb,  "  Swa  swa  bu 
forgeafe  him  aiuhveald  ealles  fla^sces,  |>fet  he  forgife  ece  lif 
"bam  ealhim  be  bu  him  forgeafe."  Her  is  gesett  sum  i\spA  for 
eaUum,  eal  fleesc  for  eallum  mancynne;  swa  swa  se  apostol 
Pauhis,  on  obre  stowe,  sette  da'^l  for  eallon,  baba  he  cwstS, 
*' /Elc  sawul  sy  underbeod  healicrum  anweahlum;"  ]>a?t  is, 
Beo  cclc  man  underbeod  mihtigran  men  bonne  he  sylf  sy. 

EaUum  ^am  forgifb  Crist  ece  lif,  )>e  his  Feeder  him  forgcaf. 
peos  gifu  is  to  understandcnne  be  Cristes  menniscnysse,  swa 
swa  we  eer  cwsedon.  "  pis  is  soSlice  ece  lif,  ]7;et  hi  ^e  eenne 
oncnawon  so^ne  God,  and  "bone  ^e  ^u  ascndest,  Ha^lend 
Crist."  Augustinus  gecndcbyrde  ^as  word  |?us,  "  peet  hi  "be 
and  'bone  "be  bu  asendest,  Heelend  Crist,  oncnawon  aenne 
so^ne  God."  Herto  bib  understanden  se  Halga  Gast,  sebe 
is  }><fis  Feeder  Gast,  and  J^aes  Suna,  heora  begra  Lufu  and 
Willa,  him  bam  efen-edwistlic.  Ne  sind  hi  "bry  Godas, 
Feeder,  and  Sunu,  and  Halig  Gast,  ac  seo  Drynnys  is  an  so^ 
God.  Nis  swa-beah  Feeder  se  be  Sunu  is,  ne  se  Sunu  se  "be 
Feeder  is,  ne  heora  na^or  Halig  Gast ;  forcSan  ^e  hi"  sind  "bry. 
Feeder,  and  Sunu,  and  Halig  Gast ;  ac  seo  Drynnys  is  an 
God.  Deos  tocnawennys  is  ece  lif,  forban  be  we  habbab  J^aet 
ece  lif  ^urh  geleafan,  and  oncnawennysse  )?aere  Halgan  Dryn- 
nyssc,  gif  we   ba  oncnawennysse  mid  arwurbnysse  healda^. 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     WEDNESDAY.  363 

with  bended  knees  to  the  Saviour  Christ,  true  man  and  true 
God  in  one  person. 

How  did  tiie  Son  glorify  the  Father,  when  his  glory  was 
never  diminished  by  human  form,  nor  can  be  increased  in  his 
divine  perfection  ?  Verily  the  Father's  glory  was  ever  perfect 
in  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  but  earthly  men  knew  it  not  before 
Christ's  passion.  The  Almighty  God  was  known  in  some 
degree  among  the  folk  of  Judea,  through  the  law  of  Moses ; 
but  through  Christ's  humanity  the  Father  became  known  to 
all  people,  from  the  east  part  of  the  world  to  the  west  part. 
Thus  did  the  human  Christ  glorify  his  Heavenly  Father 
among  earthly  men,  who  before  knew  him  not.  The  gospel 
says,  *'  So  as  thou  hast  given  him  power  of  all  flesh,  that  he 
may  give  eternal  life  to  all  those  whom  thou  hast  given  him." 
Here  is  put  a  part  for  all,  all  flesh  for  all  mankirid  ;  as  the 
apostle  Paul,  in  another  place,  put  a  part  for  all,  when  he 
said,  "Let  every  soul  be  subjected  to  higher  powers;"  that 
is.  Let  every  man  be  subject  to  a  mightier  man  than  he  is 
himself. 

To  all  those  Christ  gives  eternal  life  whom  his  Father  gave 
him.  This  gift  is  to  be  understood  of  Christ's  humanity,  as 
we  before  said.  "  Verily  this  is  life  eternal,  that  they  might 
know  thee,  one  true  God,  and  him  whom  thou  hast  sent, 
Jesus  Christ."  Augustine  has  disposed  these  words  thus, 
"That  they  may  know  thee  and  him  whom  thou  bast  sent, 
Jesus  Christ,  one  true  God."  Hereto  is  understood  the 
Holy  Ghost,  who  is  the  Spirit  of  the  Father  and  of  the  Son, 
the  Love  and  Will  of  them  both,  cosubstantial  with  them 
both.  They  are  not  three  Gods,  Father,  and  Son,  and  Holy 
Ghost,  but  the  Trinity  is  one  true  God.  Nevertheless,  he 
is  not  Father  who  is  Son,  nor  he  Son  who  is  Father,  nor 
either  of  them  Holy  Ghost;  because  they  are  three,  Father, 
and  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost ;  but  the  Trinity  is  one  God.  This 
knowledge  is  eternal  life,  because  we  have  the  eternal  life 
through  belief  and  knowledge  of  the  llfijy  Trinity,  if  uc  hold 


364  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  IIII. 

Witodlice  gif  Godes  oncnawennys  us  gearca^  ]>set  ece  lif,  swa 
miccle  swi^or  we  efsta^  to  lybbcnne  swa  inicclum  swa  we 
swiSor  on  "Sissere  oncnawennysse  'ISeonde  beoS.  SoSlice  ne 
swelte  we  on  ^am  ecan  life ;  ];onne  biS  us  Godes  oncnaw- 
ennys fulfrcmed,  jjonne  J?8er  nan  dea^  ne  biS,  ];onne  we  God 
geseo^,  and  butan  geswince  ecelice  heria^.  Ac  we  sceolon 
on  andwcrduni  life  leornian  Godes  oncnawennysse,  and  bine 
mid  estfullum  mode  herian,  )?ajt  Me  moton  bccuman  to  bis 
fulfremcdan  oncnawennysse  and  to  Sfere  swincleasan  berungc. 

Dribten  cw;e5,  "  Ic  mwrsode  "Se  ofer  eorSan,  ic  gefylde 
]7aet  M'eorc  ^e  \>u  me  forgeafe  to  wyrcenne."  Ne  cwaeiS  he 
na,  *  j?u  hete  me,'  ac  "  forgeafe  me."  Mid  5am  worde  is  sec 
gifu  geswutelod  ])e  be  on  ^tere  mennisciiysse  underfeng.  Sec 
menniscnys  w?es  underfangcn  fram  (Sam  godcundum  worde, 
"(Snrb  )»«t  ^e  ealle  j'ing  sind  geworbte.  Heo  is  underfangen 
to  annysse  anes  bades,  and  nan  cSing  yfeles  ne  gefremode,  ac 
ealle  gode  "Sing  '5urh  '5a  godcundan  gife.  Dribten  gefylde 
J^aet  weorc  \>e  his  Fa^der  him  forgcaf,  ^a5a  be  ^urii  bis  iSrow- 
unge  mancyn  alysde,  and  si 5 San  sigeffest,  ofcrswi^dum 
dea^e,  astab  to  beofenum,  on  ^am  daege  ]>e  to-merigen  biS. 

He  cwaeS,  "  Maersa  me  nu,  Ffeder,  mid  jjaere  mfiersunge  ]>e 
ic  mid  "Se  baefde  ierSan  ]ye  middaneard  gewurde."  Seo  God- 
cundnys  wjes  mid  ^am  Feeder  fierSan  5e  middaneard  gewurde 
aefre  ffibnihtig ;  and  seo  menniscnys  naes  ferban  "Se  he  hi 
genam  of  5am  maedene  Marian  ;  ac  svva-Seah-bwae^ere  seo 
menniscnys  waes  aefre  forestiht  on  "Sam  godcundan  raede  ^r 
middaneardcs  gesetnysse,  swa  swa  Paulas  se  apostol  cwae^, 
"  Qui  predestinatus  est  Filius  Dei  in  uirtute  :"  ]>(Bt  is,  "  Se- 
•Se  is  forestiht  Godes  Sunu."  ^fter  "Sissere  forestibtunge 
WcES  seo  menniscnys  gemaersod  mid  )?am  Feeder  «rSan  "Se 
middaneard  waere.  Se  tima  com  j^aet  Crist  baefde,  lybbende 
on  his  Feeder  swibran,  j^a  meersunge  ]>e  be  heefde  mid  him  on 
forestibtunge  bis  menniscnysse.  Eac  svvilce  be  us  cwae^  se 
ylca  apostol  Paulus,  ]>set  we  waeron  forestibte,  "Sus  writende, 
"  Quos  autem  predestinauit,  illos  et  uocauit:"  |;aet  is,  "Da 


ON  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     WEDNESDAY.  365 

that  knowledge  with  veneration.  Verily  if  knowledge  of  God 
prepares  for  us  the  eternal  life,  by  so  nuieh  the  more  we 
hasten  to  live  by  as  much  more  as  we  are  thriving  in  this 
knowledge.  But  we  die  not  in  the  eternal  life  ;  then  will 
our  knowledge  of  God  be  perfect,  then  will  there  be  no  death, 
then  shall  we  see  God,  and  ^^ithout  toil  eternally  praise  him. 
But  we  should  in  the  present  life  learn  knowledge  of  God, 
and  with  devout  mind  praise  him,  that  we  may  come  to  a 
perfect  knowledge  of  him,  and  to  his  toilless  praise. 

Tlie  Lord  said,  "  1  have  glorified  thee  on  earth,  I  have  ful- 
filled the  work  that  thou  gavest  me  to  do."  He  said  not, 
'  thou  commandedst  me,'  but  "  gavest  me."  By  those  words 
is  shown  the  gift  which  he  received  in  the  humanity.  The 
humanity  was  received  from  the  divine  word,  through  wlucii 
all  things  are  made.  It  is  received  for  tlie  unity  of  one 
person,  and  nothing  evil  ever  perpetrated,  but  all  good  things, 
through  the  divine  gift.  The  Lord  fulfilled  the  work  that  his 
Father  gave  him,  when  through  his  passion  he  redeemed 
maidvind,  and  afterwards  triumphant,  having  overcome  death, 
ascended  to  heaven,  on  the  day  which  will  be  to-morrow. 

He  said,  *'  Glorify  me  now.  Father,  w  ith  the  glory  which 
I  had  with  thee  before  the  world  was."  The  Godhead  was 
with  the  Father  ever  almighty,  before  the  world  was  ;  and 
the  humanity  was  not  before  he  took  it  of  the  maiden  Mary ; 
but,  nevertheless,  the  h\mianity  was  ever  predestined  in  the 
divine  council  before  the  foundation  of  the  world,  as  the 
apostle  Paul  said,  "  Ciui  prfpdcstinatus  est  Filius  Dei  in 
virtute :"  that  is,  "  He  who  is  predestined  the  Son  of  God." 
By  this  predestination  the  humanity  was  glorified  m  ith  the 
Father  before  the  world  was.  The  hour  was  come  when 
Christ,  living  at  his  Father's  right,  had  the  glory  which  he 
had  with  him  at  the  predestination  of  his  humanity.  In  like 
manner,  the  same  apostle  Paul  said  of  us,  that  we  were  pre- 
destined, thus  writing,  "  Quos  autem  praedestinavit,  illos  et 


366  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  I II I. 

■Se  he  foiestihte,  |?a  he  eac  clypode  liim  to ;  and  ^Sa  tie  he  him 
to  clypode,  "Sa  he  gerilitwisode,  and  ^a  ^e  he  gerihtwisode, 
j?a  he  gemj^^rsode." 

Eft  cwaeS  se  ylca,  "  Svva  swa  he  us  geceas  on  Criste  eer 
iniddaiieardes  gesetnysse."  "  Manifestaui  nomen  tuum  ho- 
minibus:"  "  Ic  gcswutelode  Sinne  nanian  mannum,  "Sam  ];e 
■Su  me  forgcafe  of  middanearde."  He  geswutelode  his  Fseder 
naman  ^rest  his  leorning-ciiihtum,  and  siiSJSan  ealiuni  gek'af- 
fulluni  mannum,  j^e  he  of  middancardlicuni  gedwyldum  n^t- 
brted  to  his  rice,  ))iirli  his  Ffeder  gife.  He  cwa?^,  "  J^ine  hi 
wairon,  and  5u  hi  me  forgeafe."  Ntpfde  se  Ffeder  na^fre  nan 
iSing  synderlices  buton  his  Sana,  se^e  aefre  mid  liim  w?es 
^hnilitig  God,  buton  anginne  of  him  acenned  ;  ac  he  undcr- 
feng  us  ^urh  his  Fit^dcr  gife  on  ^fero  menniscnysse,  forSan 
•Se  he  na^s  fefre  man,  '5eah  )?e  he  ;efre  yEhuihtig  God  wrere. 

Cristes  gewuna  \V£es  J?fet  he  tealde  cahie  his  wurJSmynt  to 
his  Faeder,  forSan  Se  he  is  of  Sam  Feeder  eal  )'fet  he  is.  Se 
Feeder  forgeaf  us  his  Bcarne,  and  j^a't  Beam  sylf,  {efter  mihte 
l^ff.re  Godcundnysse,  forgeaf  us  him  sylfum,  mid  )'am  Fjeder 
and  Sam  Halijan  Gaste,  Ssera  weorc  is  symle  untotwiemed. 
Se  Ha^lend  c\va?S  on  oSre  stowe  to  his  Icorning-cnihtum, 
*' Ic  eow  geceas  of  middanearde."  SoSlice  Sa  gecorenan  ]>e 
Crist  geceas  of  middanearde  mid  ]?am  Ffeder,  ^a  ylcan  lie 
nam  to  gife  on  Sfpre  menniscnysse  set  tiaiii  F'feder  of  mid- 
danearde. He  cwte^,  "  Hi  lieoldon  Sine  sprfece,  and  hi 
oncneowon  ]7cet  ealle  ^ing  j^e  Su  me  forgeafe  sind  fram  j^e ; 
for^an  ^e  ic  forgeaf  him  "Sa  word  Se  Su  me  forgeafe,  and  hi 
hi  underfengon,  and  oncneowon  ];fet  ic  fram  "Se  ferde,  and  hi 
gelyfdon  ]>pei  Su  me  sendest."  Das  word  nifigon  be6n 
sceortlice  getrahtnode.  Crist  sealde  'Sa  heofeidican  lare  his 
leorning-cnihtum,  and  hi  forS  ealhun  geleaffullum  Seodum, 
and  hi  underfengon  his  bcboda,  and  oncneowon  J^fet  Drihten 
fram  his  Ffeder  ferde,  and  gelyfdon  j^fet  he  hine  to  middan- 
earde sende. 

He  cwaeS,  "Tc  bidde  for  hi;  ne  bidde  ic  for  middanearde. 


0\  THE  GREATER  LITANY.     WEDNESDAY.  367 

vocavit :"  that  is,  "  Those  whom  he  predestined,  he  also  called 
unto  him;  and  tiiose  whom  he  called  unto  him  he  also  justi- 
fied, and  those  whom  he  justified  he  glorified." 

Asi^ain,  tiie  same  said,  '•'  So  as  he  chose  us  in  Christ  before 
the  foundation  of  the  world."  "  Manifestavi  nomen  tuum 
hominibus  :"  "  I  have  manifested  thy  name  to  men,  to  those 
whom  thou  hast  given  me  of  the  world."  He  manifested  his 
Father's  name  first  to  his  disciples,  and  afterwards  to  all 
believing  men,  whom  he  withdrew  from  worldly  errors  to 
his  kingdom,  through  his  Father's  gift.  He  said,  "  Thine 
they  were,  and  thou  gavest  them  to  me."  The  Father  never 
had  anything  separate  from  his  Son,  who  ever  was  with  him 
Almigiity  God,  without  beginning  of  him  begotten  ;  but  he 
received  us  through  his  Father's  gift  in  humanity,  because  he 
was  not  always  man,  though  he  always  was  Almighty  God. 

It  was  Ciirist's  Mont  to  ascribe  all  his  honour  to  his 
Father,  because  he  is  of  the  Father  all  that  he  is.  The  Father 
gave  us  t(;  his  Son,  and  the  Son  himself,  by  virtue  of  the 
Godhead,  gave  us  to  himself,  m  ith  the  Father  and  the  Holy 
Ghost,  whose  work  is  e\er  undivided.  Jesus  said  in  another 
place  to  his  disciples,  "  I  have  chosen  you  from  the  world." 
But  the  chosen  whom  Christ  chose  from  the  world  with  the 
Father,  those  same  he  took  as  a  gift  in  his  humanity  of  the 
Father  from  the  world.  He  said,  "They  have  o!)served  thy 
saying,  and  they  knew  that  all  things  which  thou  gavest  me 
are  from  thee  ;  therefore  have  I  given  them  the  words  that 
thou  gavest  me,  and  they  received  them,  and  knew  that  I 
came  from  thee,  and  they  believed  that  thou  didst  send  me." 
These  words  may  be  shortly  expounded.  Christ  gave  the 
heavetdy  lore  to  his  disciples,  and  they  thenceforth  to  all 
believing  people,  and  they  received  his  commandments,  and 
knew  that  the  Lord  came  from  his  Father,  and  believed  that 
he  sent  him  to  the  world. 

He  said,  "  I  pray  for  them  ;   I  pray  not  for  the  world,  but 


3G8  IN  LETANIA  MAIORE.     FERIA  IIII. 

ac  for  ^a  ic  bidde  ]>e  ^u  me  forgeafe."  Drihten  nolde  biddan 
for  niiddancarde  :  ]??et  is,  for  bam  mai)mim  \>e  beo5  begriw- 
ene  on  middaneardlicum  lustum,  and  mid  mtiran  gewil- 
nunge  ]>ies  ateorigendlican  lifes  hogiaS  Sonne  ^aes  ecan.  Se 
godspcllere  awrat  her-beforan,  )net  se  Ha^lend  cwaedc  to  his 
Feeder,  "  Ne  bidde  ic  na  for  JSisum  anum,  ac  eac  swilce  for 
"Sa  ^e  on  me  gelyfab  )mrh  heora  word."  Mid  p.ere  bene  he 
beleac  calle  ba  gcleaft'ullan,  J>e  burh  bfera  apostola  bodunge 
gebugon  to  Cristes  geleafan,  and  gyt  bugab  dfeghwondice  o5 
l^issere  worulde  geendunge.  He  cvvse^  eac  swibe  hold  lice  be 
us,  "  Faider  mtn,  ic  u  ille  )?aet  ^a  );e  bu  me  forgcafc  beon  mid 
me  "bfer  "ba^r  ic  beo,  )?a>t  hi  mine  niierbe  geseon,  be  bu  me 
forgcafc ;  forban  -be  "bu  lufadcst  me  wr  niiddancardes  geset- 
nysse."  IIu;et  ma^g  beon  mare  bliss  to  gehyrcnne  ponne  j^tet 
we  moton  wunian  mid  pies  -lElmihtigan  Godcs  Suna  on  his 
heofcnlicum  brymme  ecelice,  gif  we  hit  nu,  on  bisum  scortan 
life,  geearniaii  ulllab  ? 

He  cwjcb,  "  Ealle  mine  bing  sindon  bine,  and  bine  bing 
sindon  mine.  Ic  eom  gemairsod  on  him,  and  ic  on  middan- 
earde  ne  com.  Hi  sindon  on  middanearde,  and  ic  cume  to 
"be."  Sumnc  dtel  |?ises  andgitcs  \vc  trahtiiodon  hwaene  ier, 
l^aet  ealle  "bing  sind  gema^ne  ];am  F;eder  and  his  Suna,  and 
heora  begra  Lufe,  )?»t  is,  se  Halga  Gast.  peos  Halige  K)ryn- 
nyss  hylt  us  and  calle  gesceafta :  na  hwTltidum  se  Faider, 
ne  hwiltidum  se  Sunu,  ne  hwiltidum  sc  Halga  Gast,  ac  swa 
swa  hi  bry  sind  an  God  untoda^lcdlic,  swa  is  eac  heora  hyrd- 
rseden  untodfeledlic  ofer  us  and  ofer  eallum  gesceaftum,  ]>e 
"baere  anre  Godcundnysse  hyrsumiab. 

On  middanearde  waes  se  Hielend  andwerd  his  leorning- 
cnihtum,  baba  he  ^us  be  his  gecorenum  spraec ;  and  he  astah 
si^ban  up  to  his  Heofonlican  Faedcr,  swa  swa  he  cwaeb,  "  Ic 
cume  to  ^e."  He  ferde  to  heofenum  mid  J?am  lichaman  |?e 
he  on  eor^an  gefette,  ac  he  is,  )7urh  his  godcundan  mihte, 
segber  ge  her  ge  ^aer,  swa  swa  he  behet  aeriSan  "be  he  up- 
astige,  •'  Efne  ic  beo  mid  eow  eallum  dagum,  o^  gefylled- 
nysse  Syssere  worulde." 


0\  THK  GREATP:R  LITAXV.     WEDNESDAY.  369 

for  those  I  pray  whom  thou  hast  given  me."  The  Lord 
Avould  not  pray  for  the  world  :  that  is,  for  those  men  who  are 
engaged  in  worhlly  lusts,  and  are  solicitous  with  greater 
desire  of  the  transitory  life  than  of  the  eternal.  The  evange- 
list wrote  here  before,  that  Jesus  said  to  his  Father,  "  I  pray 
not  for  these  alone,  but  also  for  those  who  believe  in  me 
through  their  word."  With  that  prayer  he  included  all  the 
believing,  who  through  the  preaching  of  the  apostles  turned 
to  belief  of  Christ,  and  yet  daily  turn,  till  the  ending  of  this 
world.  He  said  also  very  kindly  of  us,  "  My  Father,  I  will 
that  they  whom  thou  hast  given  me  be  with  me  where  I  am, 
that  they  may  see  my  glory  which  thou  hast  given  me ;  be- 
cause thou  lovedst  me  before  the  foundation  of  the  world." 
What  bliss  can  be  greater  to  hear  of  than  that  we  may  dw rll 
eternally  with  the  Son  of  the  Almighty  God  in  his  heavenly 
majesty,  if  we  now,  in  this  short  life,  will  deserve  it  ? 

lie  said,  "  All  my  things  are  thine,  and  thy  thirigs  are 
mine.  I  am  glorified  in  them,  and  I  am  not  in  the  world. 
They  are  in  the  world,  and  I  come  to  thee."  Some  part  of 
the  sense  of  this  we  explained  a  little  before,  that  all  things 
are  common  to  the  Father  and  his  Son,  and  to  the  Love  of 
them  both,  that  is,  the  Holy  Ghotst.  This  Holy  Trinity  pre- 
serves us  and  all  creatures  :  not  sometimes  the  Father,  nor 
sometimes  the  Son,  nor  sometimes  the  Holy  Gliost,  but  as 
those  three  are  one  God  indivisible,  so  also  is  indivisible 
their  guardianship  over  us  and  over  all  creatures,  that  obey 
one  Godhead. 

In  the  world  Jesus  was  present  to  his  disciples,  wiien  he 
thus  spake  of  his  chosen  ;  and  he  afterwards  ascended  to  his 
Heavenly  Father,  as  he  had  said,  "  I  come  to  thee."  He 
went  to  heaven  with  the  body  that  he  had  assumed  on  earth, 
but,  through  his  divine  might,  he  is  both  here  and  there,  as 
he  promised  before  he  ascended,  "  Behold  I  will  be  with  you 
on  all  days,  until  the  completion  of  this  world." 

IIOM.   VOL.  II.  2   b 


370  DOMINICA  III.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

Mine  gebrobra,  arwur^iu^  j^isne  aefen,  and  Sone  mj3eran 
freols-dfeg,  ]?e  eow  to-nierigen  becym^,  mid  so^um  gcleafan. 
On  ^am  dflege  abaer  se  ^Elmihtiga  Godes  Suuu  urne  lichaman 
to  ^am  heofonlican  e^le,  ]?cer  ^aer  naefre  aer  ne  becom  nan 
"Sing  ^aes  gecjndes.  SettaS  eowerne  hiht  on  ^ani  Haelende, 
and  on  ^am  wordum  ]>e  he  be  us  ealluui  spraec  fier^an  "Se  he 
heonon  siSode.  Nis  ■Seos  lar  ]>e  we  eow  secga^  niwan  ar<^red, 
ac  sind  ]7a  ylcan  word  ]>e  Crist  mid  his  agenuni  mu^e  spraec, 
and  siS^an  onwreah  wisuni  lareowum,  ]?urh  gife  5ies  Halgan 
Gastcs.  peos  lar  stent  on  Cristes  bee  mid  Lcdenum  gercorde 
eow  bedigclod  ;  and  eallc  lareowas  |?e  j^tet  Leden  cuSon, 
saedon  Godes  folce  |ja  boclican  lare ;  ]>&  ^e  hit  ne  cuSon,  hi 
hit  forsuwedon.  Nu  bchoHgc  go,  hewede  men,  miceh*e  lare 
on  "Sisne  timan,  forSan  ^e  j^eos  woruld  is  micclum  geswenct 
"Surh  mcnigfealduui  gcdrefednyssinn  ;  and  hwa  near  ende 
J;yssere  worulde  swa  mare  ehtnys  ]>ies  deciles,  and  bitS  un- 
strengre  mennisc  Surh  maran  tyddcrnysse.  '  Nu  beliofige  ge 
"Saes  J)e  swi^or  j/tes  boclican  frofres,  })aet  ge  "Surh  Sa  lare  eower 
mod  awendon  of  iSisum  wraecfuUum  life  to  ^am  ecum  )?e  we 
ymbe  sprecaS.  Se  mann  Se  biS  dreorig,  he  behofaS  sumcs 
frofres,  sM'a  eac  we  wyllaS  eow  yurh  ^as  boclican  lare  gefre- 
frian,  forSan  ^e  we  geseob  J7aet  "Seoa  woruld  is  on  micelre 
earfo^nysse  gelogod  :  awurpab  forSi  hire  lufe  fram  eowerum 
heortum,  and  gewilniaS  ]?aes  heofoidican  rices,  ^e  us  Crist 
on  ^isum  godspelle  bchet,  se^e  leofacS  and  rixaS  mid  Faeder 
and  Sam  Halguin  Gaste  a  on  ecnysse.     Amen. 


DOMINICA  HI.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

HOMO  quidam  fecit  cenam  magnanij  et  uocauit  multos  :  et 
reliqua. 

Se  Haelend  saede  J^is  bigspel  his  leorning-cnihtum,  and 
cvvae^,  "  Sum  man  gearcode  micele  feorme,  and  Saerto  manega 
gela^ode  :"  et  reliqna. 


THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  371 

My  brothers,  honour  this  eve,  and  the  great  festival,  which 
comes  to-morrow,  with  true  belief.     On  that  day  the  Son  of 
Almighty  God  bore  our  bodj^to  the  heavenly  country,  where 
never  before  came  anything  of  that  kind.     Set  your  hope  in 
Jesus,  and  in  the  words  that  he  spake  concerning  us  all  be- 
fore he  journeyed  hence.    This  doctrir)e  which  we  say  to  you 
is  not  newly  raised  up,  but  is  the  same  words  that  Christ 
spake  with  his  own  mouth,  and  afterwards  revealed  to  wise 
teachers,  through  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost.     This  doc- 
trine stands  in  the  book  of  Christ,  concealed  from  you  in  the 
Latin  tongue ;  and  all  teachers  who  knew   Latin   have  de- 
clared to  God's  people  the  written  doctrine  ;  those  who  knew 
it   not   have   held   silence   concerning   it.     Now   ye    recjuire, 
laymen,  great  learning  at  this  time,  because  this  world  is 
greatly  afflicted  through  manifold  troubles  ;   and  as  the  end 
of  this  world  is  nearer,  so  is  the  persecution   of  the  devil 
greater,  and   mankind   will   be  less  strong  through  luxury. 
Now  need  ye  so  much  the  more  the  comfort  of  books,  that, 
through  their  precepts,  ye  may  turn  your  minds  from  this  life 
of  exile  to  the  eternal  one  of  which  we  are  speaking.     The 
man  who  is  sad  re<iuires  some  comfort,  so  likewise  we  desire 
to  comfort  you  through  this  book  doctrine,  for  we  see  that 
this  world  is  placed  in  great  affliction  :   cast,  therefore,  its 
love   from   your   hearts,  and  desire   the  heavenly  kingdom, 
which  Christ  has  promised  us  in  his  gospel,  who  liveth  and 
reigneth  \\  ith  the  Father  and  the  Holy  Ghost  to  all  eternity. 
Amen. 


THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST. 

HOMO  quidam  fecit  cuenam  magnam,  et  vocavit  multos  :  et 
reli(jua. 

Jesus  said  this  parable  to  his  disciples,  and  s;iid,  "  A  cer- 
tain man  prepared  a  great  feast,  and  thereto  invited  many," 
etc. 

2  n  •: 


372  DOMINICA  III.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

Gregorius  papa  us  saede,  J^aet  se  man  ^e  ^a  micclan  feorme 
worhte  is  ure  Haelend  Crist,  seSe  is  God  and  niann  on  anum 
hade,  se^e  gearcode  burh  his  to-cyme  us  ^a  ecan  feorme  on 
his  rice,  gif  we  "Sa  gesecan  willaS.     He  sende  his  Seowan  to 
la^igenne  mancynn  to  ^aere  ecan  feorme,  paSa  he  asende  his 
bydelas  geond  eahie  middangeard,  to  bodigenne  geleafan  and 
heofonan  rices  myrliSe  ;  and  aelc  ba?ra  ))e  J^aet  boda^  is  Godes 
bydel,  )?eah  ^e  heora  sum  waclic  ge^uht  sy.     pjere  feorme 
tid  is  seo  geendung  j^ises  middancardes  on  Saere  we  sind,  swa 
swa  Paulus  se  apostol  cwajS,  "  We  sind  "Sa  "be  worulda  ge- 
endunga  on  becomon."     He  cwicS,  "  Ealle  mine  Sing  sind 
gegearcode,"  forban  t)e  ^urh  Cristes  JSrowunge  wurdon  Saera 
witegena   gyddunga   gefyllede,    and   ]not   ece    lif  gcgearcod 
eallum  gelealTulkim. 

God  bead  mancynne  }?aet  hi  hine  biddan  sccoldon,  and  he 
wile  syllan  unabcden  j^aet  )>a^t  we  iis  ne  wcndon  j'urh  vu'c 
bene.     He  cy5  gearwe  cst-mettas  jjaes  ecan  gercordes,  and 
swa-Scah  hi  callc  samod  hi  beladiab.     Se  forma  cwaeS,  "  Ic 
bohte  if  nne  tun,  and  me  is  ncod  to  farcnne  and  Sone  geseon. 
Ic  bidde  be,  belada  me."     Hwaet  is  Surh  bone  tun  getacnod 
buton  eorbUce  aehta  ?     Se  f<er^  to  sccawienne  his  tun,  sebe 
ymbe  "ba  eorblican  speda  singallice  hoga^,  and  ba  ecaji  ge- 
streon  ne  tcohib.     Sum  ober  cwfeb,  "  Ic  bohte  fif  getymu 
oxena,  and  ic  wille  faran  fandian  baera."     Da  fif  getyma  ge- 
tacniab  "ba  fif  andgitu  ures  lichaman,  j^aet  sind  gesih^,  hlyst, 
swaecc,  stenc,  hrepung.     pas  fif  andgitu  hfef^  se  ^e  hal  bi^. 
We  geseo^  )>urh  ure  eagan,  and  ealle  bing  tocnawab  ;   burh 
^a  earan  we  gehyrab  ;   on  bam  mube  we  habba^  swaecc,  and 
tocnawab  hwie^er  hit  bi^  j^e  wered  ^e  biter  jjaet  we  bicgaS  ; 
^urh  ];a  nosu  we  tostincab  hwsRt  claene  bib,  hwaet  ful ;  on 
handum  and  on  eallum  lichaman  we  habbab  hrepunge,  j^aet 
we  magon  gefredan  hwaet  bi^  heard,   hwaet  hnesce,  hwaet 
smebe,  hwaet  unsmebe,  and  swa  gehwaet.     pas  andgitu  sind 
rihtlice  wibmetene  fif  getymum  oxena,  forban  ^e  ht  beo"b 
getwyfylde  on  twani  hadum,  ]>aet  is,  on  werum  and  on  wifum. 


THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  373 

Gregory  the  pope  has  told  us,  that  the  man  who  made  the 
great  feast  is  our  Saviour  Christ,  who  is  God  and  man  in  one 
person,  who  by  his  advent  has  prepared  for  us  the  eternal 
feast  in  his  kingdom,  if  we  will  seek  it.  He  sent  his  servants 
to  invite  mankind  to  the  eternal  feast,  when  he  sent  his 
messengers  over  all  the  world,  to  preach  belief  and  the  joy  of 
heaven's  kingdom  ;  and  each  of  tliose  who  preach  that  is 
God's  messenger,  though  some  of  them  may  seem  of  small 
account.  The  feast-tide  is  the  ending  of  this  world  in  which 
we  are,  as  Paul  the  apostle  said,  "  We  are  they  on  whom  the 
endings  of  worlds  will  come."  He  said,  "All  my  tilings  are 
prepared,"  because  through  Christ's  passion  the  utterances 
of  the  prophets  were  fulfilled,  and  tlie  everlasting  life  pre- 
pared for  all  the  believing. 

God  enjoined  mankind  that  they  should  pray  to  him,  and 
he  will  give  unj^rayed  for  that  which  we  expected  not  through 
our  prayer.  He  announces  as  ready  the  delicacies  of  the 
eternal  refection,  and,  nevertheless,  they  all  together  excuse 
themselves.  The  first  said,  "  I  have  bought  a  vill,  and  it 
is  needful  that  I  go  and  see  it.  I  pray  thee,  excuse  me." 
What  is  betokened  by  the  vill  but  earthly  possessions  ?  He 
goes  to  view  his  vill,  who  is  unceasingly  solicitous  about 
earthly  riches,  and  toils  not  for  everlasting  treasure.  An- 
other said,  "  I  have  bought  five  teams  of  oxen,  and  I  wish 
to  go  to  try  them."  The  five  teams  betoken  the  five  senses 
*of  our  body,  which  are  sight,  hearing,  taste,  smell,  touch. 
These  five  senses  he  has  who  is  whole.  Through  our  eyes 
we  see  and  distinguish  all  things  ;  through  the  ears  we  hear  ; 
in  the  mouth  we  have  taste,  and  distinguish  whether  it  be 
sweet  or  bitter  what  we  eat ;  through  the  nose  we  smell  what 
is  clean,  what  foul;  in  the  haii^ls  and  in  all  the  body  we  have 
touch,  that  we  may  feel  what  fs  hard,  what  soft,  what  smooth, 
what  unsmooth,  and  so  everything.  These  senses  are  rightly 
compared  to  the  five  teams  of  oxen,  because  they  are  doubled 
in  two  persons,  that  in,  in  men  and  in  women.      He  goes  and 


374  DOMINICA  III.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

Se  fjfirS  and  fandiiS  Jjissera  fif  andgita,  se^e  jjurh  fywittjysse 
and  unstiliiysse  hi  aspeiit  on  unnyt.  Hefigtyme  leahter  is 
ungefoh  fyrwitnys  ;  ac  we  sceolon  awendan  urne  lee  frani 
yfelre  gesihSe,  urne  hlyst  fram  yfelre  spnece,  urne  svvaecc 
fram  unalyfedum  bigenum,  ure  nosa  fram  derigcndlicum 
stencum,  ure  handa  and  ealne  lichanian  fram  fuUicnm  and 
leahterlicum  hrepungum,  gif  we  Millab  becuman  to  bam 
estum  J>aes  ecan  gereordes. 

Hi  baedon  'bone  bydel  jwt  he  hi  bcladode,  \>onne  he  cvvyb, 
**  Ic  bidde  ^e  peet  bu  me  ladige,"  and  forsihb  to  cumcnne  : 
iSonne  swcg^  eadmodnys  on  his  stemne,  and  modignys  bib 
feteowod  on  iiis  dfede.  ponne  se  lareow,  )>e  is  Godes  bydd, 
gestent  sumne  bwyrne  and  uinihtwisne,  and  hine  manab  to 
riljtwisnysse  and  to  Godes  rice  ;  gif  he  ^onne  cwyiS  on  his 
gebance,  *  Ne  ma?g  ic  ^tere  stibnysse  befeolan,  ye  ^u  me  to- 
tihst ;  ic  eom  synful  man:  gebide  for  me;'  hwtet  deb  he 
Sonne  buton  bitt,  and  hine  bcladab? 

Se  tiridda  cwa^b,  "  Ic  iirel)be  nu  gewTfod,  and  fortSi  to  Saere 
feorme  cnman  nc  maeg."  ]''urh  ba  wTfunge  sind  getacnode 
baes  lichaman  histas,  and  se  Se  ungcmetlice  liis  fljesclicum 
lustum  gehyrsumab,  him  bincb  a^bryt  to  gehyrenne  ymbe  Sa 
chennysse  Se  God  lufab,  obbe  ymbe  Sa  heofeidican  bodunga 
be  his  lustum  wibcwebab. 

Se  beowa  gecyrde  liam,  and  ssede  his  hlaforde  bfera  gela- 
Sodra  forsewennysse.  Se  Idaford  Sa  gehathyrt,  cvv^eS  to  his 
beowan,  "  Far  ardlice  geond  j'as  straeta  and  wic,  and  gega- 
dera  bearfan  and  alefede,  blinde  and  healte,  and  gelied  hider 
inn."  pearl'an  sind  gecvvedene,  and  wannhale,  Sa  Se  hi  sylfe 
wacc  taljab,  and  unstrange,  to  wiSmetennysse  geSungenra 
halgena.  pa  sind  blinde,  pe  J^aet  leoht  Saes  larlican  andgites 
nabbab.  pa  beob  healte,  Se  rihtne  gang  on  godum  weorcum 
nabbab.  Soblice  Sa  gelaSodan,  j^e  cuman  noldon,  wajron 
synfulle,  and  Sas  Searfan,  ]>c  Sa;r  cumaS,  sindon  eac  synfulle  ; 
ac  Sa  modigan  synfullan  beob  forsewene,  and  Sa  eadniodan 
synfullan    beob   gecoreive.     Da   gecyst   God   ]?e   iniddaneard 


THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  375 

tries  these  five  senses,  who  through  curiosity  and  unstiliness 
wastes  them  uselessly.  Immoderate  curiosity  is  a  grave  sin; 
for  we  should  turn  our  look  from  evil  sight,  our  hearing  from 
evil  speech,  our  taste  from  unallowed  aliments,  our  noses 
from  hurtful  smells,  our  hands  and  whole  hody  from  foul  and 
sinful  contacts,  if  we  are  desirous  of  coming  to  the  delicacies 
of  the  eternal  refection. 

They  prayed  the  messenger  that  he  would  excuse  them, 
when  he  says,  "  I  pray  thee  to  excuse  me,"  and  disdains  to 
come :  then  humility  sounds  in  his  voice,  and  pride  appears 
in  his  deed.  When  the  teacher,  who  is  God's  messenger, 
urges  a  perverse  and  unrighteous  man,  and  exhorts  him  to 
righteousness  and  the  kingdom  of  God  ;  if  he  then  say  in  his 
tiiought,  *  I  cannot  sul)mit  tf)  the  severity  to  which  thou 
urgest  me  ;  I  am  a  sinful  man  :  pray  for  me  ;'  wiiat  does  he 
then  but  prays  and  excuses  himself  ? 

The  third  said,  "  I  have  taken  a  wife,  and  therefore  can- 
not come  to  the  feast."  By  the  taking  to  wife  are  betokened 
the  lusts  of  the  body,  and  he  who  immoderately  obeys  his 
fleshly  lusts,  to  him  it  seems  tedious  to  hear  concerning  the 
chastity  which  God  loves,  or  concerning  the  heavenly  preach- 
ings, which  speak  against  his  lusts. 

The  servant  returned  home,  and  said  to  his  lord  the  con- 
tempt of  those  invited.  The  hjrd  then  angry  said  to  his 
servant,  "  Go  quickly  through  the  streets  and  lanes,  and 
gather  the  poor  and  the  maimed,  the  blind  and  the  halt,  and 
lead  them  in  hither."  They  are  called  poor  and  infirm,  who 
account  themselves  weak  and  feeble  in  comparison  with 
venerable  saints.  They  are  lilind,  who  have  not  the  light  of 
the  doctrinal  signification.  They  are  halt,  who  have  not  a 
direct  course  in  good  works.  But  the  invited,  who  would 
not  come,  were  sinful,  and  the  poor,  who  come  there,  are 
also  sinful ;  but  the  proud  sinful  t-hall  be  despised,  and  the 
humble  sinful  shall  he  chosen.      God  chooses  those  that  the 


376  DOMINICA  III.  POST  PENTECOSTExN. 

forsih^,  swa  swa  Paulus  se  apostol  cwae^,  "  God  gecyst  ba 
untruman  ]?ises  middaneardes,  \fdst  he  Sa  strangan  gescynde." 
pearfan  and  wannhale,  blinde  and  healte  beo5  gelabode  to 
Godes  gereorde,  and  hi  cunia^,  forSan  ^e  gehwilce  untrume 
and  forsewenlice  on  Sisuni  middanearde  swa  miccle  hraSor 
Godes  stemne  gehyraS,  swa  niicchnn  swa  hi  lytle  lustfullunge 
on  Sisum  life  habbaS. 

Se  ^eowa  cwae^,  "  Hlaford,  hit  is  gedon  swa  Su  hete,  and 
her  gyt  is  rymet  aenitig."  Micel  nienigu  ge^eah  Gode  of 
ludeiscre  ^eode,  frain  ealdum  dagum  0(S  Cristes  to-cynie, 
heahfedcras  and  witegan,  ac  Sa-gyt  wtes  ure  rymet  renitig, 
we  5e  of  ealluni  middanearde  to  Sjere  feorme  cumaJi ;  be  ^am 
cvvaeS  se  hhiford  to  San  Seowan,  "  Far  nu  geond  wegas  and 
hegas,  and  nyd  hi  inn  to  faronne,  j^iet  niin  hus  beo  gefyllcd." 
Mr  he  het  faran  to  strjetum  and  to  wTcum,  getacnigende  ))ait 
ludea  folc,  \>c  Surh  cySbe  )>cere  ealdan  ie  on  gehendnysse 
wa^ron.  Nu  he  het  faran  to  wegumand  to  hcgum,  getacni- 
gende j^a^t  wilde  folc  ])C  he  gegaderode  of  ealluni  middai)- 
earde.  Same  sind  gelaSode,  and  forhogiaiS  to  cumeinie  ; 
sume  sind  gelaSode,  and  cumaS  ;  sume  sind  geneadode  ]?8et 
Yii  cumaS.  Se  biS  geneadod  to  cumenne,  sebe  ^urh  unge- 
linipum  ))issere  worulde,  o^Se  ]jurh  untrumnysse,  bi^  tetbro- 
den  his  lustuni  and  idclnyssuni  andwerdcs  lifes,  and  ^urh 
Godes  gife  biS  oiibryrd  to  5an  ecan  life. 

Se  hiredcs  ealdor  cwte^,  "  Ic  secgc  eow  to  soiSan,  |;a3t  nan 
baera  wera  be  gela^ode  cunian  noldon,  ne  onbirig^  mines 
gereordes."  Efne  God  gelaba^  us  ['urh  bine  sylfne,  he  ge- 
laSab  |)urh  englas,  burh  heahfflederas,  j^urh  witegan,  ^urh 
apostolas,  J>urh  lareowas,  deeghwomlice.  He  gelaSa^  us  for- 
wel  oft  )>urh  wundruni,  hwilon  ^urh  swinglum,  hwilon  burh 
gesundfulnysse  )?ises  lifes,  hwilon  ^urh  ungelimpum.  Ne 
forseo  nan  nuin  Godes  stemne  and  his  gearcunge,  )7y-laes  ^e 
he  hinc  nu  bcladige,  and  eft  wylle  j^onne  he  ne  nifleg.     Ge- 


THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  377 

world  despises,  as  Paul  the  apostle  said,  "  God  chooses  the 
infirm  of  this  world,  that  he  may  confound  the  strong." 
Poor  and  infirm,  blind  and  halt  are  invited  to  God's  refection, 
and  they  come,  because  all  the  infirm  and  despicable  in  this 
world  hear  the  voice  of  God  by  so  much  the  more  quickly  by 
as  much  as  they  have  little  pleasure  in  this  life. 

The  servant  said,  "  Lord,  it  is  done  as  thou  hast  com- 
manded, and  yet  there  is  room  here  empty."  A  great  multi- 
tude had  thriven  to  God  of  the  Jewish  people,  from  old  days 
until  the  advent  of  Christ,  patriarchs  and  prophets,  but  yet 
our  room  was  empty,  we  who  from  all  the  world  come  to  the 
feast ;  of  whom  the  lord  said  to  the  servant,  "  Go  now 
through  the  ways  and  hedges,  and  compel  them  to  come  in, 
that  my  house  may  be  filled."  He  had  before  commanded 
him  to  go  to  the  streets  and  lanes,  betokening  the  Jewish 
people,  who,  through  knowledge  of  the  old  law,  were  at  hand. 
Now  he  commands  him  to  go  to  the  ways  and  to  the  hedges, 
betokening  the  wild  people  whom  he  gathered  from  all  the 
world.  Some  are  invited,  and  disdain  to  come;  some  are 
invited,  and  come ;  some  are  compelled  to  come.  lie  is 
compelled  to  come,  who  through  the  mishaps  of  this  world, 
or  through  infirmity,  is  taken  from  his  lusts  and  the  vanities 
of  the  present  life,  and  through  God's  grace  is  stimulated  to 
the  life  everlasting. 

The  chief  of  the  household  said,  *'  I  say  unto  you  in  sooth, 
that  none  of  those  men,  who  invited  would  not  come,  shall 
taste  of  my  refection."  Lo,  God  invites  us  through  himself, 
he  invites  us  through  angels,  through  patriarchs,  through 
prophets,  through  apostles,  tiirough  teachers,  daily.  He 
invites  us  very  often  through  miracles,  sometimes  through 
stripes,  sometimes  through  prosperity  of  this  life,  sometimes 
through  misfortunes.  Let  no  man  despise  the  voice  of  God 
and  his  preparation,  lest  he  now  excuse  hiuiself,  and  after- 
wards will  ^^hen  he  cannot.      Hear  how  the  w  isdom  of  God 


378  ALIA  NARRATIO  DE  EUANGELII  TEXTU. 

hyraS  hu  Godes  wisdom  clypode  j^urh  ^one  snoteran  Salomon, 
"  ponne  hi  clypiaS  to  me,  and  ic  hi  ne  gehyre ;  hi  arisa^  on 
aerne-merigen,  ac  hi  ne  gemeta^  me." 

pis  godspcll  is  nu  scortlice  getrahtnod  :  uton  biddan  ^one 
^hnihtigan  Drihten,  j^aet  he  us  gebringe  to  his  ecan  gebeor- 
scipe,  seSe  |?urh  his  to-cyme  us  "Sterto  gela^ode. 


ALIA  NARRATIO  DE  EUAxXGELII  TEXTU. 

MINE  gebroSrii,  we  wylhib  eow  gereccan  sume  Cristes 
vvundra,  to  getrymmincge  eowcres  geleafan.  We  sind  ge- 
cnffiwe  |?tet  we  hit  forgymelcasodon  on  ^am  diege  j^e  manu 
]><et  godspel  r?edde,  ac  liit  mu:>g  cow  nu  fremian  swa  micclum 
svva  hit  (Sa  mii;te. 

Urc  Drihti'u  astah  on  scip,  and  him  filigdon  his  leoriiing- 
cnihtas.  "  Efne  cia  ffjerlice  aras  micel  styrung  and  hrcohnys 
on  ^f'ere  sje,  swa  l^aet  ]>iet  scip  wearb  mid  ySum  oferSelit. 
Se  wind  him  stod  ongean  mid  ornifptum  bliede,  and  se 
Hffilend  weartS  on  slaepe  on  Sam  steor-setle  :"  et  reliqua. 

Se  Ilffilend  geswutelode  mid  ^am  slfspe  his  so^an  men- 
niscnysse,  and  mid  "Sam  wundre  his  godcundan  ma^gen- 
Srymnysse.  He  slep  swa  swa  soS  man,  and  he  Sa  y^i- 
gendan  sae  mid  anre  hiese  gestilde,  sua  swa  yEhiiihtig  Scyp- 
pend,  |7e  ter  gesette  5a?re  Sie  gemaeru,  |;jp.t  heo  nateshwon  ne 
mot  middanoard  ofergaii.  "  Hi  Sa  ofer-reovvon  "Sone  brym, 
and  gelendon  on  ^am  lande  \)e  is  gehaten  Gerasenorum.  Efne 
•SaSa  1)1  up-eodon,  arn  an  wod  man  togeanes  "Sam  Heeleiide, 
se  huefde  wununge  on  haeSenum  byrgenum,  and  bine  ne  mihte 
nan  man  mid  racenteagum,  ne  mid  fot-copsum  geheeftan  :" 
et  reliqua. 

An  eorod  is  on  bocum  geteald  to  six  Susendum,  and  swa 
fela  awyrigedra  gasta  wffiron  Sam  anum  men  getenge,  oSj^aet 
se  uiildlicorta  Drihten  to  Sam  laiidc  rcou',  and  hine  ahiedde. 


ANOTHER  NARRATIVE  ON  THE  TEXT  OF  THE  GOSPEL.    379 

cried  through  the  sagacious  Solomon,  "  Then  will  they  cry 
unto  me,  and  I  will  not  hear  them;  they  will  arise  at  early 
morn,  but  they  will  not  find  me." 

This  gospel  is  now  shortly  expounded  :  let  us  pray  the 
Almighty  Lord  tiiat  he  bring  us  to  his  everlasting  feast,  who 
through  his  advent  has  invited  us  thereto. 


ANOTHER  NARRATIVE  ON  THE  TEXT  OF  THE  GOSPEL. 

MY  brothers,  we  will  rt'hite  to  you  some  of  the  miracles  of 
Christ,  for  the  confirmation  of  your  belief.  We  are  aware 
that  we  neglected  it  on  the  day  that  the  gospel  was  read,  but 
it  may  profit  you  now  as  much  as  it  might  then. 

Our  Lord  entered  a  ship,  and  his  disciples  followed  him. 
"  Behold  then  suddenly  arose  a  great  tempest  and  roughness 
on  the  sea,  so  that  the  ship  was  covered  wilh  the  waves. 
The  vvind  stood  against  them  wilh  exceedingly  great  blast, 
and  Jesus  was  asleep  in  the  steerage,"  etc. 

Jesus  by  that  sleep  manifested  his  true  human  nature,  and 
by  the  miracle  his  divine  power.  He  slept  as  true  man,  and 
he  stilled  the  billowy  sea,  by  his  sole  behest,  as  Almighty 
Creator,  who  had  before  set  bounds  to  the  sea,  that  it  might 
not  overflow  the  world.  "  They  then  rowed  over  the  sea, 
and  landed  in  the  land  which  is  called  that  of  the  Gadarenes. 
Behold  as  they  went  up,  a  madman  ran  towards  Jesus,  who 
had  a  habitation  in  the  heathen  tombs,  and  no  man  could 
confine  him  with  chains  nor  with  fetters,"  etc. 


A  legion  is  in  books  reckoned  at  six  thousand,  and  so 
many  accursed  spirits  w(mo  weighing  down  that  one  man, 
until   the   mcrtiful    Lord  roucd  to  that   land,   and   (h'Tncred 


380  IN  FESTIUITATE  S.  PETRI  APOSTOLI. 

pa  deoflii  oncneowou  urne  Drihten  Crist,  and  j^set  ludeisce 
folc  hine  dwollice  wiSsoc,  and  sind  forSi  wyrsan  )?onne  ^a 
avvyrigedan  deoflii  |^e  feollon  to  his  fotum,  mid  fyrhte  fornu- 
mene.  Ne  dorston  ^a  deoflu,  ^a5a  hi  adrjefde  vvseron,  into 
^am  swynum,  gif  he  him  ne  sealde  leafe,  ne  into  naniun  men, 
forSan  ^e  se  Metoda  Drihten  ure  gecynd  hajfde  on  him 
sylfum  genumen.  Da  swyn  hi  gecuron  for  Sam  sweartum 
hiwe,  and  for  iSa?re  fuhiysse  fenlices  adelan.  Se  man  5e  htefS 
swynes  ^eawas,  and  wyle  hine  aSwean  mid  wope  fram  syn- 
num,  and  eft  hine  befyhm  fullice  mid  leahtrum,  swa  swa 
swyn  deS,  Se  cyrb  to  meoxe  aefter  his  Sweale,  ]?eawlcas 
nyten,  )?onne  bib  he  betaeht  )7am  atelicum  deoflum,  for  his 
fCdum  dipdum,  j'e  he  fyrnlice  ge-edheh5.  Se  Se  oft  gegrema« 
God  J^urh  leahtrum,  and  {fifre  ge-edltehS  his  yfehm  d^da,  he 
biS  swyne  gelic,  and  forscyldgod  wi^  God. 

Uton  we  herian  urne  Driliten  symle  on  his  micclum  wun- 
druni,  and  us  miltsunge  biddan,  and  yfel  forlaitan,  and  eft  ne 
ge-edl{ecan,  ]net  we  moton  stwindan  Sam  WHelhreawimi 
deoflum,  and  Gode  geSeon  ]?urh  godre  gehaltsuninysse,  j^am 
sy  wuldor  and  wurSniynt  a  to  worulde.     Amen. 


III.  KL.  lULII. 
IN  FESTIUITATE  SCT  PETRI  APOSTOLI. 

LUCAS  se  Godspellere  us  stede  on  Sissere  pistol-riedinge, 
]7aet  "  Herodes  cyning  wolde,  aefter  Cristes  upstige  to  heo- 
fenum,  geswencan  sume  of  ^eere  gelaSunge,  and  sende  werod 
ymbe  |?cet.  pa  ofsloh  he  lacobum,  lohannes  bro^or,  ]>iES 
Godspelleres,  and  geseah  \>iet  hit  gelicode  j^am  ludeiscum  ; 
and  wolde  gelaeccan  Petrum.  He  ^a  hine  gefeng,  and  on 
cwearterne  gebrohte,  and  betsehte  hine  on  Sam  heefte  sixtyne 
cempum  to  healdenne.  Hit  waes  ^a  Easter- tid,  and  for  Si  he 
elcodc  his  sieges.    Petrus  Sa  waes  gehaifd  on  Sam  cwearterne^ 


ox  THE  FESTIVAL  OF  SAINT  PETER  THE  APOSTLE.     381 

him.  The  devils  acknowledged  our  Lord  Christ,  and  the 
Jewish  people  erroneously  denied  him,  and  are  therefore 
worse  than  the  accursed  devils  that  fell  at  his  feet,  seized  with 
fright.  The  devils  durst  not,  when  they  were  driven  out, 
enter  into  the  swine,  if  he  had  not  given  tliem  leave,  nor  into 
any  man,  because  the  Lord  Creator  had  taken  our  nature  on 
himself.  They  chose  the  swine  for  their  swart  hue,  and  for 
the  foulness  of  the  fenlike  mud.  The  man  that  has  a  swine's 
habits,  and  will  wash  himself  with  weeping  from  sins,  and 
afterwards  foully  defile  himself  with  sins,  as  a  swine  does, 
which  returns  to  its  dunghill  after  its  washing,  an  ill-con- 
ditioned beast,  he  will  then  be  delivered  to  the  hateful  devils 
for  his  foul  deeds,  which  he  swinishly  repeats.  He  who  often 
angers  God  by  sins,  and  ever  repeats  his  evil  deeds,  is  like 
unto  a  swine,  and  guilty  towards  God. 

Let  us  ever  praise  our  Lord  for  his  great  wonders,  and 
pray  for  mercy,  and  forsake  evil,  and  repeat  it  not  afterwards, 
that  we  may  escape  from  the  cruel  devils,  and  thrive  to  God 
through  good  continence,  to  whom  be  glory  and  honour  ever 
to  eternity.     Amen. 


JUNE  XXIX. 
OX  THE  FESTIVAL  OF  SAIXT  PETER  THE  APOSTLE. 

LUKE  the  Evangelist  has  told  us  in  this  epistolary  lesson, 
that  "  Herod  the  king,  after  Christ's  ascension  to  heaven, 
would  aflflict  some  of  the  church,  and  sent  an  army  for  that 
purpose.  He  then  slew  James,  the  brother  of  John  the  Evan- 
gelist, and  saw  that  it  was  pleasing  to  the  Jews ;  and  would 
seize  Peter.  He  then  took  him,  and  brought  him  into  prison, 
and  delivered  him  to  be  held  in  the  keeping  of  sixteen  soldiers. 
It  was  then  Easter-tide,  and  therefore  he  delayed  the  sla\  ing 
of  him.     Peter  was  then  confined  in  the  prison,  and  all  the 


382  IN  FESTIUITATE  S.  PETRI  APOSTOLI. 

and  eal  seo  geleaffulle  gela^ung  buton  to-forl^etennysse  him 
fore  bwdon.     pa  heg  Petrus,  on  ^fere  nihte  |>e  Herodes  wolde 
bine  on  merigen  for^laedan,  betwux  twam  cempum  slapende, 
mid  twam  racenteagum  gettged  ;    and  ^a  wcardas  hcoldon 
\nes  cwearternes  Juru,  swa  swa  him  geboden  whss.     Efne  Sa 
com  Godes  engel  scinende,  and  ]>iet  blinde  cweartern  eal  mid 
leohte  afylde.     He  cnyste  ^a  Petres  sidan,  and  cwse^,  Aris 
hra"(5e ;  and  J?a  racenteagan  feoUon  Sa^rrihte  of  Petres  haiiduni. 
Se  engel  cw«^,  Begyrd  ))e,  and  sceo  ]?e,  and  fylig  me.    Petrus 
"Sa  him  filigde,  and  ^uhte  him  swilce  hit  swefen  wtere.     Hi 
"Sa  ofereodon  ^a  tvva  weard-setl,  oS)?aet  hi  becomon  to  "Sam 
isenan  geate,  and  ]?aet  tosprang  pferrihte  him  togeanes.     Hi 
eodon  forS,  o5}ja?t  hi  comon  to  anre  wic,  and  se  engel  him 
gewat  fram.     Petrus  Sa  beSohtc  bine  sylfne,  and  cvvaiS,  Nu 
ic  vvat  to  soSan  |;fet  Drihten  asende  his  engel,  and  me  ahredde 
fram  Herodes  h.andum,  and  fram  felcere  anbidunge  ludeisces 
folces.     He  becom  ba  to  his  geferum,  and  cnucode  aet  ^aere 
dura.      Him  arn    to   sum   madden   j)a^s  geleaflullan   \\eredes, 
hire  nama  waes  gecigcd  Rode  ;  and  Sa«Sa  heo  oncneow  Petres 
stemne,  ne  miiite  for  S;ere  blisse  ^a  duru  geopenian,  ac  cyrde 
ongean,  siede  ]>ipt  Petrus  ])aer  stode.     pa  geleaffidian  cvvredon 
J>{et  hit  nffire  Petrus,  ac  waere  his  engel.     Petrus  cnucode 
forS,  oS|>wt  hi  bine  inn  leton,  and  micclum  his  wundrodon. 
He  rehte  «Sa  him,  hu  God  bine  ahredde,  )nn-h  his  engel,  of  ^am 
cwearterne,  and  cwaeS,  Cy^aS  |?is  lacobe  and  urum  gebro- 
"Sriim ;  and  code  Sa  to  sumere  oSre  stowe.     Hwaet  "Sa,  on 
merigen  wearS  micel  styrung  betwux  iSam  cempum  ]>e  bine 
healdan  sceoldon.     And  Herodes  gewende  to  Cesaream,  and 
■Sser  haefde  gemot  vvi^  Tyrum  and  Sidoniscum,     Da  mid  ]fi\m 
Se  he  swiSost  motode,  on  his  dom-setle  sittende,  mid  cyne- 
licum  reafe  gescryd,  J?a  stop  him  to  Godes  engel,  and  bine 
ofsloh,  forSan  ^e  he  ne  sealde  Gode  nfenne  wur^mynt;   and 
he  Sffirrihte,  mid  wyrmum  fornumen,  gewat  of  life." 

pry  Herodes  we  rteda^  on  bocum.     An  waes  se  ^e  ^a  cild 


ON  THE  FESTIVAL  OF  SAINT  PETER  THE  APOSTLE.     383 

faithful  clmrch  without  intermission  prayed  for  him.  Peter, 
on  the  night  that  Herod  would  lead  him  forth  on  the  morrow, 
lay  sleeping  between  tvvo  soldiers,  bound  with  two  chains  ;  and 
the  keepers  held  the  door  of  the  prison,  as  they  had  been 
commanded.  Behold  then  came  an  angel  of  God  shining, 
and  filled  all  the  blind  prison  with  light.  He  then  struck 
Peter's  side,  and  said,  Arise  quickly  ;  and  the  chains  straight- 
ways  fell  from  Peter's  hanrls.  The  angel  said.  Gird  thee, 
and  shoe  thee,  and  follow  me.  Peter  then  followed  him,  and 
it  seemed  to  him  as  it  were  a  dream.  They  then  passed  by 
the  two  ward-seats,  imtil  they  came  to  the  iron  gate,  and 
that  straight  ways  sprang  open  towards  them.  They  went 
forth,  until  they  came  to  a  street,  and  the  angel  departed 
from  him.  Peter  then  bethought  himself,  and  said.  Now  I 
know  for  sooth  that  the  Lord  hath  sent  his  angel,  and  de- 
livered me  from  the  hands  of  Ilerod,  and  from  every  expecta- 
tion of  the  Jewish  people.  He  came  then  to  his  companions, 
and  knocked  at  the  door.  There  ran  towards  him  a  maiden 
of  the  faithful  company,  her  name  wa.s  called  llhoda  ;  and 
when  she  knew  Peter's  voice,  she  could  not  open  the  door 
for  gladness,  but  returned,  saying  that  Peter  was  standing 
there.  The  faithful  said  that  it  was  not  Peter,  but  was  his 
angel.  Peter  continued  knocking,  \nitil  they  let  him  in,  and 
greatly  wondered  at  him.  He  then  related  to  them,  how- 
God  had  delivered  him,  through  his  angel,  from  the  prison, 
and  said,  Announce  this  to  James  and  our  brothers  ;  and 
then  went  to  some  other  place.  Whereupoji,  on  the  morrow, 
there  was  a  great  stir  among  the  soldiers  who  should  have 
held  him.  And  Herod  went  to  CtEsarea,  and  there  lield  a 
council  against  the  Tyrians  and  Sidonians.  Then  while  he 
was  most  occupied,  sitting  in  his  judgement-seat,  arrayed  in 
kingly  raiment,  the  angel  of  God  approached  him,  and  slew 
him,  because  he  gave  no  honour  to  God  ;  and  he  straight- 
ways,  consumed  by  worms,  departed  from  life." 

We  read  of  three  Herods   in   books.     One  was  he  u  ho 


384  ITEM  DE  S.  PETRO, 

acwellaii  het  on  Cristes  aceiinediiysse ;  o^er  waes  his  sunn, 
se^e  lohanncs  J>one  Fulluhtere  beheafdian  het,  and  ge^waer- 
laehte  wi^  Pilate,  aet  ures  Drihtnes  ^rowunge ;  ]>ridda  is  Ses 
Herodes,  "Se  we  nu  embe  reccaS.  Hi  ealle  iSry  forferdon, 
and  eac  Pilatus  wear^  swa  micchnn  geangsumod  |'aet  he  hine 
sylfne  acwealde,  swa  swa  seo  hoc  '  Ecclesiastica  Historia' 
rec^. 

Eow  la?weduni  mannuni  mag  ^eos  anfcalde  racu  to  trym- 
niinge,  peah  ^e  ge  ^a  digehiysse  (Steron  ne  cunnon.  Nags 
swa-^eah  ^is  gedon  on  ^isuni  andwerdan  da^ge,  ac  we  hit 
healdab  on  ^a?re  nihte  J;e  ge  hatab  Hlaf-messe. 


ITEM   DE  SCO  PETRO. 

MATHEUS  se  Godspellere  awrat  on  Cristes  bee,  hu  se  halga 
Potrus  eode  uppon  ^jere  s}€  mid  Criste,  )?us  cwe^ende  :  lussit 
lesus  discipulos  ascendere  in  nauicuhini,  et  precedere  euni 
trans  fretum,  donee  diniitterct  turbas  :  et  rcli(iua. 

Se  Iliflcnd  wies  gebysgod  betwux  micelre  menigu  on  anum 
westene :  ])ix  "  het  he  hia  leorning-cnihtas  faran  to  scipe, 
and  ofer-rowan  j^one  bryni,  o5))a?t  he  "Sa  menigu  forhetan 
mihte  :"  et  rcliqua. 

Se  maera  Augustinus  us  onwreah  j^issere  raedinge  andglt, 
and  cwae^,  jjast  seo  sae  getacnode  pas  andwerdan  woruld,  ])e 
is  swiSe  y^igende  for  mislicum  styrungum  and  costnungum. 
On  Saere  see  swuncon  Cristes  leorning-cnihtas  on  nihtlicum 
rewette,  forSan  Se  Godes  gelaSung  swinc^  on  Sissere  worulde 
styrungum  and  hreohnyssum  hwilwendlice,  oSp^theo  becuine 
to  staSelfaestnysse  ]?ffira  lybbeiulra  eor^an. 

"  Crist  ana  astah  up  to  5c€re  dune,  J^aet  he  hine  gebaede." 
Seo  heage  dun  getacnab  j^iere  heofenan  heahnysse,  to  "Saere 
astah  se  Haelend  ana,  swa  swa  j^aet  godspel  seg^,  "  Nemo 
ascendit  in  coelum,  nisi  qui  de  coelo  descendit,  Filius  hominis, 


LIKEWISE  OF  ST.  PETER.  385 

commanded  the  children  to  be  killed  at  Christ's  birth ;  the 
second  was  his  son,  who  commanded  John  the  Baptist  to  be 
beheaded,  and  was  reconciled  with  Pilate,  at  our  Lord's 
passion  ;  the  third  is  this  Herod,  about  whom  we  now  relate. 
They  all  three  perished,  and  Pilate  also  was  so  greatly 
afflicted,  that  he  killed  himself,  as  the  book  '  Ecclesiastica 
llistoria  '  relates. 

To  you  laymen  this  simple  narrative  may  serve  as  a  con- 
firmation, though  ye  know  not  the  hidden  sense  therein. 
This  was  not,  however,  done  on  this  present  day,  but  we 
observe  it  on  the  night  which  ye  call  Lammas. 


I-IKKWISE   OF  ST.    I'KTER. 

MAITHEW  the  Evangelist  has  written  in  the  book  of 
Christ,  how  the  holy  Peter  went  upon  the  sea  with  Christ, 
thus  saying  :  Jussit  Jesus  discipulos  ascendere  in  naviculam, 
et  pryecedere  cum  trans  fretum,  donee  dimittcret  turbas  :  et 
reliqua. 

Jesus  was  busied  among  a  great  multitude  in  a  wilderness  : 
then  "  he  commanded  his  disciples  to  go  to  a  ship,  and  row- 
over  the  sea,  until  he  could  dismiss  the  multitude  :"  etc. 

The  great  Augiistinc  has  revealed  to  us  the  sense  of  this 
lesson,  and  said,  that  the  sea  betokened  this  present  world, 
which  is  very  billowy  through  divers  commotions  and  temp- 
tations. On  that  sea  toiled  the  disciples  of  Christ  in  a 
nightly  rowing,  because  God's  church  toils  temporarily  in 
the  commotions  and  tempests  of  this  world,  until  it  arrives  at 
the  steadfastness  of  the  earth  of  the  living. 

"  Christ  went  up  to  the  mount  alone,  that  he  might  pray." 
The  high  mount  betokens  the  highness  of  heaven,  to  which 
Jesus  alone  ascended,  as  the  gospel  says,  "  Nemo  ascendit 
in  coclum,  nisi  qui  de  coelo  descendit,  Filius  hominis,  (|ui  est 

noM.  VOL.  II.  2  c 


386  ITEM  DE  S.  PETRO. 

qui  est  in  coelo  :"  paet  is,  on  Englisc,  "  Nan  man  ne  astih^  to 
heofonum,  buton  sc  ^Se  of  heofenuni  astah,  mannes  Beam, 
se^e  is  on  heofenum."  Dis  fers  is  swiSe  deoplic  eow  to  un- 
derstandenne.  Crist  is  ana  mannes  Beam,  anes  mannes  and 
na  tvvegra,  nifedenes  and  na  vveres.  He  waes  on  eor^an 
wunigende  |?a^a  he  ^is  cwaeS,  and  his  lichama  ne  com  ^a-gyt 
to  heofenan  rice,  and  swa-^eah  he  cwje^,  "  Mannes  Beam  |>e 
of  heofenum  astah,  and  on  heofenum  is."  Ne  astah  his  men- 
niscnys  of  heofenum,  ne  ^a-gyt  to  heofenum  ne  com,  Sa^a  he 
5is  gecwfeS,  ac  he  cwaeS  ];is  unleasHce  for  "Ssere  soSan  an- 
nysse  his  hades.  lie  is  on  twam  gecyndum  an  Crist,  so5  man 
and  so5  God,  and  se  mannes  Sunu  is  Godes  Sunu,  and  se 
Godes  Sunu  is  mannes  Suiiu,  anes  mannes,  swa  Me  aer  cwae- 
don,  Marian  pjes  ma^denes.  Rihtlice  is  gecweden,  for  Saere 
annysse,  j^set  se  mannes  Sunu  of  heofenum  astige,  and  on 
heofenum  waere  ier  his  upstige ;  forSan  ^e  he  hsefde  on  Ssere 
Godcundnysse  Se  hine  underfeng,  ]>a3t  |?aet  he  on  menniscum 
gecynde  habban  ne  mihte.  Witodlice  seo  Godcundnys  |;e 
on  Sam  men  sticode,  waes  aeg^er  ge  on  heofenum  ge  on 
eor^an,  and  seo  gefylde  j'ysne  earfoSan  cwyde  ^urh  Sa  an- 
nysse Cristes  liades. 

Gyt  her  is  oSer  cnotta  ealswa  earfoSe,  paet  is,  "  Nan  man 
ne  astih^  to  heofenum,  buton  se  Se  of  heofenum  astah  ;"  and 
Crist  cwaeS  on  oSrum  godspelle,  "  ppev  J)fer  ic  sylf  beo,  j^aer 
bi^  min  "Sen."  Witodlice  Cristes  'Senas,  ytet  sind,  apostohis 
and  martyras,  andeteras  and  halige  faemnan,  becomon  to  heo- 
fenan rice,  swa  swa  he  sylf  cwae^ ;  and  ealle  Sa  j^e  ^urh 
claenre  drohtnunge  and  godum  geearnungum  Criste  iSenia^, 
becumaS  untwylice  to  his  rice.  He  is  eah-a  geleaflfulra  manna 
Heafod,  and  we  sind  his  lyma,  swa  swa  se  apostol  Paulus 
cwaeS,  "  Ge  sind  Cristes  lichama  and  his  lyma."  paet  Heafod 
ana  astah  mid  his  lymum ;  and  eft  on  domes  daege,  ]7onne  he 
us  gegadera^  and  ahef^  to  heofenum,  he  astihS  swa-^eah  ana, 
for^an  ^e  j^aet  heafod  mid  his  lichaman  is  an  Crist.  Augu- 
stinus  dixit,  quod  Christus  etiam  in  die  iudicii  solus  ascendit 


LIKEWISE  OF  ST.  PETER.  387 

in  coelo:"  that  is,  in  English,  *'  No  one  ascends  to  heaven, 
save  him  who  descended  from  heaven,  the  Son  of  man,  who 
is  in  heaven."  This  verse  is  very  deep  for  you  to  understand. 
Christ  alone  is  tlie  Son  of  man,  of  one  man  and  not  of  two, 
of  a  maiden  and  not  of  a  male.  He  was  sojourning  on  earth 
when  he  said  this,  and  his  body  had  not  yet  gone  to  the  king- 
dom of  heaven,  and,  nevertheless,  he  said,  "The  Son  of  man 
who  from  heaven  descended,  and  is  in  heaven."  His  humanity 
descended  not  from  heaven,  nor  had  yet  gone  to  heaven,  when 
he  said  this  ;  but  he  said  it  triilv  bv  reason  of  the  true  unity 
of  his  person.  He  is  in  two  natures  one  Christ,  true  man 
and  true  God,  and  the  Son  of  man  is  the  Son  of  God,  and 
the  Son  of  God  is  the  Son  of  man,  of  one  man,  as  wo  before 
said,  of  Mary  the  maiden.  It  is  rightly  said,  by  reason  of 
that  unity,  that  the  Son  of  man  descends  from  heaven,  and 
was  in  heaven  before  his  ascension  ;  because  he  had  in  the 
(iodjjead  whicii  received  him,  that  which  he  in  human  nature 
could  not  have.  For  the  Godhead  whicii  was  inherent  in  the 
man,  was  both  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  and  that  fulfilled  this 
difficult  sentence  through  the  unity  of  Christ's  person. 

There  is  yet  another  knot  equally  difficult,  that  is,  "  No 
man  ascendeth  to  heaven,  except  him  who  came  down  from 
heaven  ;"  and  Christ  said  in  another  gospel,  "  There  where  I 
myself  am,  there  shall  my  servant  be."  Now  the  servants 
of  Christ,  that  is,  apostles  and  martyrs,  confessors  and  holy 
women,  attain  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  as  he  himself  said  ; 
and  all  those  who  through  a  pure  life  and  good  deserts  serve 
Christ,  undoubtedly  attain  to  his  kingdom.  He  is  Head  of 
all  believing  men,  and  we  are  his  limbs,  as  the  apostle  Paul 
said,  "Ye  are  Christ's  body  and  his  limbs."  The  Head 
alone  ascended  with  his  limbs  ;  and  again  on  doom's  day, 
when  he  shall  gather  and  raise  us  to  heaven,  he  will,  never- 
theless, ascend  alone,  because  the  head  with  its  limbs  is  one 
Christ.     Augustinus  dixit,  quod  Christus  etiam  in  die  judicii 

2  c  2 


388  ITEM  DE  S.  PETRO. 

ill  caelum,  quamuis  sua  membra  secum  eleuet,  quia  caput 
cum  corpore  suo  unus  est  Christus.  He  astah  ana  up  to  ^a?re 
dune  hine  to  gebiddenne,  forSan  ^e  he  astah  to  heofenum, 
y<Bt  he  wolde  us  ^ingian  to  his  /Ehiiihtigan  Faeder,  and  swa- 
"Seah  "Sa  hwile  ^e  he  for  us  gebitt  on  Saere  heannysse,  swincS 
]>itit  scip,  jjcet  is,  seo  gela^ung  on  5am  deopum  y'Sum  Jnssere 
worulde.  Seo  gelaSung  mwg  beon  gedrefed  on  ^am  sf^licum 
y^um  ^yssere  worukle,  ac  heo  ne  maRg  beon  besenced,  for^an 
Se  Crist  for  hi  gebitt.  peah  j'eos  woruld  wede,  and  windige 
ehtnysse  astyrige  ongean  Cristes  gehiSunge,  ne  bi^  heo  swa- 
^eah  besenced. 

Drihten  com  to  his  leorning-cnihtum  ])ier  bfer  hi  on  re- 
wette  gedrefede  wwron,  on  ^jere  feorJSan  wteccan.  An  vvfecce 
hfpf^  ];reo  tida ;  feower  wteccan  gefyUaS  twelf  tida  ;  swa  fela 
tida  haefS  seo  niht.  He  com  Sa  on  JSa^re  niiite  gcendunge, 
and  he  cymJS  on  cnde  ]7yssere  worukle,  geendodre  nihte  un- 
rilitwisnysse,  to  demenne  cucum  and  deadum.  He  com  nu 
wunderlice  gangcnde  on  ^sere  sae;  |>a  ySa  arison,  ac  he  hi  of- 
trfed  ;  se  bryni  hwoSerode  under  his  fotswabum,  ac  swa-Seah 
he  hine  baer,  wolde  he  nolde  he.  peah  be  arlease  woruld- 
memi  arison  ongean  us,  swa-JSeah  ure  Heafod,  Crist,  oftret 
heora  heafod,  gif  we  us  sylfe  ne  forwyrcab  wi^  hine. 

"  Da^a  Drihten  Sam  scipe  genealaehte,  Sa  wurdon  hi 
afyrhte,  wendon  |>8et  hit  sum  gedwimor  wanre.  Drihten 
cweeS  him  to,  HabbaS  eow  truwan  ;  ic  hit  eom  ;  ne  beo  ge 
ofdraedde."  Ne  eom  ic  na  scinnhiw,  swa  swa  ge  wenaS  : 
oncnawa^  J>one  )?e  ge  geseoS.  "  Petrus  him  andwyrde, 
Drihten,  gif  5u  hit  sy,  hat  me  gan  to  "Se  bufon  Sam  wfeetere." 
Petrus  wfes  fyrmest  on  Sam  werede,  and  cafost  on  Cristes 
lufe.  He  wolde  gelome  ana  andwyrdan  for  hi  ealle,  swa  swa 
he  dyde  SaSa  Crist  hi  befran  hu  men  cwyddodon  be  him,  and 
sySSan  axode  hi,  *'  Hu  cweSe  ge  be  me  ?  pa  cwaeS  Petrus, 
Du  eart  Crist,  ]?fes  Lifigendan  Godes  Sunu."  An  andwyrde 
for  manegum,  forSan  Se  annys  waes  on  him  manegum.    Crist 


LIKEWISE  OF  ST.  PETER.  389 

solus  asccndit  in  cuelum,  quamvis  sua  membra  secum  elcvet, 
quia  caput  cum  corpore  suo  unus  est  Cliristus.  He  went 
alone  up  on  the  mountain  to  pray,  because  he  went  up  to 
heaven,  that  he  might  intercede  for  us  to  his  Almighty 
Father,  and,  nevertheless,  while  he  is  praying  for  us  on  the 
height,  the  ship,  that  is,  the  church,  is  labouring  in  the  deep 
waves  of  this  world.  The  church  may  be  afflicted  in  the  sea- 
like waves  of  this  world,  but  it  may  not  be  sunk,  because 
Christ  prays  for  it.  Tiiough  this  world  rage,  and  stir  u[) 
windy  persecution  against  Christ's  church,  yet  will  it  not  be 
sunk. 

The  Lord  came  to  his  disciples  where  they  were  toiling  in 
rowing,  in  the  fourth  watch.  A  watch  has  three  hours  ;  four 
watches  complete  twelve  hours  ;  so  many  hours  has  the  night. 
He  came  at  the  ending  of  the  night,  and  he  will  come  again 
at  the  end  of  this  world,  when  the  night  of  unrighteousness 
shall  be  ended,  to  judge  the  quick  and  the  dead.  He  came 
now  wonderfully  walking  on  the  sea  ;  the  waves  arose,  but 
la-  trod  them  down  ;  the  sea  roared  under  Ids  footsteps, 
but  yet  bore  him,  willingly  or  unwillingly.  Though  impious 
worldly  men  arise  against  us,  yet  shall  our  Head,  Christ, 
tread  down  their  heads,  if  we  do  not  fordo  ourselves  towards 
him. 

"  When  the  Lord  drew  near  unto  the  ship  they  were  afraid, 
thinking  that  it  was  an  apparition.  The  Lord  said  unto  them. 
Have  trust ;  it  is  I ;  be  ye  not  afraid."  I  am  not  a  phantom, 
as  ye  ween  :  know  him  whom  ye  see.  "  Peter  answered  him. 
Lord,  if  it  be  thou,  bid  me  come  unto  thee  on  the  water." 
Peter  was  foremost  in  the  company,  and  readiest  in  love  of 
Christ.  He  would  frequently  answer  for  them  all,  as  he  did 
when  Christ  questioned  them  how  men  spake  concerning 
him,  and  afterwards  asked  them,  "  What  say  ye  of  me  ? 
Then  said  Peter,  Thou  art  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  Living 
God."     One  answered  for  many,  because  unity  was  in  the 


390  ITEM  DE  S.  PETRO. 

cwae^  to  him  betwux  oSrum  wordum,  "  Ic  secge  j^e,  pu  eart 
Petrus,  and  ofer  ^isne  stan  ic  getimbrige  mine  cyrcan." 
Augustinus  tractauit,  quod  Petrus  in  figura  significat  eccle- 
siam,  quia  Christus  petra,  Petrus  populus  christianus.  /Er 
■bam  fyrste  waes  his  nama  Simon,  ac  Drihten  him  gesette 
J>isne  naman,  Petrus,  ]>adt  is,  '  steenen,'  to  5i  ])<et  he  haefde 
getacnunge  Cristes  gela^unge.  Crist  is  gecweden  '  petra,'  )?£Et 
is  '  Stan,'  and  of  ^am  naman  is  gecweden  '  petrus  '  eal  cristen 
folc.  Crist  cwfe^,  "  pu  eart  stienen,  and  ofer  ^isne  stan,  |).'jet 
is,  ofer  ^am  geleafan  ]?e  Su  nu  andettest,  ic  getimbrige  mine 
cyrcan."  'Ofer  me  sylfne  ic  getimbrige  mine  cyrcan,  ofer 
me  ic  getimbrige  ^e,  na  me  ofer  tie.  Ic  eom  seo  trumnyss 
be  be  healdan  sccal,  and  ealle  5a  getimbrunge  cristenre  gela- 
bunge.'  Nu  berb  Petrus  )^;et  hiw  obbe  getacnunge  ]>ie.re 
halgan  gehxbunge,  on  baere  he  is  ealdor  under  Criste,  and  mid 
his  gauge  getacnode  segber  ge  ba  strangan  ge  "ba  unstreingan 
on  Godes  folce.  Cristes  gehibung  htefb  on  hire  aeg^er  ge 
trume  ge  untrume.  lleo  ne  m;eg  beon  buton  strangum,  ne 
buton  unstrangum.  paSa  Petrus  caflice  stop  up  on  ^am 
sffilicum  ybum,  j^a  getacnode  he  ba  strangan.  Eft,  ^aba  him 
twynode,  and  be  sumon  dtele  deaf,  ^a  getacnode  he  ba  un- 
strangan.  Hwfet  sind  ^a  strangan,  hwffit  ba  unstrangan  ? 
Da  beob  strange  and  trume,  be  jnirh  geleafan  and  godum  ge- 
earnungum  wel  beonde  beob.  Da  sind  unstrange  \>e  shiwe 
beob  to  godum  weorcum.  Be  bam  cwaeb  Paulus  se  apostol, 
"  We  strange  sceolon  beran  baera  uustrengra  byrbene." 

On  Petres  gauge  so^lice  waeron  getacnode,  swa  swa  we  ier 
sj^don,  a^g^er  ge  ba  truman  ge  ba  untruman,  forban  ^e  Godes 
gela^ung  nis  buton  nab  rum  ^aera.  Petrus  cwae^b,  "  Drihten, 
hat  me  gan  to  ^e  up  on  ^am  vvaetere ;"  '  ]?8et  ic  ne  maeg  don 
|7urh  me,  ac  ic  mffig  j^urh  be;  gif  j^u  haetst,  bonne  nifeg  ic' 
Drihten  cwaeb,  ''  Cum  to  me."  And  Petrus  );airrihte,  buton 
felcere  twynunge,  code  of  ^am  scipe,  swibe  gebyld  ];urh 
Drihtnes  h^se,  and  eode  up  on  bam  waetere,  swa  swa  his 
Drilitcn  ;    na  burh  hinc  sylfne,  ac    burh   bone   -^Imihtigan 


LIKEWISE  OF  ST.  PETER.  391 

many.  Christ  said  to  him  among  other  words,  "  I  say  unto 
thee,  Thou  art  Peter,  and  over  this  stone  I  will  build  my 
church."  Augustinus  tractavit,  quod  Petrus  in  figura  signi- 
ficat  ecclesiam,  quia  Christus  petra,  Petrus  populus  christi- 
anus.  Before  that  time  his  name  was  Simon,  but  the  Lord 
appointed  him  this  name,  Petrus,  that  is,  of  stone,  to  the 
end  that  he  might  be  typical  of  Christ's  church.  Christ  is 
called  *  petra,'  that  is,  stone,  and  from  that  name  the  whole 
christian  people  is  called  '  petrus.'  Christ  said,  "Thou  art 
of  stone,  and  over  this  stone,  that  is,  over  the  belief  which 
thou  now  professest,  I  will  build  my  church."  '  Over  my- 
self I  will  build  my  church,  over  me  I  will  build  thee,  not 
me  over  thee.  I  am  the  firmness  that  shall  hold  thee,  and 
all  the  structure  of  the  christian  church.'  Peter  now  bears 
the  semblance  or  type  of  the  holy  church,  in  which  he  under 
Christ  is  chief,  and  by  his  walking  betokened  both  the  strong 
and  the  ueak  among  God's  people.  The  church  of  Christ 
has  in  it  both  firm  and  feeble.  It  cannot  be  without  strong, 
nor  without  weak.  When  Peter  quickly  stcpt  on  the  sea 
svaves,  he  then  betokened  the  strong.  Afterwards,  wiien  he 
doubted,  and  to  a  certain  degree  sank,  then  he  betokened  the 
weak.  Who  are  the  strong,  who  are  the  weak  ?  They  are 
strong  and  firm,  who  through  belief  and  good  deserts  are  well 
thriving.  They  are  weak  who  are  slow  to  good  works.  Of 
them  said  Paul  the  .ipostle,  "  W^e  strong  should  bear  the 
burthen  of  the  weak." 

Verily  by  the  walking  of  Peter  were  l)et(»kcned,  as  we  be- 
fore said,  both  the  firm  and  the  feeble,  for  God's  church  is 
without  neither  of  them.  Peter  said,  "  Lord,  bid  me  come 
to  thee  upon  the  water  ;"  *  I  cannot  do  it  through  myself, 
but  I  may  through  thee;  if  thou  biddest,  then  may  I.'  The 
Lord  said,  *'  Come  to  me."  And  Peter  straightways,  with- 
out any  doubting,  went  from  the  ship,  vcrj-  bold  through  the 
Lord's  behest,  and  went  upon  the  water,  like  unto  his  Lord  ; 
not  through  himself,  but  through  the  Almighty  Lord.     Then 


392  ITEM  DE  S.  PETRO. 

Drihten.  Da  geseuh  he  faerlice  pone  strangan  wind,  and 
begunn  hine  to  dndrsedenne,  and  mid  ]'am  ^e  he  deaf,  cly- 
pode  to  his  Drihtne,  "Drihten.  gehelp  min."  He  gedyrst- 
Icehte  to  ganne  up  on  ^sere  see  jjurh  Crist,  )>fet  lie  mihte  burh 
God,  ac  him  twynode  swa  svva  men.  Ne  biS  nan  man  trum 
"Surh  God,  buton  se  ^Se  hine  undergyt  untrumne  j^urh  hine 
sylfne.  Se  "Se  wile  5urh  his  agenum  crjefte  Godes  rice 
astigan,  he  sceal  feallan  underbjjec.  We  sceolon  cweSan  mid 
^am  witegan,  "  Si  dicebam  motus  est  pes  mens,  misericordiu 
tua,  Doinine,  adiuuabat  me:"  j^iet  is,  "  Gif  min  fut  aslad, 
Drihten,  5in  mildheortnys  geheolp  me." 

Ne  forlet  Drihten  Petrum,  beah  iSe  he  ^iirh  his  twynunge 
bedufe,  ac  astrehte  his  hand,  and  hine  gchcold  ;  forSan  Se 
hit  is  awritcn,  "  yElc  Sfera  manna  ]fc  Godcs  naman  clypa^, 
biS  gehcaldcn."  Witodlice  se  5e  ortruwaS  Godes  mildheort- 
nysse,  se  losao.  Drihten  tJreade  Petrum,  and  cwfeS,  "  pu 
lytles  gelcafan,  hui  twynode  \>c  ?"  Se  is  lytlcs  geleafan,  se^e 
hwjethwcga  gclyf 5  and  hw;ethwcga  twynaS.  Se  Se  mid  ealle 
twynaiS,  he  is  geleafleas ;  and  swa  swa  se  gelcafa  strcngra 
bi^,  swa  biS  J>pes  costneres  miht  Ifesse. 

Mine  gebroJSra,  behealdaS  5jf s  woruld  swa  swa  sae.  We 
sceolon  beon  on  ^issere  worulde  hreohnyssum  strange  on 
geleafan,  and  eft  on  hire  smyltnysse  swiSe  wtere.  Seo 
hreohnys  is  open  costnung,  and  sco  smyltnys  is  stulor  and 
digele  swica.  Gif  Su  lufast  God,  J^onne  fortrctst  "Su  J^a 
woruldlican  styrunga  ;  gif  ^u  lufast  |?as  woruld,  heo  besenc^ 
"Se,  forSan  "Se  heo  ne  cann  aberan  hire  lufigendas,  ac  canu 
bepfBcan.  Gif  Sin  heorte  floteraS  on  'Sissere  worulde  gyt- 
sunge,  oSSe  on  yfelre  gewilnunge,  and  ])u  wylle  hi  oferswySan, 
clypa  to  Cristes  fultume.  Ne  cep  ^u  swa  swiSe  J?ises  mid- 
daneardes  stylnysse,  ac  asmea  Sine  heortan,  hweeSer  heo  on 
stilnysse  sy.  Hawa  ]>set  se  inra  wind  |;e  ne  towende.  Micel 
gesselS  biS  J?e,  j^set  ^u  on  ^inre  gesiel^e  ne  forfare.  Leorna 
)78et  ^u  cunnc  fortrcdan  ^as  Moruld  :  trua  on  Crist,  and  gif 
^u  hwTlon   d}fst  f'urh   woruldlicuni  lustfullunguni,  cweS  to 


LIKEWISE  OF  ST.  PETER.  393 

saw  he  suddenly  the  strong  wind,  and  hegan  to  dread,  and 
when  lie  was  sinking,  he  cried  to  his  Lord,  "  Lord,  help  me." 
He  dared  to  go  upon  the  sea  through  Christ,  which  he  might 
through  God,  but  he  doubted  as  man.  No  man  is  firm 
through  God,  except  him  who  perceives  himself  feeble 
through  himself.  He  who  will  by  his  own  power  ascend  to 
the  kingdom  of  God,  shall  fall  backwards.  We  should  say 
with  the  prophet,  "  Si  diccbam  motus  est  pes  mens,  miseri- 
cordia  tua,  Domine,  adjuvabat  me:"  that  is,  "If  my  foot 
slided,  Lord,  thy  mercy  helped  me." 

The  Lord  left  not  Peter,  though  through  his  douhi  he  was 
sinking,  but  stretched  out  his  hand,  and  saved  him  ;  because 
it  is  written,  "  Every  man  who  calleth  on  God's  name,  shall 
be  saved."  Verily  he  who  despairs  of  God's  mercy  shall 
perish.  The  Lord  rebuked  Peter,  and  said,  "  Thou  of  little 
faith,  why  didst  thou  doubt  ?  "  He  is  of  little  faith,  who 
believes  a  little  and  doubts  a  little.  He  who  altogether  doubts, 
is  void  of  faith  ;  and  as  the  faith  is  stronger,  so  is  the  might 
of  the  tempter  less. 

My  brothers,  behold  tliis  world  as  a  sea.     We  should,  in 

the  tempests  of  this  world,  be  strong  in  belief,  and  afterwards 

in  its  calm  very  heedful.     The  tempest  is  open  temptation, 

and  the  calm  is  stealthy  and  clandestine  deception.     If  thou 

lovest  God,  then  wilt  thou  tread  down  worldly  commotions  ; 

if  thou  lovest  this  world,  it  will  sink  thee,  because  it  cannot 

bear  those  who  love  it,  but  can  deceive  them.     If  thine  heart 

floats  on  the  covetousness  of  this  world,  or  on  evil  desire,  and 

thou  wishest  to  overcome  it,  call  for  the  support  of  Christ. 

Regard  not  so  greatly  the  stillness  of  this  world,  but  consider 

thine  heart,  whether  that  be  in   stillness.     Look   that  the 

inward  wind  do  not  cast  thee  down.     It  will  be  a  great  bliss 

to  thee,  that  thou  perish  not  in  thy  bliss.     Learn  that  thou 

mayest  tread  down  this  world  :   trust  in  Christ,  and  if  thou 

sometimes  sink  through  worldly  enjoyments,  say  to  thy  Lord, 


394  DOM.  V.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

^inum  Drihtiie,  "  Drihten,  ic  losige  :  help  min."  CweS 
'^  ic  losige,"  5y-l^s  "Se  Su  losige.  Drihten  astrecb  his  hand, 
and  ^e  gehylt,  gif  "Su  anraedlice  his  fultumes  gewilnast. 

Drihten,  "SaSa  he  to  lande  beconi,  gehjelde  ealle  ^a  untrii- 
man  \>e  him  to  gelfedde  wferon,  |?urh  his  reafes  hrepunge. 
Deor\vur"Se  vvferon  ^a  fnaedu  ]>e  swa  eaSelice  ]>a  untrumnyssa 
aflygdon,  swa  swa  we  raedaS  be  sumon  wife,  "  ]>e  wses  twelf 
gear  geuntrumod  ^iirh  blodes  ryne.  Da  eode  heo  betwux 
]7ferc  menigu  be  se  Hwlcnd  onferde,  and  cwae^  to  hire  sylfre, 
Gif  ic  hum  his  reafes  gefneedu  hreppe,  ic  beo  sona  hal."  Heo 
creap  Sa  betwux  ^am  niaiinum,  ba^ftan  |?ani  Ha^lende,  and 
forstrel  hire  htelu,  swa  j>;et  heo  hrcpode  his  reafes  fnaHlu,  and 
hire  blodes  gyte  sona  aetstod.  "  pa  cwc-e^  se  Hcelend,  Hwa 
hreopode  me  ?  Petrus  him  andwyrde,  La  leof,  )>cos  menigu 
(Se  ofSrincS,  and  ^u  axast  hwii  (Se  hreopode.  Drihten  cwjeS, 
Sum  man  me  hreopode  :  witodlice  ic  gefredde  j^eet  Saere  hfelSe 
miht  of  me  eode."  pfet  folc  bine  j'rang,  ac  ]>8et  wTf  bine 
hrepode  synderlice  mid  gcleafan.  Heo  geseah  ^a  J^tet  bit 
digele  na^s,  and  feol  bifigende  to  "Sffis  Hfelendes  foton,  and 
stede  ffitforan  eallum  Sam  folce  hwi  heo  bine  hrepode,  and 
hu  heo  baerrihte  gehteled  wearb.  Drihten  hire  cwaeS  to, 
"  Dohtor,  bin  geleafa  ]>e  gebjelde.     Gang  Se  nu  on  sibbe." 

We  biddaS  nu  Sone  ^-Elmibtigan  Drihten,  j^fet  he  us  fram 
synnum  geclsensige,  and  ure  sawla  gehajle,  and  fram  eallum 
frecednyssum  abredde,  Surb  his  apostola  Singrfedene,  Petres 
and  Paules,  ]?e  we  to-da^g  wurSia^.  Sy  him  wuldor  and  ]C)f 
on  ealra  worulda  woruld.     Amen. 


DOM.  V.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 


CUM  multa  turba  esset  cum  lesu,  nee  haberent  quod  man- 
ducarent :  et  reliqua. 

Marcus  se  Godspellere  cwse^  on  "Sisum  daeg'Serlicum  god- 
spellc,  ]?aet  "on  sumerc   tide   w«s  micel  menigu  mid  |>am 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  395 

"Lord,  I  perish:  help  me."  Say  "I  perish,"  lest  thou 
perish.  The  Lord  will  stretch  out  his  hand,  and  save  thee, 
if  thou  earnestly  desire  his  aid. 

The  Lord,  when  he  came  to  land,  healed  all  the  sick  that 
were  led  to  him,  through  the  touching  of  his  garment.     Pre- 
cious were  the  hems  that  could  so  easily  put  sicknesses  to 
flight,  as  we  read  of  some  woman,  "  who  was  twelve  years 
afflicted  with  a  running  of  blood.     She  then  went  among  the 
multitude  that  Jesus  preceded,  and  said  to  herself.  If  I  only 
touch  the  hems  of  his  garment,  I  shall  forthwith  be  whole." 
She  crept  then  among  the  men,  behind  Jesus,  and  stole  her 
health,  so  that  she  touched  the  hems  of  his  garment,  and  her 
running  of  blood  forthwith  stopt.     "Then  said  Jesus,  Who 
touched  me  ?   Peter  answered  him,  Sir,  this  nuiltitude  presseth 
thee,  asid  thou  askest  who  touched   thee.     The   Lord  said, 
Some  one  touched  me  ;   for  I  felt  that  the  power  of  healing 
went  from  me."     The  people  pressed  him,  but  tlio  woman 
alone  touched  him  with  belief.    She  saw  that  it  was  not  secret, 
and  fell  trembling  at  the  feet  of  Jesus,  and  said  before  all  the 
folk  why  she  had  touched  him,  and  how  she  was  straightways 
healed.     The  Lord  said  to  her,  "  Daughter,  thy  belief  hath 
healed  thee.     Go  now  in  peace." 

We  pray  now  the  Almighty  Lord,  that  he  cleanse  us  from 
sins,  and  heal  our  souls,  and  save  them  from  all  perils,  through 
the  mediation  of  his  apostles,  Peter  and  Paul,  whom  we  to- 
day honoin*.  Be  to  him  glory  and  praise  for  ever  and  ever. 
Amen. 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  ATTER  PENTECOST. 

CUM  multa  turba  essct  cum  Jcsu,  ncc  habercnt  quod  man- 
ducarent  :  et  reliqua. 

Mark  the  Evangelist  said  in  this  day's  gospel,  that  "  on  a 
certain  time  a  great  multitude  was  with  Jesus  in  a  wilderness 


396  DOM.  V.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

Htelende  on  anum  westene  meteleas.  pa  clypode  se  Hteleiul 
his  leorning-cnihtas  him  to,  and  cwaeS,  Me  ofhreow^  })issere 
nienigu  :"  et  reliqua. 

On  o'Sre  stowe  we  rjeda^  ]r<et  se  Hfelend  gereordode  mid 
fif  berenum  hlafum  and  mid  twani  fixum  fif  buscnd  manna, 
and  ^aer  waeron  to  hife  tuera  crumena  twelf  wylian  fulle.  ^^i 
"Sisum  gereorde  waeron  seofon  hlafas  and  feawa  fixa.  Her 
Wferon  gereordode  feowcr  busend  maima,  and  seofan  spyrtan 
afyllede  mid  |;am  bricum.  On  5ani  jerran  gereorde  wjps  ge- 
tacnod  seo  dihle  lar  j?e  stod  on  fif  Moyscs  bocum,  )nn*h  Sam 
fif  berenum  hlafum,  ]>e  Sa  mcnigu  gereordodoii.  pajra  fif 
boca  andgit  gcopenodc  se  .tlhnihtiga  Lareow  Crist  his  leorn- 
ing-mannum,  and  hi  siSJSan  oSrum,  oSj^a^t  hit  to  Us  becom. 
SoSlice  on  ^isum  gereorde  \v«>s  getiicnod  sco  soSfa^stnyss 
and  seo  gifu  5e  (Surii  Crist  gcfremod  wearS  on  'Sa?rc  Niwan 
GecySnysse.  Drihten  c\v;e5,  "  Me  of hreow^  ]?yssere  mcnigu, 
forSan  5c  hi  nu  for  5rim  dagum  her  min  andbidodon,  and  hi 
nabbaS  hwa^t  hi  eta^."  Durli  his  soSan  menniscnysse  him 
ofhreow  Saes  folces  meteleast,  and  j?urh  liis  a^hnihtigan  God- 
cundnysse  lie  hi  eaSdice  gereordode.  paet  folc  andbidode 
^ry  dagas  mid  "Sam  Ilfelende  for  ha»lSe  heora  untrumra,  and 
nu  dceghwomlice  Godes  gecorenan  mid  geleafan  ]?fere  Ilalgan 
Drvnnvsse  anbidiacS,  biddende  heora  sawla  bailee,  and  heora 
freonda,  and  aweiida^  heora  gcSohtas,  and  word,  and  wcorc 
to  Gode. 

He  cwae^,  "  Gif  ic  hi  forla'te  f^estende  ham  gecyrran,  )?omie 
ateoria^  hi  be  wege."  Drihten  nolde  forlaetan  jja  nienigu 
fjestende  him  fram  gecyrran,  5y-lfes  "Se  hi  be  wege  gewaehte 
ateorodon ;  for^ian  Se  he  fett  "Sa  ^e  i5urh  d^dbote  him  to 
bugaS  mid  bigleofan  ]>ffire  halgan  lare.  Gif  he  hi  forltel  buton 
^am  godspellican  fodan  on  heora  andgite,  ]?onne  ateoria^  hi 
be  wege  'Sises  andwerdan  lifes.  "  Sume  hi  comon  feorran." 
Sume  men  sindon  on  Godes  gela^unge,  ^e  on  lytlum  ^ingum 
wis  God  agvlton,  and  bi^San  mid  soSre  diedbote  to  Gode 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  397 

meatless.     Then  Jesus  called  his  disciples  to  him,  and  said, 
I  have  compassion  on  this  multitude,"  etc. 

In  another  place  we  read  that  Jesus  fed  with  five  barley 
loaves  and  with  two  fishes  five  thousand  men,  and  there  were 
left  of  the  crumbs  twelve  baskets  full.  At  this  refection  there 
were  seven  loaves  and  a  few  fishes.  Here  were  fed  four 
thousand  men,  and  seven  baskets  filled  with  the  fragments. 
In  the  first  refection,  the  hidden  lore  that  stood  in  the  five 
books  of  Moses  was  betokened  by  the  five  barley  loaves, 
which  refected  the  multitude.  The  sense  of  the  five  books 
the  Almighty  Teacher  Christ  opened  to  his  disciples,  and 
they  afterwards  to  others,  until  it  came  to  us.  But  in  this 
refection  were  betokened  the  truth  and  the  grace  which  were 
accomplished  through  Christ  in  the  New  Testament.  The 
Lord  said,  "  I  have  compassion  on  this  nmltitude,  because 
tiiey  now  for  three  days  have  awaited  me  here,  and  they  have 
not  anything  to  eat."  Through  his  true  humanity  he  had 
compassion  on  the  people's  want  of  food,  and  through  his 
almighty  Godhead  he  easily  fed  them.  The  people  abode 
three  days  with  Jesus  for  the  healing  of  their  sick,  and  now 
daily  God's  chosen,  with  belief,  await  the  Holy  Trinity, 
praying  for  their  own  and  their  friends'  souls'  health,  and 
turn  their  thoughts,  and  words,  and  works  to  God. 

He  said,  "  If  I  send  them  away  to  return  home  fasting, 
they  will  perish  bv  the  way.  '  The  Lord  would  not  send 
the  midtitude  from  him  to  return  fasting,  lest,  fainting  by 
the  way,  they  might  perish  ;  because  he  feeds  those  who  by 
repentance  turn  to  him,  with  the  food  of  the  holy  doctrine. 
If  he  sends  them  away  without  the  evangelical  food  in  their 
understanding,  then  will  they  perish  by  the  way  of  this  pre- 
sent life.  "  Some  came  from  afar."  Some  men  are  in  God's 
church,  who  in  little  things  have  siimed  against  God,  and 
afterwards  with  true  repentance  returned  to  God  :  such  have 


398  DOM.  V.  POST  FEiNTECOSTEN. 

gecyrdon  :  );yllice  iie  comon  na  feorran,  forbaii  Se  hi  Surh 
heora  imscee^JSignysse  him  gehende  wferon.  Sume  sindon 
J?e  aefter  fyrnlicum  leahtrum,  sume  sefter  facne  and  sefter  leas- 
gewitnysse,  sume  aefter  stale,  sume  sefter  reaflace,  sume  aefter 
manslihte,  to  so^re  daedbote  gecyrra^,  and  to  ^am  wynsuman 
geoce  Godes  )?eowdomes :  |?as  Syllice  cuma^  feorran,  forSan 
•Se  swa  hi  swiSor  dwelodon  on  Swyrlicum  daedum,  swa  hi 
swiiSor  fram  '5am  yEhnihtigan  Gode  fyrr  gewiton.  Ilim  biti 
swa-^eah  foda  forgifen,  forSan  5e  JAam  gecyrredum  synfullan 
biS  gegearcod  mete  ^aere  lialgan  lare,  j^aet  hi  ge-edniwian 
niagon  on  Gode  ba  nirt'genu  \>e  hi  on  leahtrum  forluron.  Eac 
■5a  5e  of  ludeiscum  folce  on  Crist  gelyfdon,  comon  liim  iiean 
to,  formal!  '5e  hi  waeron  be  him  geUerede  JHuh  5a  ealdan  ae  and 
•Saera  witegena  cwydum.  pa  so^lice  5e  gelyfdon  on  Crist  of 
hfe^enum  folce,  5a  comon  him  feorran  to,  for5an  ^e  ht  naeron, 
5urh  nanre  bociicere  lare,  be  his  geleafan  gemanode. 

Das  seofon  hlafas  aet  pisum  gcreorde  sind  gesette  on  geryne 
^a^re  Niwan  Gecy5nysse  for  5aere  seofonfealdan  gife  ]>ies 
Halgan  Gastes,  )?e  Godes  gecorenum  bi5  oiiwrigen  and  for- 
gifen. pa  seofonfealde  gife  we  saedon  eow  hwilon  aer,  and 
gyt  wylla5.  An  is  se  Halga  Gast  ]>e  syl^  gecorenum  man- 
num  ^a  seofonfealdan  gife,  ]7aet  is,  wisdom  and  andgit,  r^d 
and  strengS,  ingehyd  and  arfaestnys ;  Godes  ege  is  seo  seo- 
fo5e.  Se  5e  Jjissera  gifa  orhlyte  eallungc  bi^,  naef^  he  ge- 
manan  mid  Godes  gecorenum. 

JEi  5am  serran  gcreorde,  saet  seo  menigu  uppon  ^am  gaerse, 
and  on  ^isuni  gcreorde  nis  ]fses  gaerses  nan  gemynd,  ac  Crist 
hi  het  sittan  uppon  latere  eor^an,  for^an  "Se  us  is  beboden, 
"Surh  gewrite  Saere  ealdan  ae,  ofsittan  and  fortredan  ^a  gevvil- 
nigendlican  lustas ;  and  on  iSaere  Niwan  Gecy^nysse  us  is 
beboden  )>aet  we  sceolon  forlaetan  ]>i\s  eorSan  and  ^a  hwil- 
wendlican  aehta,  gif  we  willa^  fulfremede  beon.  pis  is  swa- 
•Seah  feawra  manna  daed,  ]?aet  hi  ealle  eor51ice  ■5iiig  saemninga 
forlfetan  magon.  Se  ^e  eallunge  ^a  eorSlican  gestreon  for- 
laetan ne  maeg,  forlaete  hi  swa-5eah  mid  his  ge^ance,  swa  ]>set 
he  ne  besette  his  hiht  on  5am  ateorigendlicum  spedum,  ac  on 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  399 

not  come  from  afar,  because,  by  reason  of  their  innocence, 
thev  were  near  to  him.  Some  there  are  who  after  old  sins, 
some  after  fraud  and  after  false  witness,  some  after  stealing, 
some  after  rapine,  some  after  homicide,  turn  to  true  repent- 
ance, and  to  the  winsome  yoke  of  God's  service  :  such  as 
these  come  from  afar,  because  the  more  they  erred  in  perverse 
deeds,  by  so  much  the  more  they  seceded  further  from  Al- 
mighty God.  To  them  shall,  nevertheless,  food  be  given, 
because  for  the  converted  sinful  meat  of  the  holy  doctrine 
shall  be  prepared,  that  they  may  renew  in  God  those  virtues 
which  they  lost  in  sins.  Those  also  of  the  Jewish  folk,  who 
believed  in  Christ,  came  near  to  him,  because  they  had  been 
instructed  concerning  him  by  the  old  law  and  the  sayings  of 
tiie  prophets.  But  those  of  the  heathen  folk  wiio  believed 
in  Christ  came  to  him  from  afar,  because  they  had  not  by  any 
book-lore  been  admonished  concerning  his  belief. 

The  seven  loaves  at  this  refection  are  set  in  the  mystery  of 
the  New  Testament  for  the  sevenfold  grace  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  which  will  be  revealed  and  given  to  God's  chosen. 
The  sevenfold  grace  we  have  mentioned  to  you  a  while  before, 
and  will  yet  again.  It  is  the  Holy  Ghost  alone  who  gives  to 
chosen  men  the  sevenfold  grace,  that  is,  wisdom  and  under- 
standing, counsel  and  strength,  knowledge  and  piety  ;  awe  of 
God  is  the  seventh.  He  who  is  wholly  devoid  of  tliese  gifts, 
has  no  communion  with  God's  chosen. 

At  the  former  refection,  the  multitude  sat  on  the  grass, 
and  in  this  refection  there  is  no  mention  of  the  grass,  but 
Christ  bade  them  sit  on  the  earth,  because  it  is  enjoined  us, 
by  the  writing  of  the  old  law,  to  press  down  and  tread  on  the 
concupiscent  pleasures ;  and  in  the  New  Testament  it  is  en- 
joined us  to  forsake  the  earth  and  transitory  possessions,  if 
we  desire  to  be  perfect.  This  is,  however,  the  deed  of  few 
men,  to  be  able  at  once  to  leave  all  earthly  things.  Let  him 
who  cannot  wholly  forsake  earthly  treasures,  forsake  them  at 
least  in  his  thought,  so  that  he  set  not  his  hope  in  perishable 


400  DOM.  V.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

iSam  iElmihtigaii  Drihtne,  and  freinige  hafenleasum  mid  his 
liaefene.  We  rada^  on  Cristes  bee,  j^eet  sum  welig  maiin 
com  to  ^am  Haelende,  and  feoll  to  his  fotum,  ^us  cweSende, 
"  Eahi  ^u  goda  lareow,  hwaet  sceal  ic  don  ptet  ic  htebbe  J^eet 
ece  lif  ?  Drihten  him  andwj  rde,  Gif  5u  wylt  becuman  to 
^an  ecan  life,  heald  j^as  bebodu  :  Ne  ofslili  ^u  mann,  Ne 
unriht-hrem  Su,  Ne  stala  ^u,  Ne  beo  ISu  leas  gewita,  Arwur^a 
]?inne  feeder  and  ^ine  modor,  and  Lufa  binne  nextan  swa  svva 
•Se  sylfne.  Da  andwyrde  se  rica,  and  cwaeS,  Ealle  5as  }>ing 
ic  heold  symle  fram  minum  geogo^hade.  Him  andwyrde  eft 
s<?  Haelend,  and  cwaeJS,  Anes  Singes  5e  is  wana  :  far  nu,  and 
beceapa  wiS  feo  ealle  Sine  fphta,  and  dael  ^earfum,  and  \>\i 
hfpfst  ^onnc  |>inne  goldhord  on  heofonan  rice  ;  and  cum,  and 
filig  me."  pis  is,  swa  we  jer  cwsdon,  feaw  ra  mainia  d<ed, 
and  swa-^eah  fulfremedra. 

Drihten  Sancode  aerSan  JSe  he  ba  hlafas  tobrfece,  swuteli- 
gende  hu  miccluni  he  blissab  for  mancynnes  ha^lu  ;  and  us 
mid  San  tihte  ])d^t  we  sceolon  him  Sancian,  swa  oft  swa  we 
urne  lichaman  mid  corSlicum  biglcofan,  oSSe  ure  sawle  mid 
halwendre  lare  gereordiaS.  Se  Haelend  Sa  tobrtec  Sa  hlafas, 
and  sealde  his  leornerum,  pa^t  hi  hit  ^am  folce  djelan  sceol- 
don,  forSan  iSe  he  Sa  gastlican  lare  him  forgeaf,  ]}mt  hi  hi 
dieldon  eallum  geleaffullum  Seodum.  Be  Sam  gedale  cwae^ 
sum  witega  oSrum  andgite  :  "  Paruuli  petierunt  panem,  nee 
erat  qui  frangeret  eis  :"  j^jet  is,  on  urum  gereorde,  "  Da  lytlan 
cild  baedon  him  hlafes,  ac  j^ser  naes  nan  mann  ^e  j^one  hlaf 
him  betwynan  tobraece."  pset  is,  j^a  ungelcieredan  sohton 
■Sone  bigleofan  Godes  wordes,  ac  hi  nsefdon  ^one  lareow  ^e 
him  cu^e  |?a  digelan  lare  geopenian,  and  hi  to  so^faestnysse 
wege  geweman.  Hlaf  is  ^ees  lichaman  bigleofa,  and  lar  is 
•Spere  sawle  foda.  pa  fixas  on  Sisum  gereorde  getacnodon  -Sa 
lareowas  ^e  ^a  larlican  bee  awriton,  be  dihte  pass  Halgan 
Gastes.  "  past  folc  set,  and  hi  wurdon  ealle  gefyllede."  Da 
gereordiaS  of  Drihtnes  hlafum,  and  beoS  gefyllede,  ]>a.  Se  his 
lare  gehyracS,  and  "Surh  Sa  hi  sylfe  gerihtlaPcaS  ;  forSan  |>e 


THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  40] 

riches,  but  in  the  Ahiiighty  Lord,  and  do  good  to  the  indigent 
with  his  wealth.  We  read  in  the  book  of  Christ,  that  a 
wealthy  man  came  to  Jesus,  and  fell  at  his  feet,  thus  saying, 
"  O  thou  good  master,  what  shall  I  do  that  I  may  have  ever- 
lasting life?  The  Lord  answered  him,  If  thou  wilt  attain  unto 
everlasting  life,  hold  these  commandments  :  Slay  no  one, 
Commit  not  adultery.  Steal  not,  Be  not  a  false  witness.  Honour 
thy  father  and  thy  mother,  and  Love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself. 
Then  answered  the  rich  man,  and  said.  All  these  things  I 
have  ever  held  from  my  youth.  Jesus  again  answered  him, 
and  said.  One  thing  is  wanting  to  thee :  go  now,  and  sell  for 
money  all  thy  possessions,  and  distribute  it  to  the  poor,  and 
thou  wilt  then  have  thy  treasure  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven  ; 
and  come,  and  follow  me."  This  is,  as  we  before  said,  the 
deed  of  few  men,  and  yet  of  perfect  ones. 

The  Lord  thanked  before  he  brake  the  loaves,  manifesting 
how  greatly  he  rejoices  for  the  happiness  of  mankind  ;  and 
thereby  prompts  us  to  thank  him,  as  often  as  we  nourish  our 
bodies  with  earthly  food  or  our  souls  with  salutary  doctrine. 
Jesus  then  brake  the  loaves,  and  gave  to  his  disciples,  that 
they  might  deal  them  to  the  folk,  for  he  then  gave  them 
the  ghostly  lore,  that  they  might  propagate  it  among  all 
believing  nations.  Of  this  distribution  a  profjiiet  said  in 
another  sense,  "  Parvuli  petierunt  panem,  nee  erat  qui  fran- 
geret  eis  :"  that  is,  in  our  tongue,  "  The  little  children  begged 
them  bread,  but  there  was  no  man  to  break  the  bread  among 
them."  That  is,  the  unlearned  sought  the  food  of  God's 
word,  but  they  had  not  a  teacher  that  was  able  to  open  to 
them  the  hidden  lore,  and  incline  them  to  the  way  of  life. 
Bread  is  the  sustenance  of  the  body,  and  instruction  is  the 
food  of  the  soul.  The  fishes  in  this  refection  betokened  the 
teaciiers  who  wrote  the  books  of  the  law,  by  direction  of  the 
Holy  Ghost.  "The  folk  ate,  and  were  all  filled."  They 
feed  on  the  Lord's  bread,  and  are  filled,  who  hear  his  instruc- 
tion, and  through  it  correct  themselves  ;   for  instruction  is 

HOM.    VOL.    II.  2    » 


402  DOM.  V.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 

seo  lar  biS  on  ydel  gehyred,  baton  hco  beo  to  weorcum 
awend.  peah  "Se  j^e  man  bere  mete  toforan,  hwonlice  ■Se 
frema^  ]?set  "Su  hine  geseo,  buton  5u  his  onbyrige.  Swa  eac 
"Se  ne  fremaS,  |?eah  ^e  bu  j^a  halgan  lare  gehyre,  buton  5u  hi 
to  godum  weorcum  awende. 

"  Of  ^aere  lafe  wseron  gefyllede  seofan  sp^Ttan."  pa  seo- 
fan  spyrtan  habbaS  J'a  ylcan  getacnunge  ]>e  Sa  scofon  hlafas 
haefdon.  Spyrte  bib,  swa  swa  ge  sylfe  witon,  of  rixum  ge- 
broden,  o5be  of  pahn-twygum.  Rixe  wcaxst  gewunelice  on 
w?eterigum  stowum,  and  se  palm  is  sigc-beacen  ;  and  Godes 
gecorenum  gcdafonaS  J^fEt  hi  heora  heortan  wyrtruman  on 
"Sam  llflicum  wylle,  |)a^t  is,  God,  gelogian  ;  )>y-l(jps  Se  In  for- 
searian  frani  his  ccan  lufe  ;  and  hi"  sceolon,  mid  sige  )>a^s 
gastlican  gccanipcs,  to  him  eft  gecyrran,  J^e  ht  to  Sam  gcfeohte 
^r  asende.  Se  5e  wile  campian  ongean  Sam  ret5an  deofle 
mid  f^estum  geleafan  and  gastlicum  wa'pnum,  he  l)egyt  sige 
Snrh  Godes  fyli^te ;  and  se  Se  feohtan  ne  dear  mid  Godes 
gewjepnungc  ongean  Sone  ungcsewenlican  feond,  he  biS  ]7onne 
mid  Sam  dcofcllicuin  bendvmi  gewyld,  and  to  tintregum  ge- 
laedd. 

"  paer  w^eron  gcrcordode  feowcr  |>usend  manna."  Mid 
•San  feowcrfealdum  gctele  waes  getacnod  seo  feowerfealde 
Cristes  boc,  J?e  "Sa  gelcaftullan,  j^iirh  hire  lare,  d;pghwomlice 
gereorda^. 

Mine  gebro"Sra,  ne  ^ince  eow  to  hcfigtyme  ]>ipt  ge  iSas  god- 
spellican  lare  gehyrdon.  We  aweria^  us  mid  paere  segene, 
aweriaS  eow  mid  ]?flere  lare  fremminge,  )?aet  we  ealle  habban 
moton  "Sa  mede  \)e  mannes  eage  ne  geseah,  ne  eare  ne  ge- 
hyrde,  ne  on  mannes  heortan  ne  astah,  )7a  "Se  God  gearca^ 
Sam  eallum  |?e  hiiic  lufia^,  se^e  leofa^  and  rixaS  on  ealra 
worulda  woruld.     Amen. 


THI-:  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST.  403 

heard  in  vain,  unless  it  be  turned  to  works.  Though  meat 
be  brought  before  thee,  little  will  it  profit  thee  that  thou  see 
it,  unless  thou  taste  it.  In  like  manner,  it  will  not  profit 
thee,  though  thou  hear  the  holy  lore,  unless  thou  turn  it  to 
good  works. 

"  Of  the  remainder  were  filled  seven  baskets."  The  seven 
baskets  have  the  same  betokening  as  the  seven  loaves  had. 
A  basket,  as  ye  yourselves  know,  is  platted  of  rushes  or  of 
palm-twigs.  The  rush  grows  usually  in  watery  places,  and 
the  palm  is  the  sign  of  victory  ;  and  it  is  befitting  God's 
chosen  that  they  place  the  root  of  their  hearts  in  the  well  of 
life,  M  hich  is  God ;  lest  they  become  seared  up  from  his 
eternal  love  ;  and  they  should,  with  victory  in  the  ghostly 
fight,  return  again  to  him,  who  had  before  sent  them  to  that 
figiit.  He  who  will  strive  against  the  fierce  devil  with  firm 
belief  and  ghostly  weapons,  will  get  the  victory  through  God's 
support;  and  he  who  dares  not  fight  with  God's  weaponing 
against  the  invisible  foe,  will  be  constrained  by  the  dcviiisli 
bonds,  and  led  into  torments. 

"There  were  fed  four  thousand  men."  liy  the  fourfold 
number  was  betokened  the  fourfold  book  of  Clirist,  which 
through  its  lore  daily  feeds  the  believing. 

My  brothers,  let  it  not  seem  too  tedious  to  you  that  ye 
have  heard  this  evangelical  lore.  We  secure  ourselves  with 
the  saying,  do  you  secure  yourselves  with  the  fulfilling  of  the 
precepts,  that  we  may  all  have  the  meed  which  eye  of  man 
never  saw,  nor  ear  heard,  nor  entered  into  the  heart  of  man, 
that  which  God  prepares  for  all  those  that  love  him,  who 
liveth  and  reigneth  to  all  eternity.     Amen. 


2  d2 


404 


DOM.  IX.  POST  PENTECOSTEN. 


ADTENDITE  a  falsis  prophetis,  qui  ueniuiit  ad  uos  :  et  re- 
liqiia. 

Drihten  cwae^  to  his  leorning-cnihtuni,  "  Beliealdab  eow 
wi^  leasum  witeguni,  ]^c  to  eow  cumaS  on  sceapa  hiwum  :" 
ct  reliqua. 

pis  godspel  is  nu  aiifealdlice  gesjed.  Da  leasan  witegan,  |>e 
Crist  foresfiede  his  Iconung-cnihtum,  waeron  gedwolmen  on 
halgum  hnve  drohtnicndc,  and  woldon  awcndan  ]>one  soban 
geleafan,  j^c  God  sylf  tjehte,  of  Sam  rihtan  regolc  to  heora 
gedwyldum,  and  setton  lease  bee  ongean  bam  sobum  geleafan, 
to  bepjecenne  ba  unscreSiSigan  cristenan.  Nu  siud  obre  lease 
witegan,  j?cet  sind  ealle  he  on  halgum  htwe  yfele  weorc  bega^, 
and  hiwiaS  hi  wiSutiin  mid  eawfwstum  Scawum,  and  wi^in- 
nan  sind  geiettrode  mid  arleasnysse.  Be  swilcum  cvvfe^  se 
Haelend  on  o5re  stowe,  "  Ge  rihtwisiaS  eow  aitforan  mannum, 
and  God  cann  eowerc  heortan."  Eft  he  cw<fi^,  "  Wa  eow 
hiwerum,  ge  sind  gelice  gemettum  ofer-geweorcum,  ))e  beoS 
wiSutan  wlitige  mannum  aeteowode,  and  seo  byrgen  beali  biS 
afylled  mid  deadum  banum  and  forrotodnysse ;  swa  sind  ge 
eac  fEteowode  wiSutan  rihtwise  on  manna  gcsihbum,  and  ge 
sind  wiSinnan  afyllede  mid  hiwunge  and  unrihtwisnysse." 

Drihten  cwieS,  "  BehealdaS  eow  wiS  leasum  witegum  :" 
swilce  he  cwaede,  '  WarniaS  eow  georne  \vi5  swilcum  licce- 
teruni,  forSan  ]>c  hi  ne  sind  na  seep,  ac  sind  wulfas  on  sceapa 
hiwum.  Hi  sind  wiSutan  eawfaeste,  ac  hi  sind  wi^innan 
buton  sobfffistnysse,  cristenra  manna  ehteras,  and  reaferas, 
swa  swa  rcSe  wulfas.  Ge  oncnawaS  \u  be  heora  wsstmum. 
Ne  behealde  ge  heora  neb-wlite,  ne  gyme  ge  heora  eawfiestum 
gyrlum,  ne  hlyste  ge  heora  geswHesan  lyffetunge,  ac  behealda^ 
heora  weorc.  Hi  maersia^  Godes  halgan  mid  heora  muiSe, 
ac  hi  wiScwe^aS  Godes  halgum  mid  heora  ]7wyrlicum  daedum. 
Hi  ofsetta^  )?a  geleaffullan,  and  j^eah  Se  hi  God  mid  wordum 


405 


THE  NINTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  PENTECOST. 

ATTEXDITE  a  falsis  prophetis,  qui  veniuut  ad  vos  :  et  rc- 
liqua. 

The  Lord  said  to  his  disciples,  "Guard  yourselves  aj^ainst 
false  prophets,  who  will  come  to  you  in  semblances  of 
sheep,"  etc. 

This  gospel  is  now  simply  said.  The  false  prophets,  that 
C